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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936463/virus-like-particles-displaying-h5-h7-h9-hemagglutinins-and-n1-neuraminidase-elicit-protective-immunity-to-heterologous-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chickens
#1
Peter Pushko, Irina Tretyakova, Rachmat Hidajat, Aniko Zsak, Klaudia Chrzastek, Terrence M Tumpey, Darrell R Kapczynski
Avian influenza (AI) viruses circulating in wild birds pose a serious threat to public health. Human and veterinary vaccines against AI subtypes are needed. Here we prepared triple-subtype VLPs that co-localized H5, H7 and H9 antigens derived from H5N1, H7N3 and H9N2 viruses. VLPs also contained influenza N1 neuraminidase and retroviral gag protein. The H5/H7/H9/N1/gag VLPs were prepared using baculovirus expression. Biochemical, functional and antigenic characteristics were determined including hemagglutination and neuraminidase enzyme activities...
December 6, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929449/reviewing-the-history-of-pandemic-influenza-understanding-patterns-of-emergence-and-transmission
#2
REVIEW
Patrick R Saunders-Hastings, Daniel Krewski
For centuries, novel strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, causing widespread illness, death, and disruption. There have been four influenza pandemics in the past hundred years. During this time, globalization processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced. Drawing on international case studies, this paper provides a review of the impact of past influenza pandemics, while examining the evolution of our understanding of, and response to, these viruses...
December 6, 2016: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#3
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910264/vaccination-against-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-reduces-bronchus-associated-lymphoid-tissue-formation-in-cynomolgus-macaques-after-intranasal-virus-challenge-infection
#4
Misako Nakayama, Hiroichi Ozaki, Yasushi Itoh, Kosuke Soda, Hirohito Ishigaki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Chun-Ho Park, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara
H9N2 avian influenza virus causes sporadic human infection. Since humans do not possess acquired immunity specific to this virus, we examined the pathogenicity of an H9N2 virus isolated from a human and then analyzed protective effects of a vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. After intranasal challenge with A/Hong Kong/1073/1999 (H9N2) (HK1073) isolated from a human patient, viruses were isolated from nasal and tracheal swabs in unvaccinated macaques with mild fever and body weight loss. A formalin-inactivated H9N2 whole particle vaccine derived from our virus library was subcutaneously inoculated to macaques...
December 2016: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#5
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#6
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894719/structural-based-designed-modular-capsomere-comprising-ha1-for-low-cost-poultry-influenza-vaccination
#7
Jarurin Waneesorn, Nani Wibowo, John Bingham, Anton P J Middelberg, Linda H L Lua
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause a severe and lethal infection in domestic birds. The increasing number of HPAI outbreaks has demonstrated the lack of capabilities to control the rapid spread of avian influenza. Poultry vaccination has been shown to not only reduce the virus spread in animals but also reduce the virus transmission to humans, preventing potential pandemic development. However, existing vaccine technologies cannot respond to a new virus outbreak rapidly and at a cost and scale that is commercially viable for poultry vaccination...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888461/inhibitory-effects-of-bee-venom-and-its-components-against-viruses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Md Bashir Uddin, Byeong-Hoon Lee, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Choul Goo Kim, Jong-Soo Lee, Chul-Joong Kim
Bee venom (BV) from honey bee (Apis Melifera L.) contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including melittin (MLT), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and apamin etc. BV is safe for human treatments dose dependently and proven to possess different healing properties including antibacterial and antiparasitidal properties. Nevertheless, antiviral properties of BV have not well investigated. Hence, we identified the potential antiviral properties of BV and its component against a broad panel of viruses. Co-incubation of non-cytotoxic amounts of BV and MLT, the main component of BV, significantly inhibited the replication of enveloped viruses such as Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883012/immune-signatures-of-protective-spleen-memory-cd8-t-cells
#9
Lilia Brinza, Sophia Djebali, Martine Tomkowiak, Julien Mafille, Céline Loiseau, Pierre-Emmanuel Jouve, Simon de Bernard, Laurent Buffat, Bruno Lina, Michèle Ottmann, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Stéphane Schicklin, Nathalie Bonnefoy, Grégoire Lauvau, Morgan Grau, Mélanie Wencker, Christophe Arpin, Thierry Walzer, Yann Leverrier, Jacqueline Marvel
Memory CD8 T lymphocyte populations are remarkably heterogeneous and differ in their ability to protect the host. In order to identify the whole range of qualities uniquely associated with protective memory cells we compared the gene expression signatures of two qualities of memory CD8 T cells sharing the same antigenic-specificity: protective (Influenza-induced, Flu-TM) and non-protective (peptide-induced, TIM) spleen memory CD8 T cells. Although Flu-TM and TIM express classical phenotypic memory markers and are polyfunctional, only Flu-TM protects against a lethal viral challenge...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834632/viral-factors-in-influenza-pandemic-risk-assessment
#10
Marc Lipsitch, Wendy Barclay, Rahul Raman, Charles J Russell, Jessica A Belser, Sarah Cobey, Peter M Kasson, James O Lloyd-Smith, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Steven Riley, Catherine Aa Beauchemin, Trevor Bedford, Thomas C Friedrich, Andreas Handel, Sander Herfst, Pablo R Murcia, Benjamin Roche, Claus O Wilke, Colin A Russell
The threat of an influenza A virus pandemic stems from continual virus spillovers from reservoir species, a tiny fraction of which spark sustained transmission in humans. To date, no pandemic emergence of a new influenza strain has been preceded by detection of a closely related precursor in an animal or human. Nonetheless, influenza surveillance efforts are expanding, prompting a need for tools to assess the pandemic risk posed by a detected virus. The goal would be to use genetic sequence and/or biological assays of viral traits to identify those non-human influenza viruses with the greatest risk of evolving into pandemic threats, and/or to understand drivers of such evolution, to prioritize pandemic prevention or response measures...
November 11, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825980/expression-and-purification-of-native-and-functional-influenza-a-virus-matrix-2-proton-selective-ion-channel
#11
Elodie Desuzinges Mandon, Aurélien Traversier, Anne Champagne, Lorraine Benier, Stéphane Audebert, Sébastien Balme, Emmanuel Dejean, Manuel Rosa Calatrava, Anass Jawhari
Influenza A virus displays one of the highest infection rates of all human viruses and therefore represents a severe human health threat associated with an important economical challenge. Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is a membrane protein of the viral envelope that forms a proton selective ion channel. Here we report the expression and native isolation of full length active M2 without mutations or fusions. The ability of the influenza virus to efficiently infect MDCK cells was used to express native M2 protein...
November 5, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820605/molecular-level-analysis-of-the-serum-antibody-repertoire-in-young-adults-before-and-after-seasonal-influenza-vaccination
#12
Jiwon Lee, Daniel R Boutz, Veronika Chromikova, M Gordon Joyce, Christopher Vollmers, Kwanyee Leung, Andrew P Horton, Brandon J DeKosky, Chang-Han Lee, Jason J Lavinder, Ellen M Murrin, Constantine Chrysostomou, Kam Hon Hoi, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Paul V Thomas, Aliaksandr Druz, Baoshan Zhang, Yi Zhang, Lingshu Wang, Wing-Pui Kong, Daechan Park, Lyubov I Popova, Cornelia L Dekker, Mark M Davis, Chalise E Carter, Ted M Ross, Andrew D Ellington, Patrick C Wilson, Edward M Marcotte, John R Mascola, Gregory C Ippolito, Florian Krammer, Stephen R Quake, Peter D Kwong, George Georgiou
Molecular understanding of serological immunity to influenza has been confounded by the complexity of the polyclonal antibody response in humans. Here we used high-resolution proteomics analysis of immunoglobulin (referred to as Ig-seq) coupled with high-throughput sequencing of transcripts encoding B cell receptors (BCR-seq) to quantitatively determine the antibody repertoire at the individual clonotype level in the sera of young adults before and after vaccination with trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine...
December 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795434/clec5a-mediated-enhancement-of-the-inflammatory-response-in-myeloid-cells-contributes-to-influenza-pathogenicity-in-vivo
#13
Ooiean Teng, Szu-Ting Chen, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Sin Fun Sia, Suzanne Cole, Sophie A Valkenburg, Tzu-Yun Hsu, Jian Teddy Zheng, Wenwei Tu, Roberto Bruzzone, Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Hui-Ling Yen
: Human infections with influenza viruses exhibit mild to severe clinical outcome as a result of complex virus-host interactions. Induction of inflammatory mediators via pattern recognition receptors may dictate subsequent host responses for pathogen clearance and tissue damage. We identified that human C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) interacts with the hemagglutinin protein of influenza viruses expressed on lentiviral pseudoparticles through lectin screening. Silencing CLEC5A gene expression, blocking influenza-CLEC5A interactions with anti-CLEC5A antibodies, or dampening CLEC5A-mediated signaling using a spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor consistently reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by human macrophages without affecting the replication of influenza A viruses of different subtypes...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775724/nanostructured-glycan-architecture-is-important-in-the-inhibition-of-influenza-a-virus-infection
#14
Seok-Joon Kwon, Dong Hee Na, Jong Hwan Kwak, Marc Douaisi, Fuming Zhang, Eun Ji Park, Jong-Hwan Park, Hana Youn, Chang-Seon Song, Ravi S Kane, Jonathan S Dordick, Kyung Bok Lee, Robert J Linhardt
Rapid change and zoonotic transmission to humans have enhanced the virulence of the influenza A virus (IAV). Neutralizing antibodies fail to provide lasting protection from seasonal epidemics. Furthermore, the effectiveness of anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitors has declined because of drug resistance. Drugs that can block viral attachment and cell entry independent of antigenic evolution or drug resistance might address these problems. We show that multivalent 6'-sialyllactose-polyamidoamine (6SL-PAMAM) conjugates, when designed to have well-defined ligand valencies and spacings, can effectively inhibit IAV infection...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775159/a-dual-purpose-universal-influenza-vaccine-candidate-confers-protective-immunity-against-anthrax
#15
Maria T Arévalo, Junwei Li, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Yanping Chen, Ashley Navarro, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Mingtao Zeng
Preventative influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of 3 tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax edema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768888/genetic-adaptation-and-neandertal-admixture-shaped-the-immune-system-of-human-populations
#16
Hélène Quach, Maxime Rotival, Julien Pothlichet, Yong-Hwee Eddie Loh, Michael Dannemann, Nora Zidane, Guillaume Laval, Etienne Patin, Christine Harmant, Marie Lopez, Matthieu Deschamps, Nadia Naffakh, Darragh Duffy, Anja Coen, Geert Leroux-Roels, Frederic Clément, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Janet Kelso, Matthew L Albert, Lluis Quintana-Murci
Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs)...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729175/mutations-in-the-haemagglutinin-protein-and-their-effect-in-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n1-virus-in-sub-optimally-vaccinated-chickens
#17
Ioannis Sitaras, Xanthoula Rousou, Ben Peeters, Mart C M de Jong
BACKGROUND: Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry flocks is associated with huge economic losses, culling of millions of birds, as well as human infections and deaths. In the cases where vaccination against avian influenza is used as a control measure, it has been found to be ineffective in preventing transmission of field strains. Reports suggest that one of the reasons for this is the use of vaccine doses much lower than the ones recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in very low levels of immunity...
October 8, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716352/integrating-one-health-in-national-health-policies-of-developing-countries-india-s-lost-opportunities
#18
Pranab Chatterjee, Manish Kakkar, Sanjay Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Globally, the threat of infectious diseases, particularly emerging infectious diseases, originating at the human-animal-environment interface, has caught health systems off guard. With forecasts that future pathogen emergence will be centred in hotspots in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the need to prepare policy frameworks that can combat this threat is urgent. DISCUSSION: Emergence of diseases such as avian influenza and Ebola virus disease, which threatened social disruption, have established the need for intersectoral coordination/collaboration...
October 3, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713074/an-influenza-a-virus-h7n9-anti-neuraminidase-monoclonal-antibody-with-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-activity-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Jason R Wilson, Zhu Guo, Adrian Reber, Ram P Kamal, Nedzad Music, Shane Gansebom, Yaohui Bai, Min Levine, Paul Carney, Wen-Pin Tzeng, James Stevens, Ian A York
Zoonotic A(H7N9) avian influenza viruses emerged in China in 2013 and continue to be a threat to human public health, having infected over 800 individuals with a mortality rate approaching 40%. Treatment options for people infected with A(H7N9) include the use of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. However, like other influenza viruses, A(H7N9) can become resistant to these drugs. The use of monoclonal antibodies is a rapidly developing strategy for controlling influenza virus infection. Here we generated a murine monoclonal antibody (3c10-3) directed against the NA of A(H7N9) and show that prophylactic systemic administration of 3c10-3 fully protected mice from lethal challenge with wild-type A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9)...
October 3, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709401/construction-of-a-recombinant-duck-enteritis-virus-vaccine-expressing-hemagglutinin-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-and-evaluation-of-its-efficacy-in-ducks
#20
Ying Sun, Chenghuai Yang, Junping Li, Ling Li, Minghui Cao, Qihong Li, Huijiao Li
H9 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) remain a significant burden in the poultry industry and are considered to be one of the most likely causes of any new influenza pandemic in humans. As ducks play an important role in the maintenance of H9 viruses in nature, successful control of the spread of H9 AIVs in ducks will have significant beneficial effects on public health. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) may be a promising candidate viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination. In this study, we constructed a recombinant DEV, rDEV-∆UL2-HA, inserting the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from duck-origin H9N2 AIV into the UL2 gene by homologous recombination...
October 5, 2016: Archives of Virology
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