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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029301/attractiveness-of-host-plants-at-different-growth-stage-to-kudzu-bug-megacopta-cribraria-heteroptera-plataspidae-behavioral-responses-to-whole-plant-and-constitutive-volatiles
#1
L Yang, X P Hu, E van Santen, X N Zeng
The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is an invasive pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., that has recently been detected in the United States. This study investigated whether there was a differential attraction of adult bugs to soybean growth stages, and whether the attraction was related to soybean constitutive volatiles. Greenhouse choice assays examined the behavioral orientation preference of adult bugs exposed to four growth stages of whole soybean plants: vegetative (V2), flowering (R1), pod (R3), and seed (R5)...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028996/cold-tolerance-of-megacopta-cribraria-hemiptera-plataspidae-an-invasive-pest-of-soybeans
#2
Jessica I Grant, William O Lamp
Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028992/spatial-distribution-of-megacopta-cribraria-hemiptera-plataspidae-adults-eggs-and-parasitism-by-paratelenomus-saccharalis-hymenoptera-platygastridae-in-soybean
#3
Ian A Knight, Phillip M Roberts, Wayne A Gardner, Kerry M Oliver, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Dominic D Reisig, Michael D Toews
Since 2014, populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), have declined in the southeastern United States and seldom require treatment. This decline follows the discovery of Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), a non-native egg parasitoid. The objective of this project was to observe the temporal and spatial dynamics of P. saccharalis parasitism of kudzu bug egg masses in commercial soybean fields. Four fields were sampled weekly for kudzu bugs and egg masses at a density of one sample per 0...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927631/formulation-and-characterization-of-o-w-emulsions-stabilized-using-octenyl-succinic-anhydride-modified-kudzu-starch
#4
Yiguo Zhao, Nauman Khalid, Gaofeng Shu, Marcos A Neves, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Kudzu starch esterified with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) was used as a food-grade emulsifier to formulate O/W emulsions. In addition, the difference between the physicochemical properties and emulsifying ability of native kudzu starch and those of OSA-modified kudzu starch was investigated. Granules of the OSA-modified kudzu starches increased in size after gelatinization. The interfacial tension between soybean oil and gelatinized OSA-modified kudzu starch was lower than that of kudzu starch. The droplet size of O/W emulsions decreased to 186nm at 100MPa after three passes...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898994/how-well-do-growing-season-dynamics-of-photosynthetic-capacity-correlate-with-leaf-biochemistry-and-climate-fluctuations
#5
Danielle A Way, Joseph R Stinziano, Henry Berghoff, Ram Oren
Accurate values of photosynthetic capacity are needed in Earth System Models to predict gross primary productivity. Seasonal changes in photosynthetic capacity in these models are primarily driven by temperature, but recent work has suggested that photoperiod may be a better predictor of seasonal photosynthetic capacity. Using field-grown kudzu (Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi), a nitrogen-fixing vine species, we took weekly measurements of photosynthetic capacity, leaf nitrogen, and pigment and photosynthetic protein concentrations and correlated these with temperature, irradiance and photoperiod over the growing season...
July 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830209/puerarin-improves-vascular-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-remodeling-in-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#6
Chunxiang Tan, Aimei Wang, Chan Liu, Yao Li, Yuepin Shi, Ming-Sheng Zhou
Puerarin is an isoflavonoid isolated from the Chinese herb, Kudzu roots (also known as Gegen), which has been widely used for the treatment of hypertensive diseases and diabetic mellitus in traditional Chinese medicine. Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rat is a genetic model of salt-sensitive hypertension with cardiovascular injury and vascular insulin resistance. Here, we investigated whether puerarin improved vascular insulin resistance and attenuated cardiac and aortic remodeling in salt-sensitive hypertension. DS rats were given a normal (NS) or high salt diet (HS) for five weeks...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807875/bioactive-isoflavones-from-pueraria-lobata-root-and-starch-different-extraction-techniques-and-carbonic-anhydrase-inhibition
#7
Andrei Mocan, Simone Carradori, Marcello Locatelli, Daniela Secci, Stefania Cesa, Adriano Mollica, Simona Riga, Andrea Angeli, Claudiu T Supuran, Christian Celia, Luisa Di Marzio
Kudzu, the dried root of an important edible plant (Pueraria lobata), is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the important nutritional value strictly related to its isoflavone derivatives. These compounds characterize the quality of kudzu contained in different preparations, as pharmaceutical ingredient as well as dietary/food supplement (e.g. starch). The optimization of the isoflavones recovery, monitored by HPLC-PDA, through different innovative and conventional extraction techniques, e.g. microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted and conventional extraction, represented a suitable challenge in food industry and natural products evaluation...
August 11, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804568/preventive-effects-of-kudzu-root-on-bone-loss-and-cartilage-degradation-in-ovariectomized-rat
#8
Yunyun Luo, Shuang Zheng, Yujia Ding, Yueqin Dai, Yi Zhou, Ruifeng Xiang, Anne C Bay-Jensen, Morten A Karsdal, Per Qvist, Qinlong Zheng
The clinical utility of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbs/roots extracts in osteoporosis (OP) and osteoarthritis (OA) has been described in multiple reports, but there have been few studies of TCM for preventing bone loss and cartilage degradation simultaneously. Six-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats each were subjected to ovariectomized (OVX) or sham surgery and treated orally once daily with herbal extracts or vehicle. Body weight was recorded weekly, and blood samples were collected from fasting animals at different time points...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791618/boosting-isoprene-production-via-heterologous-expression-of-the-kudzu-isoprene-synthase-gene-kisps-into-bacillus-spp-cell-factory
#9
Lamis Gomaa, Michael E Loscar, Haggag S Zein, Nahed Abdel-Ghaffar, Abdelhadi A Abdelhadi, Ali S Abdelaal, Naglaa A Abdallah
Isoprene represents a key building block for the production of valuable materials such as latex, synthetic rubber or pharmaceutical precursors and serves as basis for advanced biofuel production. To enhance the production of the volatile natural hydrocarbon isoprene, released by plants, animals and bacteria, the Kudzu isoprene synthase (kIspS) gene has been heterologously expressed in Bacillus subtilis DSM 402 and Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13 using the pHT01 vector. As control, the heterologous expression of KIspS in E...
August 8, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705501/morphology-crystallinity-pasting-thermal-and-quality-characteristics-of-starches-from-adzuki-bean-vigna-angularis-l-and-edible-kudzu-pueraria-thomsonii-benth
#10
Chagam Koteswara Reddy, Fei Luan, Baojun Xu
Starches were isolated from adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and edible kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii Benth) and investigated for their physico-chemical, morphological, pasting, crystallinity, thermal and FT-IR spectroscopic characteristics. Statistical analysis of physico-chemical and functional characteristics showed significant (p<0.05) difference between isolated starches from adzuki bean and edible kudzu. The XRD pattern of starches from adzuki bean and edible kudzu showed A-type with reflections (2θ) at 15...
December 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638404/puerarin-protects-against-cardiac-fibrosis-associated-with-the-inhibition-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-mediated-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#11
Ya-Ge Jin, Yuan Yuan, Qing-Qing Wu, Ning Zhang, Di Fan, Yan Che, Zhao-Peng Wang, Yang Xiao, Sha-Sha Wang, Qi-Zhu Tang
BACKGROUND: Puerarin is a kind of flavonoids and is extracted from Chinese herb Kudzu root. Puerarin is widely used as an adjuvant therapy in Chinese clinics. But little is known about its effects on regulating cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: Mice were subjected to transverse aorta constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks; meanwhile puerarin was given 1 week after TAC. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by pathological staining. The mRNA and protein changes of CD31 and vimentin in both animal and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) models were detected...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583762/puerarin-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-via-suppressing-ros-dependent-oxidative-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stresses
#12
Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Kai Zhang, Yong Yao, Miao Zhuang, Chengye Tan, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Amyloid β (Aβ) is a critical stimulator that promotes the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by Aβ is estimated to be responsible for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction in such disease. Puerarin, one of the major active constituents of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of AMD in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism remains far from clear. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and underlying mechanism of puerarin against Aβ1-40-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in LPS-primed ARPE-19 cells...
August 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560744/silage-preparation-and-fermentation-quality-of-kudzu-sugarcane-top-and-their-mixture-treated-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-molasses-and-cellulase
#13
Xinzhu Chen, Wenyang Li, Chengfang Gao, Xiaopei Zhang, Boqi Weng, Yimin Cai
We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 10(8)  colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62...
May 30, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480539/plant-litter-chemistry-alters-the-content-and-composition-of-organic-carbon-associated-with-soil-mineral-and-aggregate-fractions-in-invaded-ecosystems
#14
Mioko Tamura, Vidya Suseela, Myrna Simpson, Brian Powell, Nishanth Tharayil
Through the input of disproportionate quantities of chemically distinct litter, invasive plants may potentially influence the fate of organic matter associated with soil mineral and aggregate fractions in some of the ecosystems they invade. Although context dependent, these native ecosystems subjected to prolonged invasion by exotic plants may be instrumental in distinguishing the role of plant-microbe-mineral interactions from the broader edaphic and climatic influences on the formation of soil organic matter (SOM)...
October 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407550/potential-phosphorus-eutrophication-mitigation-strategy-biochar-carbon-composition-thermal-stability-and-ph-influence-phosphorus-sorption
#15
L W Ngatia, Y P Hsieh, D Nemours, R Fu, R W Taylor
Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C...
August 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400805/3-daidzein-sulfonate-sodium-improves-mitochondrial-functions-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#16
Wa Yuan, Qin Chen, Jing Zeng, Hai Xiao, Zhi-Hua Huang, Xiao Li, Qiong Lei
3'-Daidzein sulfonate sodium is a new synthetic water-soluble compound derived from daidzein (an active ingredient of the kudzu vine root). It has been shown to have a protective effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. We plan to study the mechanism of its protective effect. 3'-Daidzein sulfonate sodium was injected in rats after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results showed that 3'-daidzein sulfonate sodium significantly reduced mitochondrial swelling, significantly elevated the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and decreased mitochondrial malondialdehyde levels...
February 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369558/seasonal-occurrence-and-interspecific-interactions-of-egg-parasitoids-of-megacopta-cribraria-heteroptera-plataspidae-in-japan
#17
Keisuke Hoshino, Tarô Adati, Dawn M Olson, Keiji Takasu
We conducted a field study to determine seasonal egg parasitism rates of the kudzu bug Megacopta cribraria (F.) on the kudzu plant, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen et Almeida ex Sanjappa and Pradeep, in Tokyo, Japan, during the period from May 2014 to September 2014. The eggs of M. cribraria per 1 m2 of kudzu at four locations in Tokyo were collected weekly and parasitism rates were assessed. Eggs of M. cribraria were laid on the kudzu plant from May to September. Megacopta cribraria eggs were parasitized by two parasitoid species, Paratelenomus saccharalis (Dodd) and Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237799/neuroprotective-effects-of-genistein-3-sodium-sulfonate-on-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#18
Liangdong Li, Jinhua Xue, Ruizhen Liu, Xiao Li, Lijuan Lai, Jiali Xie, Zhihua Huang, Cheng Huang
In order to improve the poor water solubility of genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), which is extracted from food sources such as tofu, soybeans, and kudzu, we sulfonated genistein to synthesize a relatively more water-soluble compound, namely genistein-3'-sodium sulfonate (GSS). Our previous studies demonstrate that GSS protects cortical neurons from injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the protective effect and potential molecular mechanisms of action of GSS in rat glutamate-induced cortical neuron injury in vitro and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo models...
April 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192195/puerarin-provides-a-neuroprotection-against-transient-cerebral-ischemia-by-attenuating-autophagy-at-the-ischemic-penumbra-in-neurons-but-not-in-astrocytes
#19
He Hongyun, Guo Tao, Zhang Pengyue, Yang Liqiang, Deng Yihao
Puerarin is an isoflavone derived from the Chinese medical herb of Radix puerariae (kudzu root), and has been widely used in the treatment for ischemic stroke in China. However, its underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still not understood. This study was to investigate the efficacy of puerarin on autophagy in the ischemic penumbra after cerebral stroke. A model of cerebral stroke in Sprague-Dawley rats was prepared by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO); rats were then randomly divided into 5 groups: MCAO+Pue group (rats were treated with puerarin), MCAO+Pue+Tat-Beclin-1 group (rats were administrated with both puerarin and autophagy inducer Tat-Beclin-1), MCAO+Tat-Beclin-1 group (rats were treated with Tat-Beclin-1), MCAO+saline group (rats were administrated with the same volume of physiological saline), and sham surgery group...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060542/puerarin-protects-against-endothelial-dysfunction-and-end-organ-damage-in-ang-ii-induced-hypertension
#20
Xiaojie Li, Yuhan Lin, Hongyu Zhou, Yao Li, Aimei Wang, Hongxin Wang, Ming-Sheng Zhou
Puerarin, a major isoflavonoid compound from Chinese herb Kudzu roots, has been widely used for the treatment of hypertensive and cardiovascular diseases in China. Here, we investigated puerarin's beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertensive rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with Ang II for 5 days or with puerarin for 10 days followed by Ang II and puerarin for 5 days. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) to acetylcholine was determined using an organ chamber bath...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
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