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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079473/protective-immunity-against-influenza-in-hla-a2-transgenic-mice-by-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-vectored-vaccines-containing-internal-influenza-proteins
#1
Giuseppina Di Mario, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Francesco Gubinelli, Elisa Soprana, Maddalena Panigada, Valentina Bernasconi, Bruno Garulli, Antonio Siccardi, Isabella Donatelli, Maria R Castrucci
BACKGROUND: The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses...
January 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#2
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070566/interleukin-37-expression-in-mice-alters-sleep-responses-to-inflammatory-agents-and-influenza-virus-infection
#3
Christopher J Davis, Mark R Zielinski, Danielle Dunbrasky, Ping Taishi, Charles A Dinarello, James M Krueger
Multiple interactions between the immune system and sleep are known, including the effects of microbial challenge on sleep or the effects of sleep loss on facets of the immune response. Cytokines regulate, in part, sleep and immune responses. Here we examine the role of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-37 (IL-37) on sleep in a mouse strain that expresses human IL-37b (IL37tg mice). Constitutive expression of the IL-37 gene in the brains of these mice under resting conditions is low; however, upon an inflammatory stimulus, expression increases dramatically...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Sleep and Circadian Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065183/paramyxovirus-outbreak-in-a-long-term-care-facility-the-challenges-of-implementing-infection-control-practices-in-a-congregate-setting
#4
Steven Schaeffer Spires, H Keipp Talbot, Carolyn A Pope, Thomas R Talbot
OBJECTIVE We report an outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections in a dementia care ward containing 2 separately locked units (A and B) to heighten awareness of these pathogens in the older adult population and highlight some of the infection prevention challenges faced during a noninfluenza respiratory viral outbreak in a congregate setting. METHODS Cases were defined by the presence of new signs or symptoms that included (1) a single oral temperature ≥ 37...
January 9, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057521/biodegradable-nanoparticle-delivery-of-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-vaccine-provides-heterologous-cell-mediated-immune-response-in-pigs
#5
Santosh Dhakal, Jagadish Hiremath, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Basavaraj Binjawadagi, Jonathan Goodman, Kairat Tabynov, Steven Krakowka, Balaji Narasimhan, Chang-Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is one of the important zoonotic pathogens. Current flu vaccines have failed to provide cross-protection against evolving viruses in the field. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is a biodegradable FDA approved polymer and widely used in drug and vaccine delivery. In this study, inactivated SwIV H1N2 antigens (KAg) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-KAg) were prepared, which were spherical in shape with 200 to 300nm diameter, and induced maturation of antigen presenting cells in vitro...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057259/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-history-value-in-basic-research-and-current-perspectives-for-vaccine-development
#6
A Volz, G Sutter
Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005959/an-intranasal-proteosome-adjuvanted-trivalent-influenza-vaccine-is-safe-immunogenic-efficacious-in-the-human-viral-influenza-challenge-model-serum-igg-mucosal-iga-are-important-correlates-of-protection-against-illness-associated-with-infection
#7
Rob Lambkin-Williams, Colin Gelder, Richard Broughton, Corey P Mallett, Anthony S Gilbert, Alex Mann, David He, John S Oxford, David Burt
INTRODUCTION: A Proteosome-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (P-TIV) administered intra-nasally was shown to be safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in both systemic and mucosal compartments, and effective at preventing illness associated with evidence of influenza infection. METHODS: In two separate studies using the human viral challenge model, subjects were selected to be immunologically naive to A/Panama/2007/1999 (H3N2) virus and then dosed via nasal spray with one of three regimens of P-TIV or placebo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004787/cross-protective-efficacy-of-dendritic-cells-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#8
Wen-Tao Yang, Shao-Hua Shi, Gui-Lian Yang, Yan-Long Jiang, Liang Zhao, Yu Li, Chun-Feng Wang
Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect birds and mammals, including humans, and are thus a serious threat to public health. Vaccination is vital for controlling AIV circulation. In this study, we generated a recombinant lactobacillus expressing the NP-M1-DCpep of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluated the activation effect of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep on dendritic cells (DCs) in a mouse model. The specific mucosal antibody responses and B and T cell responses in lymphoid tissues were also characterized. Importantly, we confirmed that specific CD8 T cells presented in vitro and antigen-specific cytotoxicity (activated the expression of CD107a) and in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxicity after vaccination...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988511/pigs-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-are-impaired-in-controlling-influenza-a-virus-infection
#9
Daniela S Rajao, Crystal L Loving, Emily H Waide, Phillip C Gauger, Jack C M Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A viruses (IAV) infect many host species, including humans and pigs. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a condition characterized by a deficiency of T, B, and/or natural killer (NK) cells. Animal models of SCID have great value for biomedical research. Here, we evaluated the pathogenesis and the innate immune response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic IAV (H1N1pdm09) using a recently identified line of naturally occurring SCID pigs deficient in T and B lymphocytes that still have functional NK cells...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984103/generation-and-characterization-of-new-monoclonal-antibodies-against-swine-origin-2009-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-and-evaluation-of-their-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Sheng-Fan Wang, Sung-Pin Tseng, El-Wui Loh, Wen-Hung Wang, Ming-Chun Li, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Wan-Chi Tsai, Yuan-Ming Lee, Huan-Yuan Chen, Fu-Tong Liu, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Jason C Huang
In 2009, a swine-origin influenza A virus - A(H1N1)pdm09 - emerged and has became a pandemic strain circulating worldwide. The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is a potential target for the development of anti-viral therapeutic agents. Here, we generated mAbs by immunization of baculovirus-insect expressing trimeric recombinant HA of the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain. Results indicated that the mAbs recognized two novel neutralizing and protective epitopes-"STAS" and "FRSK" which located near Cb and Ca1 antigenic regions respectively and were conserved in almost 2009-2016 influenza H1N1 stains...
October 27, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983474/induction-of-protective-immunity-against-influenza-a-jiangxi-donghu-346-2013-h10n8-in-mice
#11
Li Fang Kuah, Lay Hoon Tang, Troy Sutton, Jie Hui Lim, Wan Ling Sin, Elaine Lamirande, Kanta Subbarao, Yuk Fai Lau
Human infections with A/Jiangxi-Donghu/346/2013 (H10N8) virus have raised concerns about its pandemic potential. In order to develop a vaccine against this virus, the immunogenicity of its hemagglutinin (HA) protein was evaluated in mice. Using both whole-virion and recombinant subunit protein vaccines, we showed that two doses of either vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses. The protective efficacy of the vaccine-induced responses was assessed using a reverse-genetics- derived H10 reassortant virus on the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) backbone...
December 15, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981236/a-phylogeny-based-global-nomenclature-system-and-automated-annotation-tool-for-h1-hemagglutinin-genes-from-swine-influenza-a-viruses
#12
Tavis K Anderson, Catherine A Macken, Nicola S Lewis, Richard H Scheuermann, Kristien Van Reeth, Ian H Brown, Sabrina L Swenson, Gaëlle Simon, Takehiko Saito, Yohannes Berhane, Janice Ciacci-Zanella, Ariel Pereda, C Todd Davis, Ruben O Donis, Richard J Webby, Amy L Vincent
The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977667/universal-or-specific-a-modeling-based-comparison-of-broad-spectrum-influenza-vaccines-against-conventional-strain-matched-vaccines
#13
Rahul Subramanian, Andrea L Graham, Bryan T Grenfell, Nimalan Arinaminpathy
Despite the availability of vaccines, influenza remains a major public health challenge. A key reason is the virus capacity for immune escape: ongoing evolution allows the continual circulation of seasonal influenza, while novel influenza viruses invade the human population to cause a pandemic every few decades. Current vaccines have to be updated continually to keep up to date with this antigenic change, but emerging 'universal' vaccines-targeting more conserved components of the influenza virus-offer the potential to act across all influenza A strains and subtypes...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941707/biological-characteristics-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-from-healthy-chickens-in-shanghai-china
#14
Qingfeng Shi, Qianli Wang, Liwen Ju, Haiyan Xiong, Yue Chen, Lufang Jiang, Qingwu Jiang
BACKGROUND H9N2 avian influenza viruses that circulate in domestic poultry in eastern China pose challenges to human health. However, few studies have compared the biological characteristics of H9N2 viruses isolated from healthy chickens in Shanghai. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three H9N2 viruses - CK/SH/Y1/07, CK/SH/Y1/02, and CK/SH/23/13 - isolated from healthy chickens in Shanghai between 2002 and 2013, were selected and their biological characteristics were determined. RESULTS All 3 H9N2 viruses showed a preference for both the avian- and human-like receptors, and they replicated well in MDCK and A549 cells...
December 10, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936463/virus-like-particles-displaying-h5-h7-h9-hemagglutinins-and-n1-neuraminidase-elicit-protective-immunity-to-heterologous-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chickens
#15
Peter Pushko, Irina Tretyakova, Rachmat Hidajat, Aniko Zsak, Klaudia Chrzastek, Terrence M Tumpey, Darrell R Kapczynski
Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#17
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910264/vaccination-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-reduces-bronchus-associated-lymphoid-tissue-formation-in-cynomolgus-macaques-after-intranasal-virus-challenge-infection
#18
Misako Nakayama, Hiroichi Ozaki, Yasushi Itoh, Kosuke Soda, Hirohito Ishigaki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Chun-Ho Park, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
H9N2 avian influenza virus causes sporadic human infection. Since humans do not possess acquired immunity specific to this virus, we examined the pathogenicity of an H9N2 virus isolated from a human and then analyzed protective effects of a vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. After intranasal challenge with A/Hong Kong/1073/1999 (H9N2) (HK1073) isolated from a human patient, viruses were isolated from nasal and tracheal swabs in unvaccinated macaques with mild fever and body weight loss. A formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine derived from our virus library was subcutaneously inoculated to macaques...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#19
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
February 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#20
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
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