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human influenza challenge

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429728/a-formulated-tlr7-8-agonist-is-a-flexible-highly-potent-and-effective-adjuvant-for-pandemic-influenza-vaccines
#1
Neal Van Hoeven, Christopher B Fox, Brian Granger, Tara Evers, Sharvari W Joshi, Ghislain I Nana, Sarah C Evans, Susan Lin, Hong Liang, Li Liang, Rie Nakajima, Philip L Felgner, Richard A Bowen, Nicole Marlenee, Airn Hartwig, Susan L Baldwin, Rhea N Coler, Mark Tomai, James Elvecrog, Steven G Reed, Darrick Carter
Since 1997, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been transmitted from avian hosts to humans. The severity of H5N1 infection in humans, as well as the sporadic nature of H5N1 outbreaks, both geographically and temporally, make generation of an effective vaccine a global public health priority. An effective H5N1 vaccine must ultimately provide protection against viruses from diverse clades. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist adjuvant formulations have a demonstrated ability to broaden H5N1 vaccine responses in pre-clinical models...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#2
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
April 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424686/mucosal-and-systemic-immune-responses-to-influenza-h7n9-antigen-ha1-2-co-delivered-intranasally-with-flagellin-or-polyethyleneimine-in-mice-and-chickens
#3
Li Song, Dan Xiong, Hongqin Song, Lili Wu, Meihua Zhang, Xilong Kang, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
Consecutive cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses since 2013 in China have prompted efforts to develop an effective treatment. Subunit vaccines introduced by intranasal administration can block an infection at its primary site; flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) have been shown to be potent adjuvants. We previously generated the hemagglutinin (HA)1-2-fliC fusion protein consisting of the globular head domain (HA1-2; amino acids 62-284) of HA fused with Salmonella typhimurium fliC. In the present study, we investigated its effectiveness of both flagellin and PEI as mucosal adjuvants for the H7N9 influenza subunit vaccine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424239/aim2-inflammasome-is-critical-for-influenza-induced-lung-injury-and-mortality
#4
Hongbo Zhang, Jiadi Luo, John F Alcorn, Kong Chen, Songqing Fan, Joseph Pilewski, Aizhong Liu, Wei Chen, Jay K Kolls, Jieru Wang
The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome plays an important role in many viral and bacterial infections, but very little is known about its role in RNA virus infection, including influenza A virus (IAV). In this study, we have designed in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the role of AIM2 in infections with lethal doses of IAVs A/PR8/34 and A/California/07/09. In wild-type mice, IAV infection enhanced AIM2 expression, induced dsDNA release, and stimulated caspase-1 activation and release of cleaved IL-1β in the lung, which was significantly reduced in AIM2-deficient mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418904/a-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-vaccine-delivered-by-an-attenuated-salmonella-mutant-protects-chickens-against-heterologous-h7n1-influenza-virus
#5
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408242/intravenous-immunoglobulin-protects-against-severe-pandemic-influenza-infection
#6
Steven Rockman, Sue Lowther, Sarina Camuglia, Kirsten Vandenberg, Shirley Taylor, Lou Fabri, Sylvia Miescher, Martin Pearse, Deborah Middleton, Stephen J Kent, Darryl Maher
Influenza is a highly contagious, acute, febrile respiratory infection that can have fatal consequences particularly in individuals with chronic illnesses. Sporadic reports suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be efficacious in the influenza setting. We investigated the potential of human IVIg to ameliorate influenza infection in ferrets exposed to either the pandemic H1N1/09 virus (pH1N1) or highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1). IVIg administered at the time of influenza virus exposure led to a significant reduction in lung viral load following pH1N1 challenge...
April 6, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382157/progress-of-small-molecular-inhibitors-in-the-development-of-anti-influenza-virus-agents
#7
REVIEW
Xiaoai Wu, Xiuli Wu, Qizheng Sun, Chunhui Zhang, Shengyong Yang, Lin Li, Zhiyun Jia
The influenza pandemic is a major threat to human health, and highly aggressive strains such as H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 have emphasized the need for therapeutic strategies to combat these pathogens. Influenza anti-viral agents, especially active small molecular inhibitors play important roles in controlling pandemics while vaccines are developed. Currently, only a few drugs, which function as influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors, are approved in clinical. However, the acquired resistance against current anti-influenza drugs and the emerging mutations of influenza virus itself remain the major challenging unmet medical needs for influenza treatment...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381580/development-of-an-alternative-modified-live-influenza-b-virus-vaccine
#8
Jefferson J S Santos, Courtney Finch, Troy Sutton, Adebimpe Obadan, Isabel Aguirre, Zhimin Wan, Diego Lopez, Ginger Geiger, Ana Silvia Gonzalez-Reiche, Lucas Ferreri, Daniel R Perez
Influenza B virus (IBV) is considered a major human pathogen, responsible for seasonal epidemics of acute respiratory illness. Two antigenically distinct IBV HA lineages co-circulate worldwide with little cross-reactivity between each other. Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIV) have been shown to provide improved cross-protective immune responses compared to inactivated vaccines by eliciting local mucosal immunity and systemic B cell and T cell-mediated memory responses. We have previously shown that incorporation of temperature sensitive (ts) mutations in the PB1 and PB2 subunits along with a modified HA epitope tag in the C-terminus of PB1 resulted in influenza A viruses (IAV) that are safe and effective as modified live attenuated (att) virus vaccines (IAV att)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364363/preface-emerging-viruses-from-early-detection-to-intervention
#9
Giuseppe Ippolito, Giovanni Rezza
In the last decades, several viruses emerged, as the consequence of cross-species passage from animal reservoirs to human being. Emerging infections always represent a significant challenge for public health system as knowledge about specific pathogens are generally little while and no/few effective interventions are available. In this volume we explored special aspects of emerging infectious diseases including: the application of the theory of focality of diseases to infective syndrome; the human-animal inter-face focusing on influenza; the role of bats as main reservoir of emerging and novel human pathogens; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemiology and clinical presentation; immediate impact on human health of the last Zika virus outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas; the role and potential application of animal models for the study of emerging infections, to improve disease knowledge and for developing therapeutic drugs during ongoing outbreak...
April 1, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353000/protection-of-chickens-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-challenge-with-recombinant-lactobacillus-plantarum-expressing-conserved-antigens
#10
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Shao-Hua Shi, Yu-Ying Liu, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Jian-Zhong Wang, Chun-Wei Shi, Yu-Bei Jing, Chun-Feng Wang
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is spreading worldwide and is a serious threat to the health of poultry and humans. In many countries, low pathogenic AIVs, such as H9N2, have become an enormous economic burden on the commercial poultry industry because they cause mild respiratory disease and decrease egg production. A recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum NC8 strain expressing NP-M1-DCpep from H9N2 AIV has been studied in a mouse model. However, it remains unknown whether this L. plantarum strain can induce an immune response and provide protection against H9N2 AIV in chickens...
March 29, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331080/evaluation-of-the-immune-responses-to-and-cross-protective-efficacy-of-eurasian-h7-avian-influenza-viruses
#11
Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Min-Suk Song, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Byung-Min Song, Youn-Jeong Lee, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim, Young Ki Choi
Due to increasing concerns of human infection by various H7 viruses, including recent H7N9 viruses, we evaluated the genetic relationships and the cross-protective efficacies of three different Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses. Phylogenic and molecular analysis revealed that recent Eurasian H7 viruses can be separated into two different lineages with relatively high amino acid identity within groups (94.8 to 98.8%), and low amino acid identity (90.3 to 92.6 %) between the groups. In vivo immunization with representatives of each group revealed that while group-specific cross-reactivity was induced, cross-reactive HI titers were approximately fourfold lower against heterologous group viruses compared to homologous group viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328962/the-blood-dna-virome-in-8-000-humans
#12
Ahmed Moustafa, Chao Xie, Ewen Kirkness, William Biggs, Emily Wong, Yaron Turpaz, Kenneth Bloom, Eric Delwart, Karen E Nelson, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
The characterization of the blood virome is important for the safety of blood-derived transfusion products, and for the identification of emerging pathogens. We explored non-human sequence data from whole-genome sequencing of blood from 8,240 individuals, none of whom were ascertained for any infectious disease. Viral sequences were extracted from the pool of sequence reads that did not map to the human reference genome. Analyses sifted through close to 1 Petabyte of sequence data and performed 0.5 trillion similarity searches...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322309/multiplex-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-coupled-with-cascade-invasive-reaction-and-nanoparticle-hybridization-for-subtyping-of-influenza-a-virus
#13
Ying Chi, Yiyue Ge, Kangchen Zhao, Bingjie Zou, Bin Liu, Xian Qi, Qian Bian, Zhiyang Shi, Fengcai Zhu, Minghao Zhou, Lunbiao Cui, Chuan Su
Considering the fatal human victims and economic loss caused by influenza virus infection every year, methodologies for rapid and on-site detection of influenza viruses are urgently needed. LAMP is the most commonly used nucleic acid isothermal amplification technology suitable for on-site use. However, for multiplex LAMP, differentiation of the amplicons derived from multiple targets is still challengeable currently. Here we developed a multiplex RT-LAMP assay for simultaneous amplification of three prominent subtypes of influenza viruses (A/H5, A/H7 and 2009A/H1)...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303960/the-immune-correlates-of-protection-for-an-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccine-in-the-ferret-model-using-oil-in-water-adjuvants
#14
Sook-San Wong, Susu Duan, Jennifer DeBeauchamp, Mark Zanin, Lisa Kercher, Stephanie Sonnberg, Thomas Fabrizio, Trushar Jeevan, Jeri-Carol Crumpton, Christine Oshansky, Yilun Sun, Li Tang, Paul Thomas, Richard Webby
Because of the pathogenicity and low incidence of avian influenza virus infections in humans, the immune correlates of protection for avian influenza vaccines cannot be determined from clinical studies. Here, we used the ferret model to address this for an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine. Using oil-in-water adjuvants, we generated groups of ferrets with undetectable (geometric mean titer [GMT] < 10), low (GMT = 28.3), or high (GMT > 761.1) hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) titers to the A/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301280/panblok-h1-advax-h1n1-2009pdm-vaccine-insights-into-rapid-development-of-an-delta-inulin-adjuvanted-recombinant-pandemic-influenza-vaccine
#15
Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Harinda Rajapaksha, Dimitar Sajkov, David Gordon, Manon M J Cox, Nikolai Petrovsky
Timely vaccine supply is critical during influenza pandemics but is impeded by current virus-based manufacturing methods. The 2009 H1N1/2009pdm 'swine flu' pandemic reinforced the need for innovation in pandemic vaccine design. We report on insights gained during rapid development of a pandemic vaccine based on recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (Panblok-H1/Advax). Panblok-H1/Advax was designed and manufactured within 1 month of the pandemic declaration by WHO and successfully entered human clinical testing in under 3 months from first isolation and sequencing of the novel pandemic virus, requiring several major challenges to be overcome...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285982/evaluation-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-for-h1n1pdm09-and-type-b-viruses-based-on-a-replication-incompetent-pb2-ko-virus
#16
Hiroki Ui, Seiya Yamayoshi, Ryuta Uraki, Maki Kiso, Kohei Oishi, Shin Murakami, Shigetaka Mimori, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Vaccination is the first line of protection against influenza virus infection in humans. Although inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines are available, each vaccine has drawbacks in terms of immunogenicity and safety. To overcome these issues, our group has developed a replication-incompetent PB2-knockout (PB2-KO) influenza virus that replicates only in PB2-expressing cells. Here we generated PB2-KO viruses possessing the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments from H1N1pdm09 or type B viruses and tested their vaccine potential...
March 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282375/a-human-judgment-approach-to-epidemiological-forecasting
#17
David C Farrow, Logan C Brooks, Sangwon Hyun, Ryan J Tibshirani, Donald S Burke, Roni Rosenfeld
Infectious diseases impose considerable burden on society, despite significant advances in technology and medicine over the past century. Advanced warning can be helpful in mitigating and preparing for an impending or ongoing epidemic. Historically, such a capability has lagged for many reasons, including in particular the uncertainty in the current state of the system and in the understanding of the processes that drive epidemic trajectories. Presently we have access to data, models, and computational resources that enable the development of epidemiological forecasting systems...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277797/strategies-to-induce-broadly-protective-antibody-responses-to-viral-glycoproteins
#18
F Krammer
Currently, several universal/broadly protective influenza virus vaccine candidates are under development. Many of these vaccines are based on strategies to induce protective antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins of antigenically and genetically diverse influenza viruses. These strategies might also be applicable to surface glycoproteins of a broad range of other important viral pathogens. Areas covered: Common strategies include sequential vaccination with divergent antigens, multivalent approaches, vaccination with glycan-modified antigens, vaccination with minimal antigens and vaccination with antigens that have centralized/optimized sequences...
March 17, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267619/protection-of-human-influenza-vaccines-against-a-reassortant-swine-influenza-virus-of-pandemic-h1n1-origin-using-a-pig-model
#19
Jirapat Arunorat, Nataya Charoenvisal, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Supattra Jittimanee, Panchan Sitthicharoenchai, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Pariwat Poolperm, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2...
February 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262734/continual-antigenic-diversification-in-china-leads-to-global-antigenic-complexity-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses
#20
Yousong Peng, Xiaodan Li, Hongbo Zhou, Aiping Wu, Libo Dong, Ye Zhang, Rongbao Gao, Hong Bo, Lei Yang, Dayan Wang, Xian Lin, Meilin Jin, Yuelong Shu, Taijiao Jiang
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus poses a significant potential threat to human society due to its wide spread and rapid evolution. In this study, we present a comprehensive antigenic map for HPAI H5N1 viruses including 218 newly sequenced isolates from diverse regions of mainland China, by computationally separating almost all HPAI H5N1 viruses into 15 major antigenic clusters (ACs) based on their hemagglutinin sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 12 of these 15 ACs originated in China in a divergent pattern...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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