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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680576/development-of-next-generation-hemagglutinin-based-broadly-protective-influenza-virus-vaccines
#1
REVIEW
Raffael Nachbagauer, Peter Palese
Influenza viruses are a severe threat to human health and current vaccines do not provide sufficient protection. The highly variable nature of influenza viruses has made the production of efficacious vaccines a challenge. In recent years, a multitude of novel, broadly reactive influenza virus vaccination approaches have been described. What has long seemed impossible could now become reality in the near future-a new generation of influenza virus vaccines that provides long-lasting and broad protection against seasonal as well as potentially pandemic influenza virus strains...
April 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670610/neonatal-immunization-rationale-current-state-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth Whittaker, David Goldblatt, Peter McIntyre, Ofer Levy
Infections take their greatest toll in early life necessitating robust approaches to protect the very young. Here, we review the rationale, current state, and future research directions for one such approach: neonatal immunization. Challenges to neonatal immunization include natural concern about safety as well as a distinct neonatal immune system that is generally polarized against Th1 responses to many stimuli such that some vaccines that are effective in adults are not in newborns. Nevertheless, neonatal immunization could result in high-population penetration as birth is a reliable point of healthcare contact, and offers an opportunity for early protection of the young, including preterm newborns who are deficient in maternal antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625056/influenza-infection-in-humans-induces-broadly-cross-reactive-and-protective-neuraminidase-reactive-antibodies
#3
Yao-Qing Chen, Teddy John Wohlbold, Nai-Ying Zheng, Min Huang, Yunping Huang, Karlynn E Neu, Jiwon Lee, Hongquan Wan, Karla Thatcher Rojas, Ericka Kirkpatrick, Carole Henry, Anna-Karin E Palm, Christopher T Stamper, Linda Yu-Ling Lan, David J Topham, John Treanor, Jens Wrammert, Rafi Ahmed, Maryna C Eichelberger, George Georgiou, Florian Krammer, Patrick C Wilson
Antibodies to the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins are the major mediators of protection against influenza virus infection. Here, we report that current influenza vaccines poorly display key NA epitopes and rarely induce NA-reactive B cells. Conversely, influenza virus infection induces NA-reactive B cells at a frequency that approaches (H1N1) or exceeds (H3N2) that of HA-reactive B cells. NA-reactive antibodies display broad binding activity spanning the entire history of influenza A virus circulation in humans, including the original pandemic strains of both H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes...
April 5, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617693/the-protective-effects-of-the-a-zju01-pr8-2013-split-h7n9-avian-influenza-vaccine-against-highly-pathogenic-h7n9-in-balb-c-mice
#4
Xiao-Xin Wu, Xi-Long Deng, Dong-Shan Yu, Wei Yao, Hui-Lin Ou, Tian-Hao Weng, Chen-Yu Hu, Feng-Yu Hu, Nan-Ping Wu, Hangping Yao, Fu-Chun Zhang, Lan-Juan Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Since the first case of novel H7N9 infection was reported, China has experienced five epidemics of H7N9. During the fifth wave, a highly pathogenic H7N9 strain emerged. In order to assess whether the H7N9 vaccine based on A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) was effective in protecting against highly pathogenic H7N9, we conducted this study. METHODS: Groups of mice were immunized twice by intraperitoneal injection with 500 µl of either split vaccine alone or MF59-adjuvanted vaccine...
March 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609164/aptamer-selection-and-application-in-multivalent-binding-based-electrical-impedance-detection-of-inactivated-h1n1-virus
#5
Chenjun Bai, Zhangwei Lu, Hua Jiang, Zihua Yang, Xuemei Liu, Hongmei Ding, Hui Li, Jie Dong, Aixue Huang, Tao Fang, Yongqiang Jiang, Lingling Zhu, Xinhui Lou, Shaohua Li, Ningsheng Shao
The type A influenza viruses are the most virulent and variable human pathogens with epidemic or even pandemic threat. The development of sensitive, specific and safe field testing methods is in particular need and quite challenging. We report here the selection and practical utilization of the inactivated influenza virus-specific aptamers. The DNA aptamers against inactivated intact H1N1 virus particles were identified through the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) procedure...
March 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604600/toward-universal-influenza-virus-vaccines-from-natural-infection-to-vaccination-strategy
#6
REVIEW
Chen Zhao, Jianqing Xu
Conceptually, a universal influenza vaccine should elicit broadly protective antibody responses targeting highly conserved epitope(s) shared by various virus strains. Strategically directing antibody immunity to the conserved hemagglutinin stalk has recently emerged as a promising approach that is substantiated by the identification of naturally occurring, stalk-reactive human antibodies capable of conferring broad protection against influenza virus challenge in animal models. Despite all the advancements, future realization of this strategy still faces many challenges, particularly whether it is able to induce enough of cross-reactive antibody response to protect against pandemic viruses...
March 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599502/immunogenicity-and-protection-against-influenza-h7n3-in-mice-by-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-vectors-expressing-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-or-neuraminidase
#7
Clement A Meseda, Vajini Atukorale, Jackeline Soto, Maryna C Eichelberger, Jin Gao, Wei Wang, Carol D Weiss, Jerry P Weir
Influenza subtypes such as H7 have pandemic potential since they are able to infect humans with severe consequences, as evidenced by the ongoing H7N9 infections in China that began in 2013. The diversity of H7 viruses calls for a broadly cross-protective vaccine for protection. We describe the construction of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) from three H7 viruses representing both Eurasian and North American H7 lineages - A/mallard/Netherlands/12/2000 (H7N3), A/Canada/rv444/2004 (H7N3), and A/Shanghai/02/2013 (H7N9)...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593719/human-milk-oligosaccharide-2-fucosyllactose-improves-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-an-influenza-specific-murine-vaccination-model
#8
Ling Xiao, Thea Leusink-Muis, Nienke Kettelarij, Ingrid van Ark, Bernadet Blijenberg, Nienke A Hesen, Bernd Stahl, Saskia A Overbeek, Johan Garssen, Gert Folkerts, Belinda Van't Land
Background: Human milk is uniquely suited to provide optimal nutrition and immune protection to infants. Human milk oligosaccharides are structural complex and diverse consisting of short chain and long chain oligosaccharides typically present in a 9:1 ratio. 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'FL) is one of the most prominent short chain oligosaccharides and is associated with anti-infective capacity of human milk. Aim: To determine the effect of 2'FL on vaccination responsiveness (both innate and adaptive) in a murine influenza vaccination model and elucidate mechanisms involved...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592895/kinetic-modeling-of-virus-growth-in-cells
#9
REVIEW
John Yin, Jacob Redovich
When a virus infects a host cell, it hijacks the biosynthetic capacity of the cell to produce virus progeny, a process that may take less than an hour or more than a week. The overall time required for a virus to reproduce depends collectively on the rates of multiple steps in the infection process, including initial binding of the virus particle to the surface of the cell, virus internalization and release of the viral genome within the cell, decoding of the genome to make viral proteins, replication of the genome, assembly of progeny virus particles, and release of these particles into the extracellular environment...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563292/activation-and-induction-of-antigen-specific-t-follicular-helper-cells-t-fh-play-a-critical-role-in-laiv-induced-human-mucosal-anti-influenza-antibody-response
#10
Abdullah Aljurayyan, Suttida Puksuriwong, Muhammad Ahmed, Ravi Sharma, Madhan Krishnan, Salil Sood, Katherine Davies, Devika Rajashekar, Sam Leong, Paul S McNamara, Stephen Gordon, Qibo Zhang
There is increasing interest recently in developing intranasal vaccines against respiratory tract infections. Antibody response is critical in vaccine-induced protection and TFH is considered important in mediating antibody response. Most data supporting the role for TFH in antibody response are from animal studies, and direct evidence from humans is limited, apart from TFH -like cells in blood. We studied activation and induction of TFH and its role on anti-influenza antibody response by live-attenuated influenza vaccine(LAIV) in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue(NALT)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562878/predicting-risk-of-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-in-egypt-the-creation-of-a-community-level-metric
#11
Ellen C L Geerlings, Claire Heffernan
BACKGROUND: Efficient A(H5N1) control is unlikely to be based on epidemiological data alone. Such control depends on a thorough understanding and appreciation of the interconnectedness of epidemiological, social, and economic factors that contribute to A(H5N1) vulnerability. To date, the control of A(H5N1) in Egypt has been challenging. The disease has been endemic for more than 10 years with a dramatic increase in human cases between December 2014 and March 2015. Part of the problem has been a lack of understanding of the inter-play of drivers, conditions and motives that influence preventive behaviours at the household level...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555783/secondhand-smoke-induces-inflammation-and-impairs-immunity-to-respiratory-infections
#12
Tariq A Bhat, Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Paul N Bogner, Austin Miller, Paul V Lehmann, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Yasmin Thanavala
Despite advocacy to reduce smoking-related diseases, >1 billion people worldwide continue to smoke. Smoking is immunosuppressive and an important etiological factor in the development of several human disorders including respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is a critical gap in the knowledge of the role of secondhand smoke (SHS) in inflammation and immunity. We therefore studied the influence of SHS on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses to respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) recurrently found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540597/antigenically-diverse-swine-origin-h1n1-variant-influenza-viruses-exhibit-differential-ferret-pathogenesis-and-transmission-phenotypes
#13
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531320/a-highly-potent-and-broadly-neutralizing-h1-influenza-specific-human-monoclonal-antibody
#14
Aitor Nogales, Michael S Piepenbrink, Jiong Wang, Sandra Ortega, Madhubanti Basu, Christopher F Fucile, John J Treanor, Alexander F Rosenberg, Martin S Zand, Michael C Keefer, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, James J Kobie
Influenza's propensity for antigenic drift and shift, and to elicit predominantly strain specific antibodies (Abs) leaves humanity susceptible to waves of new strains with pandemic potential for which limited or no immunity may exist. Subsequently new clinical interventions are needed. To identify hemagglutinin (HA) epitopes that if targeted may confer universally protective humoral immunity, we examined plasmablasts from a subject that was immunized with the seasonal influenza inactivated vaccine, and isolated a human monoclonal Ab (mAb), KPF1...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528337/peptide-mimic-for-influenza-vaccination-using-nonnatural-combinatorial-chemistry
#15
John J Miles, Mai Ping Tan, Garry Dolton, Emily Sj Edwards, Sarah Ae Galloway, Bruno Laugel, Mathew Clement, Julia Makinde, Kristin Ladell, Katherine K Matthews, Thomas S Watkins, Katie Tungatt, Yide Wong, Han Siean Lee, Richard J Clark, Johanne M Pentier, Meriem Attaf, Anya Lissina, Ann Ager, Awen Gallimore, Pierre J Rizkallah, Stephanie Gras, Jamie Rossjohn, Scott R Burrows, David K Cole, David A Price, Andrew K Sewell
Polypeptide vaccines effectively activate human T cells but suffer from poor biological stability, which confines both transport logistics and in vivo therapeutic activity. Synthetic biology has the potential to address these limitations through the generation of highly stable antigenic "mimics" using subunits that do not exist in the natural world. We developed a platform based on D-amino acid combinatorial chemistry and used this platform to reverse engineer a fully artificial CD8+ T cell agonist that mirrored the immunogenicity profile of a native epitope blueprint from influenza virus...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522999/bacillus-licheniformis-in-geogenic-dust-induces-inflammation-in-respiratory-epithelium
#16
Janessa Pickering, Teck Hui Teo, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Graeme R Zosky, Holly D Clifford
Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter < 10 µm (PM10 ) is the component of air pollution that is commonly associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522492/challenge-for-one-health-co-circulation-of-zoonotic-h5n1-and-h9n2-avian-influenza-viruses-in-egypt
#17
REVIEW
Shin-Hee Kim
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514906/a-dna-vaccine-expressing-consensus-hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion-protein-protected-guinea-pigs-from-infection-by-two-lineages-of-influenza-d-virus
#18
Yanmin Wan, Guobin Kang, Chithra Sreenivasan, Lance Daharsh, Junfeng Zhang, Wenjin Fan, Dan Wang, Hideaki Moriyama, Feng Li, Qingsheng Li
Two lineages of Influenza D virus (IDV) have been found to infect cattle and promote bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality within the cattle industry. Furthermore, IDV can infect other economically important domestic livestock including pigs and has the potential to infect humans, which necessitates the need for an efficacious vaccine. In this study, we designed a DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein (FluD-Vax) and tested its protective efficacy against two lineages of IDV (D/OK and D/660) in guinea pigs...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506911/results-from-the-second-year-of-a-collaborative-effort-to-forecast-influenza-seasons-in-the-united-states
#19
Matthew Biggerstaff, Michael Johansson, David Alper, Logan C Brooks, Prithwish Chakraborty, David C Farrow, Sangwon Hyun, Sasikiran Kandula, Craig McGowan, Naren Ramakrishnan, Roni Rosenfeld, Jeffrey Shaman, Rob Tibshirani, Ryan J Tibshirani, Alessandro Vespignani, Wan Yang, Qian Zhang, Carrie Reed
Accurate forecasts could enable more informed public health decisions. Since 2013, CDC has worked with external researchers to improve influenza forecasts by coordinating seasonal challenges for the United States and the 10 Health and Human Service Regions. Forecasted targets for the 2014-15 challenge were the onset week, peak week, and peak intensity of the season and the weekly percent of outpatient visits due to influenza-like illness (ILI) 1-4 weeks in advance. We used a logarithmic scoring rule to score the weekly forecasts, averaged the scores over an evaluation period, and then exponentiated the resulting logarithmic score...
February 24, 2018: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503113/h5n2-vaccine-viruses-on-russian-and-us-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-backbones-demonstrate-similar-infectivity-immunogenicity-and-protection-in-ferrets
#20
Rita Czakó, Leatrice Vogel, Troy Sutton, Yumiko Matsuoka, Florian Krammer, Zhongying Chen, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao
The continued detection of zoonotic influenza infections, most notably due to the avian influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes, underscores the need for pandemic preparedness. Decades of experience with live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) for the control of seasonal influenza support the safety and effectiveness of this vaccine platform. All LAIV candidates are derived from one of two licensed master donor viruses (MDVs), cold-adapted (ca) A/Ann Arbor/6/60 or ca A/Leningrad/134/17/57. A number of LAIV candidates targeting avian H5 influenza viruses derived with each MDV have been evaluated in humans, but have differed in their infectivity and immunogenicity...
March 1, 2018: Vaccine
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