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mitochondrial damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922823/slm35-links-mitochondrial-stress-response-and-longevity-through-tor-signaling-pathway
#1
Jose L Aguilar-Lopez, Raymond Laboy, Fabiola Jaimes-Miranda, Erika Garay, Alexander DeLuna, Soledad Funes
In most eukaryotic cells mitochondria are essential organelles involved in a great variety of cellular functions. One of the physiological processes linked to mitochondria is aging, a gradual process of damage accumulation that eventually promotes cell death. Aging depends on a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis, function and degradation. It has been previously shown that Tor1, Sch9 and Ras2 are activated in response to nutrient availability and regulate cell growth and division. A deficiency in any of these genes promotes lifespan extension and cell protection during oxidative and heat shock stress...
December 2, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922685/5%C3%A2-bromo%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-hydroxyprop%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-ynyl-%C3%A2-2h%C3%A2-pyran%C3%A2-2%C3%A2-one-induces-apoptosis-in-t24-human-bladder-cancer-cells-through-mitochondria-dependent-signaling-pathways
#2
Guo-Qiang Yu, Zhong-Ling Dou, Zhao-Hui Jia
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of 5-bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (BHP) on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. An MTT assay was used to investigate the inhibition of cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was used to observe alterations in the cell cycle, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and induction of apoptosis in the T24 cells following BHP treatment...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922662/metabolic-reprogramming-and-ampk%C3%AE-1-pathway-activation-by-caulerpin-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#3
Hua Yu, Huiqin Zhang, Mingjun Dong, Zhou Wu, Zhonglei Shen, Yangyang Xie, Zhenfang Kong, Xiaoyu Dai, Binbin Xu
Caulerpin, a secondary metabolite from the marine invasive green algae Caulerpa cylindracea is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunctions. In this study, the anticancer property of caulerpin was assessed in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that caulerpin inhibited oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and facilitated an early intervention of the mitochondrial function, via inhibiting mitochondrial complex I, accompanied by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and a surge of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922635/increased-plasma-levels-of-circulating-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-in-suicide-attempters-associations-with-hpa-axis-hyperactivity
#4
D Lindqvist, J Fernström, C Grudet, L Ljunggren, L Träskman-Bendz, L Ohlsson, Å Westrin
Preclinical data suggest that chronic stress may cause cellular damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, potentially leading to the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the bloodstream. Major depressive disorder has been associated with an increased amount of mtDNA in leukocytes from saliva samples and blood; however, no previous studies have measured plasma levels of free-circulating mtDNA in a clinical psychiatric sample. In this study, free circulating mtDNA was quantified in plasma samples from 37 suicide attempters, who had undergone a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 37 healthy controls...
December 6, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922495/toxic-and-endocrine-myopathies
#5
Hans D Katzberg, Charles D Kassardjian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article discusses the clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of toxic and endocrine myopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Early detection and expeditious correction of metabolic disturbances in endocrinopathies such as Cushing syndrome, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, and acromegaly can minimize and prevent neurologic complications including myopathy. Recently proposed mechanisms of injury in patients with critical illness myopathy include inhibition of protein synthesis, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, oxidative stress, and disruption of intramuscular calcium homeostasis, which can cause a myosin-loss myopathy...
December 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921518/increased-radio-toxicity-in-two-cancerous-cell-lines-irradiated-by-low-and-high-energy-photons-in-the-presence-of-thio-glucose-bound-gold-nanoparticles
#6
Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Atefeh Rostami, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Maryam Moghadam Matin, Ameneh Sazgarnia
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles modified by thio-glucose have been believed to increase the toxicity of radiotherapy in human malignant cells. We report the effect of thio-glucose-bound gold nanoparticles (Glu-G nanoparticles), 16 nm in size, on two human lung (QU-DB) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines combined with kilo and megavoltage X-rays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The shape and surface characteristics, the size distribution and light absorption spectrum of the prepared nanoparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921261/attempting-to-compensate-for-reduced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-protein-with-nitrate-supplementation-cannot-overcome-metabolic-dysfunction-but-rather-has-detrimental-effects-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-muscle
#7
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921220/increased-cell-free-mitochondrial-dna-is-a-marker-of-ongoing-inflammation-and-better-neurocognitive-function-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals
#8
Josué Pérez-Santiago, Michelli F De Oliveira, Susanna R Var, Tyler R C Day, Steven P Woods, Sara Gianella, Sanjay R Mehta
Cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a highly immunogenic molecule that is associated with several inflammatory conditions and with neurocognitive impairment during untreated HIV infection. Here, we investigate how cell-free mtDNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with inflammation, neuronal damage, and neurocognitive functioning in the context of long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We quantified the levels of cell-free mtDNA in the CSF from 41 HIV-infected individuals with completely suppressed HIV RNA levels in blood plasma (<50 copies/mL) by droplet digital PCR...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920725/controlled-reperfusion-strategies-improve-cardiac-hemodynamic-recovery-after-warm-global-ischemia-in-an-isolated-working-rat-heart-model-of-donation-after-circulatory-death-dcd
#9
Emilie Farine, Petra Niederberger, Rahel K Wyss, Natalia Méndez-Carmona, Brigitta Gahl, Georg M Fiedler, Thierry P Carrel, Hendrik T Tevaearai Stahel, Sarah L Longnus
Aims: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) could improve cardiac graft availability, which is currently insufficient to meet transplant demand. However, DCD organs undergo an inevitable period of warm ischemia and most cardioprotective approaches can only be applied at reperfusion (procurement) for ethical reasons. We investigated whether modifying physical conditions at reperfusion, using four different strategies, effectively improves hemodynamic recovery after warm ischemia. Methods and Results: Isolated hearts of male Wistar rats were perfused in working-mode for 20 min, subjected to 27 min global ischemia (37°C), and 60 min reperfusion (n = 43)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916916/aniline-induces-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-of-primary-cultured-hepatocytes
#10
Yue Wang, Hong Gao, Xiao-Lin Na, Shu-Ying Dong, Hong-Wei Dong, Jia Yu, Li Jia, Yong-Hui Wu
The toxicity and carcinogenicity of aniline in humans and animals have been well documented. However, the molecular mechanism involved in aniline-induced liver toxicity and carcinogenesis remains unclear. In our research, primary cultured hepatocytes were exposed to aniline (0, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA damage, cell viability, and apoptosis were detected...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916650/cardiac-oxidative-stress-in-diabetes-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-potential
#11
REVIEW
Alyssa Faria, Shanta J Persaud
Macrovascular complications of diabetes, including diabetic cardiovascular disease (CVD), occur through a number of hyperglycaemia-induced mechanisms that include generation of oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Cardiac oxidative stress is associated with increased cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy, and reduced cardiac performance and contractility, leading to severe cardiac dysfunction and potentially fatal cardiac events. It occurs under conditions of excessive synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916511/liqustri-lucidi-fructus-inhibits-hepatic-injury-and-functions-as-an-antioxidant-by-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#12
Hye Lim Seo, Su Youn Baek, Eun Hye Lee, Ju-Hee Lee, Seul-Gi Lee, Kwang-Youn Kim, Mi Hee Jang, Min-Hui Park, Joung-Hee Kim, Keun-Jun Kim, Hyeong Sik Lee, Soon-Cheol Ahn, Jong Rok Lee, Sook Jahr Park, Sang Chan Kim, Young Woo Kim
Medicinal herbs are used to treat or prevent various diseases, and function to regulate protective mechanisms as nutraceuticals. Fructus Ligustri lucidi is the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum and has been used for its tonic effects on the liver. This study was designed to examine the effects of Fructus Ligustri lucidi water extract (FLL) against severe oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in vivo and in vitro and to elucidate its cellular mechanisms of action. Treatment of HepG2 cells with arachidonic acid (AA) + iron successfully induced oxidative stress and apoptosis, as indicated by depletion of glutathione, formation of ROS, increases in mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP), and altered expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as procaspase-3 and Bcl-xL...
December 1, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915142/atrazine-triggers-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-quails-coturnix-c-coturnix-via-blocking-nrf2-mediated-defense-response
#13
Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Li-Run Xiang, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Jin-Long Li
The bioaccumulation and environmental persistence of atrazine (ATZ) poses a severe hazard to animal ecosystem. Quail has strong sensitivity to environmental pollutant, thus it is one of the most important ecological pollution indicator. However, true proof for the effects of ATZ exposure on the liver of quails is lacking. To evaluate the liver injury and the role of Nrf2-mediated defense responses during ATZ exposure, male quails were treated with ATZ (0, 50, 250 and 500mg/kg) by oral gavage for 45 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress indices, apoptosis-related factors and Nrf2 pathway were detected...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915046/dna-damage-related-crosstalk-between-the-nucleus-and-mitochondria
#14
Mohammad Saki, Aishwarya Prakash
The electron transport chain is the primary pathway by which a cell generates energy in the form of ATP. Byproducts of this process produce reactive oxygen species that can cause damage to mitochondrial DNA. If not properly repaired, the accumulation of DNA damage can lead to mitochondrial dysfunction linked to several human disorders including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Mitochondria are able to combat oxidative DNA damage via repair mechanisms that are analogous to those found in the nucleus. Of the repair pathways currently reported in the mitochondria, the base excision repair pathway is the most comprehensively described...
November 30, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913906/synergistic-mitotoxicity-of-chloromethanes-and-fullerene-c60-nanoaggregates-in-daphnia-magna-midgut-epithelial-cells
#15
Mariana Seke, Milica Markelic, Arian Morina, Danica Jovic, Aleksandra Korac, Dragana Milicic, Aleksandar Djordjevic
Adsorption of non-polar compounds by suspended fullerene nanoaggregates (nC60) may enhance their toxicity and affect the fate, transformation, and transport of non-polar compounds in the environment. The potential of stable fullerene nanoaggregates as contaminant carriers in aqueous systems and the influence of chloromethanes (trichloromethane and dichloromethane) were studied on the midgut epithelial cells of Daphnia magna by light and electron microscopy. The size and shape of fullerene nanoaggregates were observed and measured using dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and low vacuum scanning electron microscopy...
December 3, 2016: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913682/translational-regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Yi Zhang, Hong Xu
Mitochondria are generated by the expression of genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial biogenesis is highly plastic in response to cellular energy demand, developmental signals and environmental stimuli. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates mitochondrial biogenesis to co-ordinate energy homeostasis with cell growth. The local translation of mitochondrial proteins on the outer membrane facilitates their efficient import and thereby allows prodigious mitochondrial biogenesis during rapid cell growth and proliferation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913286/cytotoxic-activity-of-soy-phytoestrogen-coumestrol-against-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7%C3%A2-cells-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanism
#17
Atif Zafar, Swarnendra Singh, Imrana Naseem
Coumestrol is a phytoestrogen present in soybean products and recognized as potential cancer therapeutic agent against breast cancer. However, the clear molecular mechanism of anticancer-activity of coumestrol in breast carcinoma has not been reported. It is well established that copper levels are elevated in different malignancies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the copper-dependent cytotoxic action of coumestrol in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Results showed that coumestrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which was prevented by copper chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers...
November 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913212/vcp-cooperates-with-ubxd1-to-degrade-mitochondrial-outer-membrane-protein-mcl1-in-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#18
Xing Guo, Xin Qi
Proteasome-dependent turnover of mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM)-associated proteins is one of the mechanisms for maintaining proper mitochondrial quality and function. However, the underlying pathways and their implications in human disease are poorly understood. Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the N terminal of the huntingtin gene (mutant Huntingtin, mtHtt). In this study, we show an extensive degradation of the OMM protein MCL1 (Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1) in both HD mouse striatal cells and HD patient fibroblasts...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913197/doxorubicin-induced-mitophagy-contributes-to-drug-resistance-in-cancer-stem-cells-from-hct8-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#19
Chen Yan, Lan Luo, Chang-Ying Guo, Shinji Goto, Yoshishige Urata, Jiang-Hua Shao, Tao-Sheng Li
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are known to be drug resistant. Mitophagy selectively degrades unnecessary or damaged mitochondria by autophagy during cellular stress. To investigate the potential role of mitophagy in drug resistance in CSCs, we purified CD133(+)/CD44(+) CSCs from HCT8 human colorectal cancer cells and then exposed to doxorubicin (DXR). Compared with parental cells, CSCs were more resistant to DXR treatment. Although DXR treatment enhanced autophagy levels in both cell types, the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 silencing significantly increased the toxicity of DXR only in parental cells, not in CSCs...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912887/nephroprotective-effects-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-against-ischemic-reperfusion-acute-kidney-injury
#20
Tiago Lima Sampaio, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Marcus Felipe Bezerra da Costa, Gdayllon Cavalcante Meneses, Mauren Cristina Villalta Arrieta, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Glayciane Bezerra de Morais, Alexandre Braga Libório, Renata Sousa Alves, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro Evangelista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in kidney is commonly related to acute kidney injury (AKI), essentially through oxidative stress. (-)-α-Bisabolol is a sesquiterpene isolated from the essential oil of a variety of plants, including chamomile, which has important antioxidant activity. STUDY DESIGN: This study intends to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of (-)-α-bisabolol (Bis) in both in vivo and in vitro models of kidney I/R. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to right nephrectomy, followed by ischemia by clamping of the renal artery in the left kidney for 60min...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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