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Ying Gao, Xu Wang, Chunnian He
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate vascular cell dysfunction and lead to atherosclerosis and other chronic cardiovascular diseases. The root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, also known as kudzu or Gegen (Chinese name), is one of the most important herbs in traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, osteonecrosis and neurodegradation diseases. In this study, an ethanol extract from kudzu root was prepared and the in vitro protective effect of the kudzu root extract (KUD) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Birgit M Dietz, Atieh Hajirahimkhan, Tareisha L Dunlap, Judy L Bolton
Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger)...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
Anirudh Dhammi, Jaap B van Krestchmar, Loganathan Ponnusamy, Jack S Bacheler, Dominic D Reisig, Ames Herbert, Alejandro I Del Pozo-Valdivia, R Michael Roe
Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jin Miao, Dominic D Reisig, Guoping Li, Yuqing Wu
Megacopta cribraria F. (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, is an invasive insect pest of U.S. soybean. At present, insecticide application is the primary and most effective control option for M. cribraria In this study, the potential effects of sublethal and low-lethal concentrations (LC10 and LC40) of three common insecticides on key biological traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the treated nymphal stage of insect were assessed. The results show that the sublethal concentration of imidacloprid significantly reduced adult emergence rate of M...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Kerin E Bentley, Rodney Mauricio
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pueraria montana var. lobata, or kudzu, is an invasive species whose invasion in North America is not genetically well characterized. The clonality of kudzu introduces challenges to population genetic analyses that can bias the assessment of spatial patterns of genotypes. Assessing patterns of genetic diversity while considering clonality is necessary to understand the invasion and spread of kudzu in its invasive range. METHODS: We screened 1747 individuals from 87 populations across the invasive range with 15 microsatellite markers and a 789 bp chloroplast region...
August 2016: American Journal of Botany
Geum-Dan Kang, Sang-Yoon Lee, Se-Eun Jang, Myung Joo Han, Dong-Hyun Kim
SCOPE: This study was designed to determine whether irisolidone and its glycoside kakkalide, which are the major constituents of the flower of Pueraria lobata (Kudzu) can attenuate ethanol-induced gastritic injury in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Irisolidone and kakkalide inhibited IL-8 secretion and NF-κB activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated KATO III cells. Therefore, we investigated their protective effects against ethanol-induced gastric injury in mice. Pretreatment with kakkalide or irisolidone decreased the area of hemorrhagic ulcerative lesions caused by ethanol and suppressed stomach myeloperoxidase activity, CXCL4 secretion, and NF-κB activation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Ashley N Egan, Mohammad Vatanparast, William Cagle
Several taxonomic and phylogenetic studies have hypothesized polyphyly within Pueraria DC., a genus comprising 19 species (24 with varieties) including the highly invasive Pueraria montana var. lobata (Kudzu) introduced to the U.S.A. about 150years ago. Previous efforts to investigate monophyly of the genus have been hampered by limited taxon sampling or a lack of comprehensive evolutionary context that would enable definitive taxonomic associations. This work presents a comprehensive phylogenetic investigation of Pueraria within the context of tribe Phaseoleae (Leguminosae)...
November 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Kai Zhang, Zhifeng Wu, Song Sun, Fanfan Zhou, Ling Zhu
Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maribel Portilla, Walker Jones, Omaththage Perera, Nick Seiter, Jeremy Greene, Randall Luttrell
The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an urban nuisance and significant agricultural pest. The median lethal concentrations of three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo), including the Mississippi Delta native strain (NI8) isolated from Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), the commercial strain BotaniGard(®) (GHA) (Victor, NY, USA), and the B. bassiana strain isolated from M. cribraria (KUDSC), were estimated on kudzu bug adults. A technique developed to evaluate B. bassiana against L. lineolaris was used...
2016: Insects
Changxing Wang, Weidong Wang, Xiaping Jin, Jianguo Shen, Weifeng Hu, Tao Jiang
Puerarin is an important active ingredient in the root of kudzu vine due to its pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge of the effect of puerarin in the attenuation of inflammation and oxidation in mice with collagen antibody-induced arthritis via toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. Arthritis was induced using injection of anti‑type II collagen antibodies. Treatment with puerarin was observed to significantly decrease clinical scoring of the collagen antibody‑induced arthritis and suppress oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in mice...
August 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chung-Hung Shih, Tsu-Ya Chang, Wun-Chang Ko
In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a combination of kudzu and Chen-Pi is frequently prescribed for relieving colds, fever, bronchitis, and cough. It contains daidzein and hesperetin, selective inhibitors of family 3 (PDE3), and 4 (PDE4) of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), respectively. In passively sensitized human airways, allergen-induced contraction was reported to be inhibited only by the simultaneous inhibition of PDE3 and PDE4, but not by single inhibition of either isozyme. Therefore, we are interested in investigating the interaction between daidzein and hesperetin on their antispasmodic effects in the isolated sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig tracheas, to clarify the difference between these two tissues, because effects of TCM prescription on patients with or without allergic asthma are often different...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nicholas J Seiter, Alejandro I Del Pozo-Valdivia, Jeremy K Greene, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Phillip M Roberts, Dominic D Reisig
The invasive plataspidMegacopta cribraria(F.) is now distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States. While it readily feeds and develops on the invasive weed kudzu,Puereria montana(Loureiro) Merrill var.lobata(Willdenow),M. cribrariais an economic pest of soybean,Glycine max(L.) Merrill. Differences in the susceptibility of soybean toM. cribraria-induced yield reductions based on plant phenology were assessed using two experimental protocols in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013 in which soybeans were protected fromM...
March 29, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Xueying Luo, Binlong Zhong, Xian Hong, Yurong Cui, Ying Gao, Mengmeng Yin, Ming Tang, Jürgen Hescheler, Jiaoya Xi
OBJECTIVE: Puerarin, which shows beneficial and protective effects on cardiovascular diseases, is the main isoflavone extracted from Pueraria lobata (kudzu) root. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of puerarin on in vitro myocardial proliferation and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: Myocardial differentiation of transgenic embryonic stem (ES) cells was performed by embryoid body-based differentiation method. The proliferation assay of cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from ES cells (ES-CMs) was performed by EdU (5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) staining...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Gorawit Yusakul, Seiichi Sakamoto, Thaweesak Juengwatanatrakul, Waraporn Putalun, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto
INTRODUCTION: Daidzin and its aglycone daidzein are major pharmacologically active compounds of soybean (Glycine max), kudzu (Pueraria lobata), and kwao kruea khao (P. mirifica). Pharmacological activities of daidzin are mediated by its more potent metabolites daidzein and equol; however, daidzin is the predominant compound found in these medicinal plants, and the efficacy and safety of equol depend on the amount of daidzin consumed. OBJECTIVE: To develop a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) for standardisation of daidzin content in herbal medicines or nutraceuticals...
January 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Xianchu Liu, Yanzhi Mo, Jingbo Gong, Zhuang Li, Huan Peng, Jiaxue Chen, Qichao Wang, Zhaowen Ke, Jingtao Xie
Previous research has indicated that Diabetes is a high risk of learning and memory deficits. Puerarin, an isoflavonoid extracted from Kudzu roots, has been reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-diabetic properties which are useful in the treatment of various diseases. Recently, Puerarin was found to have the effects on learning and memory performances in humans and animal models. However, up to now, there is no detailed evidence on the effect of Puerarin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD)...
April 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Dengyuan Wang, Liang Qiu, Xiaoli Wu, Hua Wei, Feng Xu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Kudzu root, the root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, has been used as food and medicine for centuries, but few studies indicate that kudzu root may cause liver damage. AIM OF STUDY: We studied the hepatotoxicity of kudzu root extract in mice, HepG2 cells and mice hepatocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were administrated with kudzu root extract (10mg/day) for 4 weeks, and then the biochemical analysis and histopathological changes were carried out...
December 24, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J L Blount, G D Buntin, P M Roberts
The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an invasive member of the family Plataspidae originating from Asia. Since its discovery in Georgia in 2009, its distribution has increased to 13 southern and eastern states. In the United States, M. cribraria is bivoltine and has two primary developmental hosts, kudzu and soybean. Here, we evaluated the yield response of soybean to M. cribraria feeding injury in relation to planting date and soybean maturity group. The study contained four replicated trials in Griffin, Tifton, and Midville, GA, in 2012 and 2013...
February 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nicholas J Seiter, Alejandro I Del Pozo-Valdivia, Jeremy K Greene, Francis P F Reay-Jones, Phillip M Roberts, Dominic R Reisig
The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), first discovered in the United States in 2009, has rapidly become a pest of commercial soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, throughout much of the southeast. Because of its recent arrival, management practices and recommendations are not well established. To develop action thresholds, we evaluated insecticide applications targeted at different densities of adults and nymphs determined using the standard 38-cm diameter sweep net sampling method in 12 soybean field trials conducted in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina from 2011 to 2013...
August 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
J L Blount, G D Buntin, A N Sparks
Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) is an Old World pest of legumes in Asia. Since its 2009 discovery in Georgia, it has become an economic pest of soybeans in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to determine the host preference of M. cribraria on edible legumes that might incur economic damage from injury of this pest. From 2012 to 2013 choice, no-choice, and field trials were conducted to evaluate the host suitability of several beans of commercial interest including pinto bean, lima bean, winter pea, and black-eyed pea...
June 2015: Journal of Economic Entomology
Kirven Gilbert, C Matthew Hawkins, Danny R Hughes, Kishen Patel, Navdeep Gogia, Aarti Sekhar, Richard Duszak
PURPOSE: Given that patient satisfaction and provider transparency intersect on online physician-rating websites, we aimed to assess radiologist representation on these increasingly popular sites. METHODS: From a directory of all Medicare participating physicians, we randomly selected 1,000 self-designated diagnostic radiologists and manually extracted their rating information from five popular online physician-review websites (HealthGrades, Healthcare Reviews, RateMDs, Kudzu, and Yelp)...
August 2015: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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