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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223787/a-novel-peptide-based-vaccine-candidate-with-protective-efficacy-against-influenza-a-in-a-mouse-model
#1
José Herrera-Rodriguez, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hubert G Niesters, Grete Stjernholm, Arnt-Ove Hovden, Birger Sørensen, Mats Ökvist, Maja A Sommerfelt, Anke Huckriede
Current influenza vaccines mainly induce antibody responses to the variable hemagglutinin proteins of the virus strains included in the vaccine. Instead, a broadly protective influenza vaccine should aim at inducing antibody- and/or cell-mediated immunity against conserved viral proteins. Vacc-FLU is a peptide based vaccine combining conserved B and T cell epitopes. Peptide selection was done using a proprietary peptide design platform technology focusing on responses to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted epitopes...
December 7, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190879/longevity-of-protective-immune-responses-induced-by-a-split-influenza-a-h7n9-vaccine-mixed-with-mf59-adjuvant-in-balb-c-mice
#2
Huilin Ou, Wei Yao, Dongshan Yu, Tianhao Weng, Frederick X C Wang, Xiaoxin Wu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Xiangyun Lu, Nanping Wu, Honglin Chen, Lanjuan Li, Hangping Yao
The influenza virus is a serious threat to public health worldwide. A novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus with a mortality rate of approximately 30% has been identified as an unusually dangerous virus for humans by the World Health Organization. Pathogenic H7N9 continue to represent a public health concern, and several candidate vaccines are currently in development. We generated candidate H7N9 vaccine strains using reverse genetics, consisting of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes derived from a human H7N9 virus and the remaining genes from the PR8 (A/PuertoRico/8/34 (H1N1)) virus...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167344/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-n9-neuraminidase-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-against-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-infection
#3
Hongquan Wan, Li Qi, Jin Gao, Laura K Couzens, Lianlian Jiang, Yamei Gao, Zong-Mei Sheng, Sharon Fong, Megan Hahn, Surender Khurana, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Maryna C Eichelberger
The fifth wave of A(H7N9) virus infection in China from 2016 to 2017 caused great concern due to the large number of individuals infected, the isolation of drug-resistant viruses and emergence of highly pathogenic strains. Antibodies against neuraminidase (NA) provide added benefit to hemagglutinin-specific immunity and may be an important contributor to the effectiveness of A(H7N9) vaccines. We generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to identify antigenic domains on NA of the novel A(H7N9) virus and compared their functional properties...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167342/antibodies-directed-towards-neuraminidase-n1-control-disease-in-a-mouse-model-of-influenza
#4
E R Job, M Schotsaert, L I Ibañez, A Smet, T Ysenbaert, K Roose, M Dai, C A M de Haan, H Kleanthous, T U Vogel, X Saelens
There is increasing evidence to suggest that antibodies directed towards influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) are an important correlate of protection against influenza in humans. Moreover, the potential of NA-specific antibodies to provide broader protection than conventional hemagglutinin (HA) antibodies has been recognized. Herein, we describe the isolation of two monoclonal antibodies, N1-7D3 and N1-C4, directed towards the N1 NA. N1-7D3 binds to a conserved linear epitope in the membrane distal, carboxy-terminal part of the NA and reacted with the NA of seasonal H1N1 isolates ranging from 1977 till 2007 the 2009 H1N1pdm virus as well as A/Vietnam/1194/04 (H5N1)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165783/after-action-review-of-the-2009-10-h1n1-influenza-outbreak-response-ohio-s-public-health-system-s-performance
#5
William A Mase, Beth Bickford, Casey L Thomas, Shamika D Jones, Michael Bisesi
OBJECTIVE: In early 2009, H1N1 influenza was identified within the human population. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) officials responded with focused assessment, policy development, and assurances. The response was mobilized through efforts including procurement of adequate vaccine supply, local area span of control, materials acquisition, and facilities and resource identification. METHODS: Qualitative evaluation of the assurance functions specific to the system's ability to assure safe and healthy conditions are reported...
September 2017: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162320/controlled-human-infections-a-report-from-the-controlled-human-infection-models-workshop-leiden-university-medical-centre-4-6-may-2016
#6
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131357/zika-virus-what-we-need-to-know
#7
REVIEW
Farakh Javed, Khanzadi N Manzoor, Mubashar Ali, Irshad U Haq, Abid A Khan, Assad Zaib, Sobia Manzoor
Zika virus is one of the emerging viruses and is of significant threat to human health globally. It is a mosquito borne flavivirus similar to dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. It was reported about 5 decades ago and then it spreads to different parts of the world. Large outbreaks were reported on Yap Islands in 2007. Now it has gained wide attention globally by health communities. Major vector for virus transmission is Aedes aegypti mosquito. ZIKV infection is mostly asymptomatic but it is also responsible to cause mild influenza like illness to serious manifestations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118117/a-y161f-hemagglutinin-substitution-increases-thermostability-and-improves-yields-of-2009-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-in-cells
#8
Feng Wen, Lei Li, Nan Zhao, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Jim Cooley, Richard Webby, Peng George Wang, Xiu-Feng Wan
Vaccination is the primary strategy for influenza prevention and control. Yet egg-based vaccines, the predominant production platform, have several disadvantages including the emergence of viral antigenic variants that can be induced during egg passage. These limitations have prompted development of cell-based vaccines which themselves are not without issue. Most importantly, vaccine seed viruses often do not grow efficiently in mammalian cell lines. Here we aimed to identify novel high-yield signatures for influenza viruses in continuous Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100705/broad-cross-protective-anti-hemagglutination-responses-elicited-by-influenza-microconsensus-dna-vaccine
#9
Jian Yan, Matthew P Morrow, Jaemi S Chu, Trina Racine, Charles C Reed, Amir S Khan, Kate E Broderick, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
Despite the routine development and distribution of seasonal influenza vaccines, influenza remains an important pathogen contributing to significant human morbidity as well as mortality each year. The seasonal variability of influenza creates a significant issue for vaccine development of seasonal strains that can afford protection from infection or disease based on serotype matching. It is appreciated that the globular head of the HA antigen contained in the vaccines generates antibodies that result in HAI activity that are a major correlates of the protection against a particular strain...
October 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098145/emerging-and-reemerging-diseases-in-the-world-health-organization-who-eastern-mediterranean-region-progress-challenges-and-who-initiatives
#10
REVIEW
Evans Buliva, Mohamed Elhakim, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Amgad Elkholy, Peter Mala, Abdinasir Abubakar, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097763/efficacy-of-an-adenoviral-vectored-multivalent-centralized-influenza-vaccine
#11
Amy Lingel, Brianna L Bullard, Eric A Weaver
Mice were immunized with Adenovirus expressing the H1-con, H2-con, H3-con and H5-con HA consensus genes in combination (multivalent) and compared to mice immunized with the traditional 2010-2011 FluZone and FluMist seasonal vaccines. Immunized mice were challenged with 10-100 MLD50 of H1N1, H3N1, H3N2 and H5N1 influenza viruses. The traditional vaccines induced robust levels of HA inhibition (HI) titers, but failed to protect against five different heterologous lethal influenza challenges. Conversely, the multivalent consensus vaccine (1 × 10(10) virus particles (vp)/mouse) induced protective HI titers of ≥40 against 8 of 10 influenza viruses that represent a wide degree of divergence within the HA subtypes and protected 100% of mice from 8 of 9 lethal heterologous influenza virus challenges...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089574/high-throughput-discovery-of-influenza-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-from-phage-displayed-synthetic-antibody-libraries
#12
Ing-Chien Chen, Yi-Kai Chiu, Chung-Ming Yu, Cheng-Chung Lee, Chao-Ping Tung, Yueh-Liang Tsou, Yi-Jen Huang, Chia-Lung Lin, Hong-Sen Chen, Andrew H-J Wang, An-Suei Yang
Pandemic and epidemic outbreaks of influenza A virus (IAV) infection pose severe challenges to human society. Passive immunotherapy with recombinant neutralizing antibodies can potentially mitigate the threats of IAV infection. With a high throughput neutralizing antibody discovery platform, we produced artificial anti-hemagglutinin (HA) IAV-neutralizing IgGs from phage-displayed synthetic scFv libraries without necessitating prior memory of antibody-antigen interactions or relying on affinity maturation essential for in vivo immune systems to generate highly specific neutralizing antibodies...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070858/soloxolone-methyl-inhibits-influenza-virus-replication-and-reduces-virus-induced-lung-inflammation
#13
Andrey V Markov, Alexandra V Sen'kova, Dawid Warszycki, Oksana V Salomatina, Nariman F Salakhutdinov, Marina A Zenkova, Evgeniya B Logashenko
Highly pathogenic influenza viruses pose a serious public health threat to humans. Although vaccines are available, new antivirals are needed to efficiently control disease progression and virus transmission due to the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. In this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of Soloxolone methyl (SM) (methyl 2-cyano-3,12-dioxo-18βH-olean-9(11),1(2)-dien-30-oate, a chemical derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid) against the flu virus. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that SM exhibits antiviral activity against the H1N1 influenza A virus in a dose-dependent manner causing a more than 10-fold decrease in virus titer and a reduction in the expression of NP and M2 viral proteins...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070700/evolution-informed-forecasting-of-seasonal-influenza-a-h3n2
#14
Xiangjun Du, Aaron A King, Robert J Woods, Mercedes Pascual
Interpandemic or seasonal influenza A, currently subtypes H3N2 and H1N1, exacts an enormous annual burden both in terms of human health and economic impact. Incidence prediction ahead of season remains a challenge largely because of the virus' antigenic evolution. We propose a forecasting approach that incorporates evolutionary change into a mechanistic epidemiological model. The proposed models are simple enough that their parameters can be estimated from retrospective surveillance data. These models link amino acid sequences of hemagglutinin epitopes with a transmission model for seasonal H3N2 influenza, also informed by H1N1 levels...
October 25, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066417/combined-aerosolized-toll-like-receptor-ligands-are-an-effective-therapeutic-agent-against-influenza-pneumonia-when-co-administered-with-oseltamivir
#15
Miguel M Leiva-Juarez, Carson T Kirkpatrick, Brian E Gilbert, Brenton Scott, Michael J Tuvim, Burton F Dickey, Scott E Evans, Diane Markesich
Influenza pneumonia remains a common and debilitating viral infection despite vaccination programs and antiviral agents developed for prophylaxis and treatment. The neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir is frequently prescribed for established influenza A virus infections, but the emergence of neuraminidase inhibitor resistant viruses, a brief therapeutic window and competing diagnoses complicate its use. PUL-042 is a clinical stage, aerosol drug comprised of synthetic ligands for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/6 and TLR 9...
October 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063498/inhibiting-influenza-virus-replication-and-inducing-protection-against-lethal-influenza-virus-challenge-through-chitosan-nanoparticles-loaded-by-sirna
#16
Abbas Jamali, Fatemeh Mottaghitalab, Asghar Abdoli, Meshkat Dinarvand, Aida Esmailie, Masoumeh Tavassoti Kheiri, Fatemeh Atyabi
Influenza virus causes a highly contagious viral respiratory tract infection with potentially fatal outcomes in humans and animals. There is now widespread influenza virus resistance to commercial drugs due to the genetic diversity of virus. Therefore, new therapeutic formulation needs to be developed. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were generated as a new therapeutic approach against influenza virus infections both in vitro and in vivo. Designed siRNA against influenza nucleoprotein was formulated in chitosan polymer as siRNA/chitosan nanoparticle complex...
October 23, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048990/site-specific-glycosylation-profile-of-influenza-a-h1n1-hemagglutinin-through-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#17
Esteban Cruz, Joel Cain, Ben Crossett, Veysel Kayser
The study of influenza virus evolution in humans has revealed a significant role of glycosylation profile alterations in the viral glycoproteins - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), in the emergence of both seasonal and pandemic strains. Viral antigenic drift can modify the number and location of glycosylation sites, altering a wide range of biological activities and the antigenic properties of the strain. In view of the key role of glycans in determining antigenicity, elucidating the glycosylation profiles of influenza strains is a requirement towards the development of improved vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046448/in-vitro-neutralization-is-not-predictive-of-prophylactic-efficacy-of-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-cr6261-and-cr9114-against-lethal-h2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice
#18
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Wouter Koudstaal, Muniza Rehman, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Jaap Goudsmit, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, anti-viral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1, and H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034314/targeting-an-oncolytic-influenza-a-virus-to-tumor-tissue-by-elastase
#19
Irina Kuznetsova, Tobias Arnold, Thomas Aschacher, Cornelia Schwager, Balazs Hegedus, Tamas Garay, Marina Stukova, Maria Pisareva, Stephan Pleschka, Michael Bergmann, Andrej Egorov
Oncolytic viruses are currently established as a novel type of immunotherapy. The challenge is to safely target oncolytic viruses to tumors. Previously, we have generated influenza A viruses (IAVs) containing deletions in the viral interferon antagonist. Those deletions have attenuated the virus in normal tissue but allowed replication in tumor cells. IAV entry is mediated by hemagglutinin (HA), which needs to be activated by a serine protease, for example, through trypsin. To further target the IAV to tumors, we have changed the trypsin cleavage site to an elastase cleavage site...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023601/adenovirus-vector-based-multi-epitope-vaccine-provides-partial-protection-against-h5-h7-and-h9-avian-influenza-viruses
#20
Ahmed O Hassan, Omar Amen, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Sai V Vemula, Samuel Amoah, Ian York, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal
The emergence of H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes in humans reveals their pandemic potential. Although human-to-human transmission has been limited, the genetic reassortment of the avian and human/porcine influenza viruses or mutations in some of the genes resulting in virus replication in the upper respiratory tract of humans could generate novel pandemic influenza viruses. Current vaccines do not provide cross protection against antigenically distinct strains of the H5, H7, and H9 influenza viruses...
2017: PloS One
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