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Tuba Esatbeyoglu, Gerald Rimbach
The aim of this review is to summarize the relevant literature about the use of canthaxanthin in food science and nutrition research. Canthaxanthin is a red-orange carotenoid that belongs to the xanthophyll group. This naturally occurring pigment is present in bacteria, algae and some fungi. Canthaxanthin is also responsible for the color of flamingo feathers, koi carp skin and crustacean shells. Canthaxanthin is widely used in poultry (broiler, laying hens) as a feed additive. Canthaxanthin can be obtained by total synthesis...
September 30, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
A Taweechaipaisankul, J X Jin, S Lee, G A Kim, B C Lee
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of canthaxanthin (Cx) treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes on embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), on intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in mature oocytes, and on gene expression in both PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts. To determine the optimal effective concentration of Cx, porcine oocytes were cultured in IVM medium supplemented with various concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 80 μM) of Cx for 22 hr...
September 20, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Milena Tzanova, Mariana Argirova, Vasil Atanasov
Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are naturally occurring antioxidants referred to as xanthophylls. They are used as food additives in fish farms to improve the organoleptic qualities of salmonid products and to prevent reproductive diseases. This study reports the development and single-laboratory validation of a rapid method for quantification of astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in eggs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis М.). An advantage of the proposed method is the perfect combination of selective extraction of the xanthophylls and analysis of the extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection...
September 12, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
M L Johnson-Dahl, M J Zuidhof, D R Korver
Hen age and nutrition influence chick innate immunity. The immunomodulatory antioxidant carotenoid canthaxanthin is transferred from the hen diet to the egg. Antioxidants could protect the chick from bactericidal oxidative species produced by the immune system. Broiler breeder hen diets were supplemented with 0 (Control), 6 (Low), or 12 (High) mg/kg canthaxanthin. Chick early growth and ex vivo innate immunity were measured at 31 to 33 (Early), 45 to 47 (Mid), and 57 to 59 (Late) wk of hen age. Escherichia coli (E...
September 9, 2016: Poultry Science
Václav Šlouf, Valentyna Kuznetsova, Marcel Fuciman, Céline Bourcier de Carbon, Adjélé Wilson, Diana Kirilovsky, Tomáš Polívka
A quenching mechanism mediated by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is one of the ways cyanobacteria protect themselves against photooxidative stress. Here, we present a femtosecond spectroscopic study comparing OCP and RCP (red carotenoid protein) samples binding different carotenoids. We confirmed significant changes in carotenoid configuration upon OCP activation reported by Leverenz et al. (Science 348:1463-1466. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa7234 , 2015) by comparing the transient spectra of OCP and RCP. The most important marker of these changes was the magnitude of the transient signal associated with the carotenoid intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state...
September 9, 2016: Photosynthesis Research
A P Rosa, C E V Bonilla, A Londero, C B S Giacomini, C Orso, M O Fernandes, J S Moura, R Hermes
The aim of study was to evaluate the effect on broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diets and canthaxanthin on lipid peroxidation, fatty acid, and offspring's performance. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.77 ± 0.11 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of canthaxanthin; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling five replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 45 to 65 wk old...
September 6, 2016: Poultry Science
Chao Bai, Judit Berman, Gemma Farre, Teresa Capell, Gerhard Sandmann, Paul Christou, Changfu Zhu
Astaxanthin is a high-value ketocarotenoid rarely found in plants. It is derived from β-carotene by the 3-hydroxylation and 4-ketolation of both ionone end groups, in reactions catalyzed by β-carotene hydroxylase and β-carotene ketolase, respectively. We investigated the feasibility of introducing an extended carotenoid biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm to achieve the production of astaxanthin. This allowed us to identify potential metabolic bottlenecks that have thus far prevented the accumulation of this valuable compound in storage tissues such as cereal grains...
August 27, 2016: Transgenic Research
Gerhard Sandmann, Jürgen Mautz, Jürgen Breitenbach
In Nostoc PCC 7120, two different ketolases, CrtW and CrtO are involved in the formation of keto carotenoids from β-carotene. In contrast to other cyanobacteria, CrtW catalyzes the formation of monoketo echinenone whereas CrtO is the only enzyme for the synthesis of diketo canthaxanthin. This is the major photo protective carotenoid in this cyanobacterium. Under high-light conditions, basic canthaxanthin formation was transcriptionally up-regulated. Upon transfer to high light, the transcript levels of all investigated carotenogenic genes including those coding for phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and both ketolases were increased...
September 1, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Yu Fen Zheng, Jee Sun Min, Doyun Kim, Jung Bae Park, Sung-Wook Choi, Eun Seong Lee, Kun Na, Soo Kyung Bae
Despite the widespread use of the five major xanthophylls astaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin as dietary supplements, there have been no studies regarding their inhibitory effects on hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Here, we evaluated the inhibitory potential of these xanthophylls on the seven major human hepatic UGTs (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15) in vitro by LC-MS/MS using specific marker reactions in human liver microsomes (except UGT2B15) or recombinant supersomes (UGT2B15)...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
M L Federico, M A Schmidt
There is an increasing demand for carotenoids, which are fundamental components of the human diet, for example as precursors of vitamin A. Carotenoids are also potent antioxidants and their health benefits are becoming increasingly evident. Protective effects against prostate cancer and age-related macular degeneration have been proposed for lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin, respectively. Additionally, β-carotene, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are high-value carotenoids used by the food industry as feed supplements and colorants...
2016: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Maria Dettoraki, Marilita M Moschos
Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) is an objective, noninvasive examination for the assessment of visual function. It enables the stimulation of multiple retinal areas simultaneously and recording of each response independently, providing a topographic measure of retinal electrophysiological activity in the central 40-50° of the retina. A clinical application of mfERG represents the assessment of retinal toxicity associated with systemic medications. Drug-induced retinopathy represents a disease that, although not common, requires early recognition: if not detected early, it may progress and cause irreversible retinal dysfunction with subsequent visual impairment...
June 29, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Ilmar Tõnno, Helen Agasild, Toomas Kõiv, Rene Freiberg, Peeter Nõges, Tiina Nõges
Small-bodied cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods are becoming increasingly dominant over large crustacean zooplankton in eutrophic waters where they often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms. However, relatively little is known about their algal diet preferences. We studied grazing selectivity of small crustaceans (the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops kolensis, and the cladocerans Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina spp.) by liquid chromatographic analyses of phytoplankton marker pigments in the shallow, highly eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia) during a seasonal cycle...
2016: PloS One
Shiyan Li, Yang Wang, Fan Zhou, Chongying Zheng, Haiqi Zhang, Zhongyang He, Xin He
A method of non-target pigment screening in Chinese softshell turtle has been established by using liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). After being purified by a simple acetonitrile extraction work, the non-target pigment in 20 Chinese softshell turtle samples was detected by liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (LC-DAD). The S7 sample, which has a strong spectral response, was chosen to extract the mass spectrometry information of the non-target pigment on different gradient elution conditions...
December 2015: Se Pu, Chinese Journal of Chromatography
Z Z Ren, S Z Jiang, Q F Zeng, X M Ding, S P Bai, J P Wang, Y H Luo, Z W Su, Y Xuan, K Y Zhang
This study investigated the effects of maternal canthaxanthin (CX, 6 mg/kg) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 , 0.069 mg/kg) supplementation on the performance of Cherry Valley ducklings under two different vitamin regimens. A total of 780 duck breeder females and 156 males were randomly allotted to two diets with or without the addition of the mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 (CX+25-OH-D3 ) for 32 weeks. Ducklings (males and females separately) hatched from eggs laid at 24 weeks of the duck breeder trial were fed with a NRC vitamin regimen, and ducklings (males and females separately) hatched from eggs laid at 32 weeks of the duck breeder trial were fed with a HIGH vitamin regimen (had higher levels of all vitamins except biotin than NRC vitamin regimen), for 14 days...
April 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Z Z Ren, S Z Jiang, Q F Zeng, X M Ding, S P Bai, J P Wang, Y H Luo, Z W Su, Y Xuan, K Y Zhang
This study evaluated the effects of dietary canthaxanthin (CX) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) supplementation on the antioxidant status and tibia quality of duck breeders and newly hatched ducklings. In total, 780 female and 156 male duck breeders were randomly allotted to 2 treatments. Duck breeders were fed either a commercial diet (containing 3,000 IU/kg vitamin D3) or the same diet plus a mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg) for 40 wk. The antioxidant status of duck breeders, egg yolk, and ducklings; tibia quality of duck breeders and ducklings; and shell quality of breeder eggs were investigated...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Dapeng Peng, Feng Liao, Yuanhu Pan, Dongmei Chen, Zhenli Liu, Yulian Wang, Zonghui Yuan
In this study, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with broad-specificity against several carotenoid analogs with equal or similar efficacy was prepared. The obtained mAb C11, with the IgG1 isotype, showed cross-reactivity (CR) with canthaxanthin (100%), β-ionone acid (140.4%), β-carotene (92.9%), capsanthin (90.1%), β-apo-8'-carotenal (92.7%), and xanthophyll (95.8%). Using the mAb C11, a highly sensitive and inexpensive indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed with a simple sample preparation procedure for the simultaneous detection of these carotenoid compounds in eggs...
July 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Zhouzheng Ren, Shizhen Jiang, Qiufeng Zeng, Xuemei Ding, Shiping Bai, Jianping Wang, Yuheng Luo, Zhuowei Su, Yue Xuan, Bing Yao, Fernando Cisneros, Keying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Dietary canthaxanthin (CX), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D 3 ) and vitamins have been widely reported to be involved in productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. However, limited information is available for duck breeders. In this study, a total of 1,560 Cherry Valley SM3 duck breeder females and 312 males were used to assess if the addition of CX and 25-OH-D3 could increase the performance of duck breeders under two different dietary vitamin regimens...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Ritsuko Fujii, Nami Yamano, Hideki Hashimoto, Norihiko Misawa, Kentaro Ifuku
Transplastomic (chloroplast genome-modified; CGM) lettuce that dominantly accumulates astaxanthin grows similar to a non-transgenic control with almost no accumulation of naturally occurring photosynthetic carotenoids. In this study, we evaluated the activity and assembly of photosystem II (PSII) in CGM lettuce. The maximum quantum yield of PSII in CGM lettuce was less than 0.6; however, the quantum yield of PSII was comparable to that in control leaves under higher light intensity. CGM lettuce showed a lower ability to induce non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the control under various light intensities...
December 7, 2015: Plant & Cell Physiology
Raphael C Mordi, John C Walton
Canthaxanthin is a carotenoid that lacks pro-vitamin A activity but is known to have antioxidant activity. The products of its oxidation in oxygen were found to be mainly substituted apo-carotenals and apo-carotenones. The product profile resembles that obtained in the oxidation of β-carotene, except that with canthaxanthin these products are the 4-oxo-β-apo-carotenals and 4-oxo-β-apo-carotenones. Epoxides and diepoxides were clearly identified from β-carotene oxidation but in contrast, with canthaxanthin, apart from 5,6-epoxy-canthaxanthin, which was detected at the early stage of oxidation and minor quantities of 5,6-epoxy-β-ionone and 5,6-epoxy-4-oxo-β-apo-11-carotenal, no other epoxides were detected...
April 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Chamila Nimalaratne, Daise Lopes-Lutz, Andreas Schieber, Jianping Wu
A fast isocratic liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of eight xanthophylls (13-Z-lutein, 13'-Z-lutein, 13-Z-zeaxanthin, all-E-lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin, all-E-canthaxanthin, all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester and all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenal) within 12 min, compared to 90 min by the conventional high-performance liquid chromatography method. The separation was achieved on a YMC C30 reversed-phase column (100 mm x 2.0 mm; 3 μm) operated at 20°C using a methanol/tert-butyl methyl ether/water solvent system at a flow rate of 0...
December 2015: Journal of Separation Science
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