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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938192/idh2-deficiency-increases-the-liver-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-increased-mitochondrial-oxidative-injury
#1
Sang Jun Han, Hong Seok Choi, Jee In Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, Kwon Moo Park
Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is a major producer of mitochondrial NADPH, required for glutathione (GSH)-associated mitochondrial antioxidant systems including glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR). Here, we investigated the role of IDH2 in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR)-associated mitochondrial injury using Idh2-knockout (Idh2(-/-)) mice and wild-type (Idh2(+/+)) littermates. Mice were subjected to either 60min of partial liver ischemia or sham-operation...
September 8, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937594/molecular-tools-for-the-detection-and-the-identification-of-hymenoptera-parasitoids-in-tortricid-fruit-pests
#2
Pierre Franck, Mariline Maalouly-Matar, Jérôme Olivares
Biological control requires specific tools for the accurate detection and identification of natural enemies in order to estimate variations in their abundance and their impact according to changes in environmental conditions or agricultural practices. Here, we developed two molecular methods of detection based on PCR-RFLP with universal primers and on PCR with specific primers to identify commonly occurring larval parasitoids of the tortricid fruit pests and to estimate parasitism in the codling moth. Both methods were designed based on DNA sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene for a range of parasitoids that emerged from Cydia pomonella and Grapholitamolesta caterpillars (102 parasitoids; nine species) and a range of potential tortricid hosts (40 moths; five species) damaging fruits...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937042/sirtuin-1-mediates-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-cytoprotection-effects-in-neonatal-mouse-cardiomyocytes
#3
Ai-Jun Liu, Bin Li, Ming Yang, Yang Liu, Ying-Long Liu, Jun-Wu Su
BACKGROUND: Current knowledge indicates that oxidative damage and the following inflammation is pivotal pathway for myocardial cell death. In recent decades, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as a novel endogenous vasodilator and neuromodulator due to its antioxidation capacity. However, whether H2S pretreatment in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes is a protection effect against oxidative stress remains elusive. METHODS: Primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, subsequently, pretreated with the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS)...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936735/dual-behavior-of-exosomes-in-septic-cardiomyopathy
#4
Valter Vinícius Silva Monteiro, Jordano Ferreira Reis, Rafaelli de Souza Gomes, Kely Campos Navegantes, Marta Chagas Monteiro
Sepsis is one of the main causes of ICU hospitalization worldwide, with a high mortality rate, and is associated with a large number of comorbidities. One of the main comorbidities associated with sepsis is septic cardiomyopathy. This process occurs mainly due to mechanisms of damage in the cardiovascular system that will lead to changes in cardiovascular physiology, such as decreased Ca(2+) response, mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased β-adrenergic receptor response. Within this process the exosomes play an important role in the pathophysiology of this disease, in which the exosomal content is related to mechanisms that will trigger its development...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936716/induction-of-reactive-oxygen-species-an-emerging-approach-for-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Zhengzhi Zou, Haocai Chang, Haolong Li, Songmao Wang
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a group of ions and molecules, include hydroxyl radicals (·OH), alkoxyl radicals, superoxide anion (O2·-), singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydroxyl radicals and alkoxyl radicals are extremely and highly reactive species respectively. Endogenous ROS are mainly formed in mitochondrial respiratory chain. Low levels of ROS play important roles in regulating biological functions in mammalian cells. However, excess production of ROS can induce cell death by oxidative damaging effects to intracellular biomacromolecules...
September 21, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936600/oxygen-supplementation-improves-protein-milieu-supportive-of-protein-synthesis-and-antioxidant-function-in-the-cortex-of-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-a-quantitative-proteomic-study
#6
Hao Wang, Xiaoyu Hong, Shuiming Li, Yong Wang
Protein synthesis has been reported to be impaired in early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we found that oxygen supplementation improved cognitive function and reduced mitochondrial damage in AD model mice. In the present study, we examined the effects of supplemental oxygen treatment on protein synthesis and oxidative damage. The synthesis of numerous proteins involved in mRNA splicing, transcription regulation, and translation was found to be significantly upregulated in cortex tissues of AD model mice given a supplemental oxygen treatment (OT group), relative to those of non-treated control AD model mice (Ctrl group), suggesting that impairment in protein synthesis may be alleviated by increased oxygen inhalation...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936177/withaferin-a-induces-oxidative-stress-mediated-apoptosis-and-dna-damage-in-oral-cancer-cells
#7
Hsueh-Wei Chang, Ruei-Nian Li, Hui-Ru Wang, Jing-Ru Liu, Jen-Yang Tang, Hurng-Wern Huang, Yu-Hsuan Chan, Ching-Yu Yen
Withaferin A (WFA) is one of the most active steroidal lactones with reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulating effects against several types of cancer. ROS regulation involves selective killing. However, the anticancer and selective killing effects of WFA against oral cancer cells remain unclear. We evaluated whether the killing ability of WFA is selective, and we explored its mechanism against oral cancer cells. An MTS tetrazolium cell proliferation assay confirmed that WFA selectively killed two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) rather than normal oral cells (HGF-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936163/quercetin-declines-apoptosis-ameliorates-mitochondrial-function-and-improves-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-and-function-in-in-vivo-model-of-glaucoma-in-rat-and-retinal-ganglion-cell-culture-in-vitro
#8
Feng-Juan Gao, Sheng-Hai Zhang, Ping Xu, Bo-Qi Yang, Rong Zhang, Yun Cheng, Xu-Jiao Zhou, Wan-Jing Huang, Min Wang, Jun-Yi Chen, Xing-Huai Sun, Ji-Hong Wu
Glaucoma is a progressive neuropathy characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Strategies that delay or halt RGC loss have been recognized as potentially beneficial for rescuing vision in glaucoma patients. Quercetin (Qcn) is a natural and important dietary flavonoid compound, widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Mounting evidence suggests that Qcn has numerous neuroprotective effects. However, whether Qcn exerts neuroprotective effects on RGC in glaucoma is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of Qcn against RGC damage in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COHT) model invivo and hypoxia-induced primary cultured RGC damage in vitro, and we further explored the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935982/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-inhibition-links-mitochondrial-dysfunction-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-and-terminal-differentiation-in-chondrocytes
#9
S Guidotti, M Minguzzi, D Platano, S Santi, G Trisolino, G Filardo, E Mariani, R M Borzì
Following inflammatory stimuli, GSK3 inhibition functions as a hub with pleiotropic effects leading to cartilage degradation. However, little is known about the effects triggered by its direct inhibition as well as the effects on mitochondrial pathology, that contributes to osteoarthritis pathogenesis. To this aim we assessed the molecular mechanisms triggered by GSK3β inactivating stimuli on 3-D (micromass) cultures of human articular chondrocytes. Stimuli were delivered either at micromass seeding (long term) or after maturation (short term) to explore "late" effects on terminal differentiation or "early" mitochondrial effects, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935700/mitochondrial-based-therapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury-mitochondrial-biogenesis-as-a-potential-pharmacological-target
#10
Natalie E Scholpa, Rick G Schnellmann
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by an initial trauma followed by a progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary injury. A hallmark of secondary injury is vascular disruption leading to vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen delivery, directly reducing the ability of mitochondria to maintain homeostasis, leading to loss of ATP-dependent cellular functions, calcium overload, excitotoxicity and oxidative stress, further exacerbating injury. Restoration of mitochondria dysfunction during the acute phases of secondary injury post-SCI represents a potentially effective therapeutic strategy...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935577/human-pancreatic-acinar-cells-proteomic-characterization-physiologic-responses-and-organellar-disorders-in-ex-vivo-pancreatitis
#11
Aurelia Lugea, Richard T Waldron, Olga A Mareninova, Natalia Shalbueva, Nan Deng, Hsin-Yuan Su, Diane D Thomas, Elaina K Jones, Scott W Messenger, Jiayue Yang, Cheng Hu, Ilya Gukovsky, Zhenqiu Liu, Guy E Groblewski, Anna S Gukovskaya, Fred S Gorelick, Stephen J Pandol
Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of acute pancreatitis is largely based on studies using rodents. To assess similar mechanisms in humans, we performed ex vivo pancreatitis studies in human acini isolated from cadaveric pancreata from organ donors. Since data on these human acinar preparations are sparse, we assessed their functional integrity, and cellular and organellar morphology using light, fluorescence and electron microscopy; and their proteome by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935446/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-steatotic-mice
#12
Claudia Einer, Simon Hohenester, Ralf Wimmer, Lena Wottke, Renate Artmann, Sabine Schulz, Christian Gosmann, Alisha Simmons, Christin Leitzinger, Carola Eberhagen, Sabine Borchard, Sabine Schmitt, Stefanie M Hauck, Christine von Toerne, Martin Jastroch, Ellen Walheim, Christian Rust, Alexander L Gerbes, Bastian Popper, Doris Mayr, Max Schnurr, Angelika M Vollmar, Gerald Denk, Hans Zischka
Western lifestyle-associated malnutrition causes steatosis that may progress to liver inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a key factor in promoting this disease. Here we have molecularly, biochemically and biophysically analyzed mitochondria from steatotic wild type and immune-compromised mice fed a Western diet (WD) - enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). WD-mitochondria demonstrated lipidomic changes, a decreased mitochondrial ATP production capacity and a significant sensitivity to calcium...
September 18, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934520/damage-of-inner-ear-sensory-hair-cells-via-mitochondrial-loss-in-a-murine-model-of-sleep-apnea-with-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#13
Young Joon Seo, Hyun Mi Ju, Sun Hee Lee, Sang Hyun Kwak, Min Jung Kang, Joo-Heon Yoon, Chang-Hoon Kim, Hyung-Ju Cho
Study Objectives: Investigating the exact pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)-induced hearing loss is critical. We sought to verify the hypothesis that a correlation exists between mitochondrial dysfunction in inner ear hair cells and the auditory dysfunction induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in a murine model of sleep apnea. Methods: C57BL/6J adult male mice were randomized to 4 weeks of CIH (n = 12) or normoxia (Sham) (n = 12)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933366/the-role-of-the-mapk-signaling-topoisomerase-and-dietary-bioactives-in-controlling-cancer-incidence
#14
REVIEW
Khaled A Selim, Hend Abdelrasoul, Mohamed Aboelmagd, Ahmed M Tawila
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xenobiotics metabolism and are generated in response to several environmental stress conditions. Some of them play important biochemical roles in cellular signal transduction and gene transcription. On the other hand, ROS are known to be involved in a wide range of human diseases, including cancer. The excessive production of such ROS together with disruption of homeostasis detoxifying mechanisms can mediate a series of cellular oxidative stresses...
April 26, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932945/necrostatin-1-mitigates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Shuang Wang, Jin Wu, Yu-Zhe Zeng, Song-Song Wu, Guo-Rong Deng, Zhi-Da Chen, Bin Lin
Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) has been shown to inhibit necroptosis and convey a significant protective effect after spinal cord injury (SCI). This small molecule inhibitor may reduce tissue damage and restore neurological function by lessening mitochondrial injury after SCI and preserving energy homeostasis. However, the effects of Nec-1 on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-an important pathological consequence of SCI-are still not clear. The present study investigates the relationship between necroptosis and ERS in a rat model of SCI...
September 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932931/usefulness-of-zebrafish-larvae-to-evaluate-drug-induced-functional-and-morphological-renal-tubular-alterations
#16
Rita Gorgulho, Raquel Jacinto, Susana S Lopes, Sofia A Pereira, Erin M Tranfield, Gabriel G Martins, Emilio J Gualda, Rico J E Derks, Ana C Correia, Evelyne Steenvoorden, Petra Pintado, Oleg A Mayboroda, Emilia C Monteiro, Judit Morello
Prediction and management of drug-induced renal injury (DIRI) rely on the knowledge of the mechanisms of drug insult and on the availability of appropriate animal models to explore it. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) offers unique advantages for assessing DIRI because the larval pronephric kidney has a high homology with its human counterpart and it is fully mature at 3.5 days post-fertilization. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the usefulness of zebrafish larvae as a model of renal tubular toxicity through a comprehensive analysis of the renal alterations induced by the lethal concentrations for 10% of the larvae for gentamicin, paracetamol and tenofovir...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931570/mitochondrial-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-oligodendrocytes-cause-demyelination-axonal-injury-and-cns-inflammation
#17
Pernille M Madsen, Milena Pinto, Shreyans Patel, Stephanie McCarthy, Han Gao, Mehran Taherian, Shaffiat Karmally, Claudia V Pereira, Galina Dvoriantchikova, Dmitry Ivanov, Kenji F Tanaka, Carlos T Moraes, Roberta Brambilla
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, the investigation of mitochondrial dysfunction in MS has focused exclusively on neurons, with no studies exploring whether dysregulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and/or genetics in oligodendrocytes might be associated with the etiopathogenesis of MS and other demyelinating syndromes. To address this question, we established a mouse model where mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) double-strand breaks (DSB) were specifically induced in myelinating oligodendrocytes (PLP:mtPstI mice) by expressing a mitochondrial-targeted endonuclease, mtPstI, starting at 3 weeks of age...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931544/a-mitohormetic-response-to-pro-oxidant-exposure-in-the-house-mouse
#18
Yufeng Zhang, Frances Humes, Gregory Almond, Andreas N Kavazis, Wendy R Hood
Mitochondria are hypothesized to display a biphasic response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure. In this study, we evaluated the time course changes in mitochondrial performance and oxidative stress in house mice following X-irradiation. Forty-eight mice were equally divided among six groups, including a non-irradiated control and 5 experimental groups that varied in time between X-ray exposure and euthanasia (1 hour, 1, 4, 7, or 10 days after X-irradiation). We measured parameters associated with mitochondrial respiratory function and ROS emission from isolated liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria and levels of oxidative damage and antioxidants in liver, skeletal muscle, and heart tissues...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931006/up-regulation-of-calreticulin-in-mouse-liver-tissues-after-long-term-irradiation-with-low-dose-rate-gamma-rays
#19
Lan Yi, Nan Hu, Jie Yin, Jing Sun, Hongxiang Mu, Keren Dai, Dexin Ding
The biological effects of low-dose or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation on normal tissues has attracted attention. Based on previous research, we observed the morphology of liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice that received <50, 50-500, and 500-1000 μGy/h of 137Cs radiation for 180 d. We found that the pathological changes in liver tissues were more obvious as the irradiation dose rates increased. Additionally, differential protein expression in liver tissues was analyzed using a proteomics approach. Compared with the matched group in the 2D gel analysis of the irradiated groups, 69 proteins had ≥ 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#20
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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