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normative data in childhood

Victoria L Ewing, Rachel Tolhurst, Andrew Kapinda, Esther Richards, Dianne J Terlouw, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: This study used qualitative methods to investigate the relationship between geographic access and gendered intra-household hierarchies and how these influence treatment-seeking decision-making for childhood fever within the Chikwawa district of Malawi. Previous cross-sectional survey findings in the district indicated that distance from facility and associated costs are important determinants of health facility attendance in the district. This paper uses qualitative data to add depth of understanding to these findings by exploring the relationship between distance from services, anticipated costs and cultural norms of intra-household decision-making, and to identify potential intervention opportunities to reduce challenges experienced by those in remote locations...
October 24, 2016: Malaria Journal
Suzy L Wong
BACKGROUND: Grip strength is a measure of overall muscular strength and has been associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Normative data are used to interpret an individual's grip strength measurements, but Canadian reference values are not available for a wide age range. DATA AND METHODS: The data pertain to 11,108 respondents aged 6 to 79 to the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, whose right-hand and left-hand grip strength were measured with a handgrip dynamometer...
October 19, 2016: Health Reports
Manavi Tyagi, Theodora Fteropoulli, Catherine S Hurt, Shashivadan P Hirani, Lorna Rixon, Anna Davies, Nathalie Picaut, Fiona Kennedy, John Deanfield, Shay Cullen, Stanton P Newman
OBJECTIVE: We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess cognitive function in a sample of adult CHD patients, within the Functioning in Adult Congenital Heart Disease study London. The association between cognitive functioning and disease complexity was examined. METHODS: A total of 310 patients participated in this study. Patients were classified into four structural complexity groups - tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, single ventricle, and simple conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Judy A Kipping, Ta Ahn Tuan, Marielle V Fortier, Anqi Qiu
Evidence from clinical studies shows that early cerebellar injury can cause abnormal development of the cerebral cortex in children. Characterization of normative development of the cerebellar and cerebello-cortical organization in early life is of great clinical importance. Here, we analyzed cerebellar, cerebello-cortical, and cortico-cortical functional networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of healthy infants (6 months, n = 21), children (4-10 years, n = 68), and adults (23-38 years, n = 25)...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Bronwyn Carrigg, Louise Parry, Elise Baker, Lawrence D Shriberg, Kirrie J Ballard
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the phenotype in a large family with a strong, multigenerational history of severe speech sound disorder (SSD) persisting into adolescence and adulthood in approximately half the cases. Aims were to determine whether a core phenotype, broader than speech, separated persistent from resolved SSD cases; and to ascertain the uniqueness of the phenotype relative to published cases. METHOD: Eleven members of the PM family (9-55 years) were assessed across cognitive, language, literacy, speech, phonological processing, numeracy, and motor domains...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Sara J Bufferd, Lea R Dougherty, Thomas M Olino, Margaret W Dyson, Gabrielle A Carlson, Daniel N Klein
Up to 20% of preschool-age children meet criteria for anxiety disorders and, for a large subset, anxiety appears to persist throughout early childhood. However, little is known about which factors predict persistence/recurrence of anxiety in young children. Temperament, including behavioral inhibition (BI), negative emotionality (NE), and positive emotionality (PE), predict the onset of anxiety disorders, but to our knowledge no study has examined whether temperament predicts the course of anxiety in young children...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Leda Klouda, Wayne J Franklin, Anita Saraf, Dhaval R Parekh, David D Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Congenital heart disease (CHD) can affect the developing central nervous system, resulting in neurocognitive and behavioral deficits. Preoperative neurological abnormalities as well as sequelae of the open heart operations required to correct structural abnormalities of the heart contribute to these deficits. There are few studies examining the neurocognitive functioning of adults with CHD. This study sought to investigate multiple domains of neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of CHD who had childhood cardiac surgery with either moderate or severe disease complexity...
September 21, 2016: Congenital Heart Disease
Jessica M Holst-Wolf, I-Ling Yeh, Jürgen Konczak
This study mapped the development of proprioception in healthy, typically developing children by objectively measuring forearm position sense acuity. We assessed position sense acuity in a cross-sectional sample of 308 children (5-17 years old; M/F = 127/181) and a reference group of 26 healthy adults (18-25 years old; M/F = 12/14) using a body-scalable bimanual manipulandum that allowed forearm flexion/extension in the horizontal plane. The non-dominant forearm was passively displaced to one of three target positions...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Steven J Collings, Nirmala D Gopal
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the extent to which the primary tenets of Conservation of Resources theory provide an adequate basis for categorising and conceptualising normative adolescent fears. METHOD: Initial descriptive research, using data obtained from a sample of South African adolescents (n = 163), used systematic emergent content analysis to develop a test specification (i.e., content domains and manifestations of content domains) relevant to measures of normative adolescent fears, with subsequent a priori content analyses being used to explore the content validity of the test specification with respect to the item-content of selected normative childhood and adolescent fear schedules...
July 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Jason J Wolff, Brian A Boyd, Jed T Elison
BACKGROUND: Restricted and repetitive behaviors are characteristic phenotypic features of many neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological conditions. During early childhood, such behaviors are considered normative. More research is needed to delineate the dimensions of restricted and repetitive behavior across typical and atypical development during this period. METHODS: We developed the 34-item parent-rated Repetitive Behavior Scale for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) to capture quantitative, dimensional features across a broad range of behaviors contributing to this domain...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Cory Pierson, Erin Waite, Ben Pyykkonen
BACKGROUND: Long-term neuropsychological deficits associated with pediatric cancers and the related treatments have been consistently reported. Whole brain cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is associated with neurocognitive impairment. As a result, physicians are reticent to use CRT in favor of systemic or intrathecal chemotherapy, which have a less clear impact on cognition. PROCEDURE: The current meta-analysis examined post-treatment neuropsychological performance of children diagnosed with cancer and treated with chemotherapy to better understand the impact of chemotherapy upon cognition...
November 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Alison J Crichton, Franz Babl, Ed Oakley, Mardee Greenham, Stephen Hearps, Carmel Delzoppo, Jamie Hutchison, Miriam Beauchamp, Vicki A Anderson
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the presence of fatigue symptoms and predictors of fatigue after childhood brain injury and examine (2) the feasibility, reliability, and validity of a multidimensional fatigue measure (PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale [MFS]) obtained from parent and child perspectives. SETTING: Emergency and intensive care units of a hospital in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five families (34 parent-proxies and 32 children) aged 8 to 18 years (mean child age = 13...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the progression of academic skills in a cohort of patients who underwent, or were considered for, epilepsy surgery in childhood, four to eleven years before. The few existing studies that have evaluated cognitive function in the long term after surgery have examined intelligence and memory. METHOD: Participants were 97 patients with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 61 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery. Participants completed standardized tests of reading, spelling, arithmetic, and intelligence at baseline and, on average, 7years after...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Elizabeth A Carlson, Sarah K Ruiz
The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e...
August 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Marco Garzitto, Angelo Picardi, Livia Fornasari, Antonella Gigantesco, Michela Sala, Corrado Fagnani, Maria Antonietta Stazi, Valentina Ciappolino, Franco Fabbro, Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
The assessment of schizotypy allows to identify people at risk to develop psychosis. For this purpose, psychometric tools have been developed, such as the Magical Ideation Scale (MIS). This scale investigates attenuated forms of thought transmission experiences, thought withdrawal and aberrant beliefs, related to positive schizotypy. This study aims at providing an Italian version of the MIS and its normative data in the general population from childhood to adulthood, being the first study evaluating subjects under 17year-old...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Claire Fouché-Copley, Samantha Govender, Nasim Khan
Audiologists managing children with auditory processing disorders (APD) encounter challenges that include conflicting definitions, several classification profiles, problems with differential diagnosis and a lack of standardised guidelines. The heterogeneity of the disorder and its concomitant childhood disorders makes diagnosis difficult. Linguistic and cultural issues are additional challenges faced by South African audiologists. The study aimed to describe the practices, challenges and recommendations of South African audiologists managing children with APD...
2016: South African Journal of Communication Disorders. die Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Kommunikasieafwykings
Robert Dalla Pozza, Raphael Pirzer, Andreas Beyerlein, Heidi Weberruß, Renate Oberhoffer, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Heinrich Netz, Nikolaus Haas
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by sonographic intima-media-thickness measurement of the carotid artery (cIMT) is considered to be an early precursor of cardiovascular disease already in childhood. Structural analysis of the carotid intimal layer (carotid intima-media-roughness, cIMR) improves cardiovascular risk profiling for the adult patient and has been shown to be increased also in paediatric patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. To date, normal values for the paediatric age are lacking...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
Thomas W Kelsey, Eleanor Ginbey, Moti M Chowdhury, Louise E Bath, Richard A Anderson, W Hamish B Wallace
Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years...
2016: PloS One
John D Haltigan, Tracy Vaillancourt
OBJECTIVE: To examine trajectories of adolescent borderline personality (BP) features in a normative-risk cohort (n = 566) of Canadian children assessed at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 and childhood predictors of trajectory group membership assessed at ages 8, 10, 11, and 12. METHOD: Data were drawn from the McMaster Teen Study, an on-going study examining relations among bullying, mental health, and academic achievement. Participants and their parents completed a battery of mental health and peer relations questionnaires at each wave of the study...
March 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Lennart van Zellem, Elisabeth M Utens, Marlous Madderom, Jeroen S Legerstee, Femke Aarsen, Dick Tibboel, Corinne Buysse
UNLABELLED: Very little is known about the psychological consequences of a cardiac arrest (CA) during childhood. Our aim was to assess long-term emotional and behavioral functioning, and its predictors, in survivors of CA in childhood. This long-term follow-up study involved all consecutive infants, children, and adolescents surviving CA in a tertiary-care university children's hospital between January 2002 and December 2011. Emotional and behavioral functioning was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Teacher's Report Form (TRF), and Youth Self-Report (YSR)...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
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