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Sui Sheng T Hua, Dan E Parfitt, Siov Bouy L Sarreal, Bertram G Lee, Delilah F Wood
Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and cause toxin contamination in food chain worldwide. Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic and are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Fungal isolates were collected from a California orchard and a few were initially identified to be A...
February 20, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Bin Yuan, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Jie Wang, Bin Jiang, Xu Zhang, Maili Liu
It has been a strong consumer interest to choose high quality food products with clear information about their origin and composition. In the present study, a total of 22 Asian soy sauce samples have been analyzed in terms of (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Spectral data were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods in order to find out the important metabolites causing the discrimination among typical soy sauces from different Asian regions. It was found that significantly higher concentrations of glutamate in Chinese red cooking (CR) soy sauce may be the result of the manual addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the final soy sauce product...
September 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seung-Beom Hong, Dae-Ho Kim, Robert A Samson
Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the mycobiota of Meju, and the aspergilli were identified based on phenotypic characteristics and sequencing of the β-tubulin gene...
September 2015: Mycobiology
T Ueki, Y Noda, Y Teramoto, R Ohba, S Ueda
For improved fermentation of shoyu (soy sauce), a useful koji-making system has been developed using a mixed tane-koji of two shoyu koji moulds, namely Aspergillus oryzae K2 (length of conidiophores about 350 μm) and the late-conidiation strain, A. oryzae HG (length of conidiophores about 2500 μm). The mixed culture of strains K2 and HG had about twice the glutaminase activity of the single-strain cultures. In addition, the number of conidia in the mixed culture was about 10% of that in a culture of strain K2 alone...
November 1994: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
K Tanaka, M Kushiro, M Manabe
Miso (fermented soybean paste), shoyu (soy sauce) and sake (rice wine) are traditional moldfermented foods in Japan and have been consumed throughout much of its history. These have long been considered safe foods. In this contribution we review and summarize long-term studies to investigate potential problems with mycotoxin contamination of these products. The fungal cultures used for fermentation of these products are called "koji-molds" and mainly consist of strains ofAspergillus oryzae. A. oryzae belongs to theA...
September 2006: Mycotoxin Research
Masao Tokunaga, Makoto Mizukami, Koji Yamasaki, Hiroko Tokunaga, Hiromasa Onishi, Hiroshi Hanagata, Matsujiro Ishibashi, Akira Miyauchi, Kouhei Tsumoto, Tsutomu Arakawa
Halophilic β-lactamase (BLA) has been successfully used as a novel fusion partner for soluble expression of aggregation-prone foreign proteins in Escherichia coli cytoplasm (Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 86:649-658, 2010b). This halophilic BLA fusion technology was applied here for secretory expression in Brevibacillus. The "Brevibacillus in vivo cloning" method, recently developed by Higeta Shoyu group, for the construction and transformation of Brevibacillus expression vectors facilitates efficient screening of the production conditions of Brevibacillus expression system...
October 2013: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Motonaka Kuroda, Yumiko Kato, Junko Yamazaki, Yuko Kai, Toshimi Mizukoshi, Hiroshi Miyano, Yuzuru Eto
It was recently reported that kokumi substances such as glutathione are perceived through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). In addition, screening by the CaSR assay and sensory evaluation revealed that γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly) was a potent kokumi peptide. In this study, the quantities of γ-Glu-Val-Gly in various commercial fish sauces originating from Vietnam (Nuoc Mum), Thailand (Nampra), China (Yu-lu), Korea, Japan (Shottsuru and Ikanago-shoyu), and Italy (Garum) were investigated using a LC/MS/MS method followed by derivatization with 6-aminoquinoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-carbamate (AQC)...
July 25, 2012: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shu Kaneko, Kenji Kumazawa, Osamu Nishimura
An investigation by the aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) technique of the aroma concentrate from five different types of Japanese soy sauces, categorized according to Japan Agricultural Standards as Koikuchi Shoyu (KS), Usukuchi Shoyu (US), Tamari Shoyu (TS), Sai-Shikomi Shoyu (SSS), and Shiro Shoyu (SS), revealed 25 key aroma compounds. Among them, 3-ethyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione and 2'-aminoacetophenone were identified in the soy sauces for the first time. Whereas 3-(methylthio)propanal (methional) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon) were detected in all of the soy sauce aroma concentrates as having high flavor dilution (FD) factors, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol was detected as having a high FD factor in only four of the soy sauces (KS, US, TS, and SSS)...
April 18, 2012: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shu Kaneko, Kenji Kumazawa, Osamu Nishimura
To clarify the key compounds that account for the umami taste of soy sauce, a typical Japanese soy sauce, Koikuchi Shoyu, was separated by preparative chromatography, and the umami enhancing fractions were screened on the basis of an umami intensity of a 6.0 mM monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution. Liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS), 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) studies of the umami enhancing fractions led to the identification of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)pyroglutamic acid (Fru-pGlu), N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)valine (Fru-Val), N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)methionine (Fru-Met), pyroglutamylglutamine (pGlu-Gln), and pyroglutamylglycine (pGlu-Gly)...
2011: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Satoshi Furukawa, Akari Takaya, Tokiko Nakagawa, Ikuo Sakaguchi, Katsuji Nishi
We report a case of fatal salt poisoning in a 55-year-old woman who suffered from depression and drank a large quantity of shoyu (Japanese soy sauce). She presented with the highest ever documented serum sodium level of 187 mmol/L. This was associated with symptoms of cerebral damage which developed within hours after drinking the soy sauce. She died as a result of massive pulmonary edema, despite intensive medical treatment. Viewing the results of clinical and postmortem investigations together, her death could clearly be attributed to drinking a large quantity of soy sauce...
February 2011: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Tomonori Sakamoto, Kouichi Akaki, Hiroshi Hiwaki
A method for the determination of nonvolatile amines (putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine and spermidine) in foods by solid-phase extraction and excimer-forming derivatization was investigated. Nonvolatile amines in a solid sample were extracted with 3% trichloroacetic acid, and the amines in a liquid sample were extracted with water. The extract was applied to polymer-based strong cation exchange mini-column, which was then rinsed with phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 and water. Nonvolatile amines were eluted with 100 mmol/L potassium carbonate solution...
2010: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
K Sugiura, M Sugiura
BACKGROUND: Soy sauce is well-known as a Japanese traditional seasoning, namely shoyu. Usually, shoyu means sauce made from soy. Shoyu does have not only benefits but also adverse effects. Soy sauce allergy which is not caused by soy or wheat allergy is rare. PATIENTS: Our four patients developed cellulites and dermatitis around lips with irritation after a meal with shoyu. The age of the patients was 10, 35, 46 and 51 years; they were all female. OBJECTIVES: These inflammations can be developed by two causes; first it can be caused by allergic reactions to shoyu; the second, it can be caused by histamine poisoning...
July 2010: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Masayuki Machida, Osamu Yamada, Katsuya Gomi
At a time when the notion of microorganisms did not exist, our ancestors empirically established methods for the production of various fermentation foods: miso (bean curd seasoning) and shoyu (soy sauce), both of which have been widely used and are essential for Japanese cooking, and sake, a magical alcoholic drink consumed at a variety of ritual occasions, are typical examples. A filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, is the key organism in the production of all these traditional foods, and its solid-state cultivation (SSC) has been confirmed to be the secret for the high productivity of secretory hydrolases vital for the fermentation process...
August 2008: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Makio Kobayashi, Norihiro Magishi, Hiroaki Matsushita, Tadaaki Hashimoto, Mayumi Fujimoto, Makoto Suzuki, Keisuke Tsuji, Masami Saito, Eishi Inoue, Yukako Yoshikawa, Toshiki Matsuura
Soy sauce (Shoyu) is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and is available worldwide. We investigated the effects of Shoyu polysaccharides (SPS) prepared from soy sauce on hyperlipidemia in vitro and in vivo. First, SPS inhibited pancreatic lipase. Second, in experiments with animals, it was found that SPS reduced serum triacylglycerol (TG) elevation induced by high-fat diets. Third, in a 2-week placebo-controlled parallel group study, healthy men (TG <150 mg/dl) were treated with 600 mg of SPS (n=5) or placebo (n=5) every day...
October 2008: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Hiroaki Matsushita, Makio Kobayashi, Ryo-Ichi Tsukiyama, Mayumi Fujimoto, Makoto Suzuki, Keisuke Tsuji, Kenji Yamamoto
Soy sauce (Shoyu) is a traditional Japanese fermented seasoning and is available worldwide. We investigated the effect of Shoyu polysaccharides (SPS) prepared from soy sauce on the intestinal immune system of mice. SPS enhanced the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from Peyer's patch cells in vitro, and its oral administration to 7-week-old male BALB/c mice for 2 weeks at a dose of 1.5 mg per day significantly (p<0.01) increased the concentration of IgA in the intestine as compared to control mice. Furthermore, experiments on the intestinal transport of SPS in vitro using the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 confirmed the permeation of uronic acid to be time-dependent...
August 2008: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yoshikatsu Murooka, Mitsuo Yamshita
A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji molds and natto bacteria. Many traditional fermented foods have been studied and their effects on metabolism and/or immune system have been demonstrated in animal and/or human cells...
August 2008: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Thomas R Jørgensen
Mold strains belonging to the species Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae are highly valued as koji molds in the traditional preparation of fermented foods, such as miso, sake, and shoyu, and as protein production hosts in modern industrial processes. A. oryzae and A. sojae are relatives of the wild molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. All four species are classified to the A. flavus group. Strains of the A. flavus group are characterized by a high degree of morphological similarity. Koji mold species are generally perceived of as being nontoxigenic, whereas wild molds are associated with the carcinogenic aflatoxins...
December 2007: Journal of Food Protection
Susumu Masuda, Hitomi Yamaguchi, Toshiko Kurokawa, Tomoyuki Shirakami, Ryohei F Tsuji, Ikuko Nishimura
A halophilic lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, was found to possess an immunomodulatory activity that promotes T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity in addition to its important roles in soy sauce brewing. Strain Th221 was selected from 151 strains isolated from soy sauce (shoyu) moromi, since it induced strong interleukin (IL)-12 production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The relationship between the salt concentration in the medium and the IL-12 production-inducing activity of this strain was investigated, and the activity was found to be strong when the bacteria were grown in medium containing > or =10% (w/v) salt...
February 10, 2008: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Yasuo Watanabe, Kisako Nagayama, Youichi Tamai
We cloned the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) gene (CvGPD1) from salt-tolerant yeast Candida versatilis. When CvGPD1 was expressed in glycerol synthesis-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, the salt tolerance of the recombinant strain was enhanced, and NADP(+)-dependent GPDH (EC, Cvgpd1p synthesis and recovery of glycerol synthesis were confirmed. The transcription of CvGPD1 in C. versatilis cells was stimulated by high concentrations of NaCl. The relationship between expression of CvGPD1 and growth of C...
February 2008: Yeast
Tetsuo Kobayashi, Keietsu Abe, Kiyoshi Asai, Katsuya Gomi, Praveen Rao Juvvadi, Masashi Kato, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Michio Takeuchi, Masayuki Machida
The genome sequence of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus used in the production of the traditional Japanese fermentation foods sake (rice wine), shoyu (soy sauce), and miso (soybean paste), has revealed prominent features in its gene composition as compared to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. The A. oryzae genome is extremely enriched with genes involved in biomass degradation, primary and secondary metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and cell signaling. Even compared to the related species A...
March 2007: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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