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Sang-Yoon Kim, Woochang Lim
We consider the Watts-Strogatz small-world network (SWN) consisting of inhibitory fast spiking Izhikevich interneurons. This inhibitory neuronal population has adaptive dynamic synaptic strengths governed by the inhibitory spike-timing-dependent plasticity (iSTDP). In previous works without iSTDP, fast sparsely synchronized rhythms, associated with diverse cognitive functions, were found to appear in a range of large noise intensities for fixed strong synaptic inhibition strengths. Here, we investigate the effect of iSTDP on fast sparse synchronization (FSS) by varying the noise intensity D...
July 2, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Luise Weinrich, Mandy Sonntag, Thomas Arendt, Markus Morawski
The human auditory brainstem, especially the cochlear nucleus (CN) and the superior olivary complex (SOC) are characterized by a high density of neurons associated with perineuronal nets (PNs). PNs build a specific form of extracellular matrix surrounding the neuronal somata, proximal dendrites and axon initial segments. They restrict synaptic plasticity and control high-frequency synaptic activity, a prominent characteristic of neurons of the auditory brainstem. The distribution of PNs within the auditory brainstem has been investigated in a number of mammalian species...
July 10, 2018: Hearing Research
Yu-Hong Huang, Xue-Jing Huang, Xiao-Hong Chen, Quan-Ying Cai, Shaohua Chen, Ce-Hui Mo, Huixiong Lü, Ming-Hung Wong
Di-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used plasticizer, recalcitrant and hazardous organic compound with high detection frequencies and concentrations in water and soil that pose a great threat to human health. A novel endphytic bacterium strain N-1 capable of efficiently degrading DBP and utilizing it as sole carbon source was isolated from Ageratum conyzoides. This bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on its morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Under the optimal culture conditions (pH 7...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Philip J Sanders, Benjamin Thompson, Paul M Corballis, Michael Maslin, Grant D Searchfield
Long-term potentiation is a form of synaptic plasticity thought to play an important role in learning and memory. Recently non-invasive methods have been developed to induce and measure activity similar to long-term potentiation in humans. Sensory tetani (trains of quickly repeating auditory or visual stimuli) alter the electroencephalogram in a manner similar to electrical stimulation that results in long-term potentiation. This review briefly covers the development of long-term potentiation research before focusing on in vivo human studies that produce long-term potentiation-like effects using auditory and visual stimulation...
July 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Tess E den Uyl, Thomas E Gladwin, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Modifying attentional processes with attentional bias modification (ABM) might be a relevant add-on to treatment in addiction. This study investigated whether influencing cortical plasticity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could increase training effects. TDCS could also help alcohol-dependent patients to overcome craving and reduce relapse, independent of training. These approaches were combined to investigate effects in the treatment of alcoholism. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients (analytical sample=83) were randomly assigned to four groups in a two-by-two factorial design...
July 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Chad A Galloway, Sonal Dalvi, Audra M A Shadforth, Shuko Suzuki, Molly Wilson, David Kuai, Ali Hashim, Leslie A MacDonald, David M Gamm, Damien G Harkin, Ruchira Singh
Purpose: RPE cell transplantation as a potential treatment for AMD has been extensively investigated; however, in AMD, ultrastructural damage affects both the RPE and its underlying matrix support, the Bruch's membrane (BrM). An RPE monolayer supported by a surrogate scaffold could thus provide a more effective approach to cell-based therapy for AMD. Toward this goal, we aimed to establish a functional human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (hiPSC)-RPE monolayer on a Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BMSF) scaffold...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Balint Z Kacsoh, Julianna Bozler, Giovanni Bosco
Many species are able to share information about their environment by communicating through auditory, visual, and olfactory cues. In Drosophila melanogaster, exposure to parasitoid wasps leads to a decline in egg laying, and exposed females communicate this threat to naïve flies, which also depress egg laying. We find that species across the genus Drosophila respond to wasps by egg laying reduction, activate cleaved caspase in oocytes, and communicate the presence of wasps to naïve individuals. Communication within a species and between closely related species is efficient, while more distantly related species exhibit partial communication...
July 2018: PLoS Genetics
Adrienn Kazsoki, P Eacute Ter Szab Oacute, Attila Domján, Attila Balázs, Tamás Bozó, Miklós Kellermayer, Attila Farkas, Diána Balogh-Weiser, Balázs Pinke, András Darcsi, Szabolcs Béni, János Madarász, Lajos Szente, Romana Zelko
The electrospun nanofiber-based orally dissolving webs are promising candidates for rapid drug release, which is due to the high surface area to volume ratio of the fibers and the high amorphization efficacy of the fiber formation process. Although latter is responsible for the physical and/or chemical instability of these systems. The primary aim of the present study was to elucidate how the addition of polysorbate 80 (PS80) and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) influenced the electrospinning process, the properties and behavior of the obtained nanofibers...
July 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Nadhia H C Souza, Raquel A Mesquita-Ferrari, Maria Fernanda S D Rodrigues, Daniela F T da Silva, Beatriz G Ribeiro, Agnelo N Alves, Mónica P Garcia, Fábio D Nunes, Evaldo M da Silva Junior, Cristiane M França, Sandra K Bussadori, Kristianne P S Fernandes
Macrophages play a very important role in the conduction of several regenerative processes mainly due to their plasticity and multiple functions. In the muscle repair process, while M1 macrophages regulate the inflammatory and proliferative phases, M2 (anti-inflammatory) macrophages direct the differentiation and remodelling phases, leading to tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red and near infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) on macrophage phenotypes and correlate these findings with the repair process following acute muscle injury...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Hailong Fan, Jiahui Wang, Qiuya Zhang, Zhaoxia Jin
Adhesiveness of hydrogels depends on the balance and synergy of their cohesion and adhesion. However, it is a challenge to fabricate catechol-based hydrogels with high adhesiveness because the required condition for cohesion and adhesion of these hydrogels is in conflict with each other: strong cohesion (gelation) requires a weak basic condition, whereas strong adhesion requires an acidic condition. Here, we demonstrated that by utilizing polyphenol supramolecular chemistry, the coexistence of strong cohesion and adhesion can be achieved in a hydrogel via the one-pot method...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
Stephanie Wegener, Arne Buschler, A Vanessa Stempel, Sukjae J Kang, Chae-Seok Lim, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Sarah A Shoichet, Denise Manahan-Vaughan, Dietmar Schmitz
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic etiology. Since mutations in human SHANK genes have been found in patients with autism, genetic mouse models are used for a mechanistic understanding of ASDs and the development of therapeutic strategies. SHANKs are scaffold proteins in the postsynaptic density of mammalian excitatory synapses with proposed functions in synaptogenesis, regulation of dendritic spine morphology, and instruction of structural synaptic plasticity...
May 2018: ENeuro
E C D van der Stouwe, J T van Busschbach, B de Vries, W Cahn, A Aleman, G H M Pijnenborg
A body of evidence has revealed positive effects of physical exercise on behavioral, cognitive and physical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, the effect of exercise at the neural level may be particularly relevant as well as it is hypothesized that exercise may stimulate the brain in a way that might normalize neural alterations related to the disorder. The aim of the current systematic review was to provide an up to date overview of studies investigating the neural effects of exercise in individuals with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and healthy individuals...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Akira Nguyen, Weng Hua Khoo, Imogen Moran, Peter I Croucher, Tri Giang Phan
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) is transforming our ability to characterize cells, particularly rare cells that are often overlooked in bulk population analytical approaches. This has lead to the discovery of new cell types and cellular states that echo the underlying heterogeneity and plasticity in the immune system. Technologies for the capture, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis of single cells are rapidly improving, and scRNA-Seq is now becoming much more accessible to non-specialized laboratories...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Heejung Chun, Heeyoung An, Jiwoon Lim, Junsung Woo, Jaekwang Lee, Hoon Ryu, C Justin Lee
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and they make close contacts with neurons and blood vessels. They respond dynamically to various environmental stimuli and change their morphological and functional properties. Both physiological and pathological stimuli can induce versatile changes in astrocytes, as this phenomenon is referred to as 'astrocytic plasticity'. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of astrocytic plasticity in response to various stimuli remain elusive, except for the presence of hypertrophy, a conspicuous structural change which is frequently observed in activated or reactive astrocytes...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Hyun Geun Shim, Yong-Seok Lee, Sang Jeong Kim
What is memory? How does the brain process the sensory information and modify an organism's behavior? Many neuroscientists have focused on the activity- and experience-dependent modifications of synaptic functions in order to solve these fundamental questions in neuroscience. Recently, the plasticity of intrinsic excitability (called intrinsic plasticity) has emerged as an important element for information processing and storage in the brain. As the cerebellar Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons in the cerebellar cortex and the information is conveyed from a neuron to its relay neurons by forms of action potential firing, the modulation of the intrinsic firing activity may play a critical role in the cerebellar learning...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Baoling Lai, Miao Li, Wanling Hu, Wei Li, Wen-Biao Gan
The cyclic nucleotide cGMP is an intracellular second messenger with important roles in neuronal functions and animals' behaviors. The phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that hydrolyze the second messengers cGMP and cAMP. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9), a main isoform of PDEs hydrolyzing cGMP, has been shown to improve learning and memory as well as cognitive function in rodents. However, the role of PDE9 in regulating neuronal structure and function in vivo remains unclear. Here we used in vivo two-photon microscopy to investigate the effect of a selective PDE9 inhibitor PF-04449613 on the activity and plasticity of dendritic spines of layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary motor cortex...
July 18, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
Guanyu Zhou, Rafik Addou, Qingxiao Wang, Shahin Honari, Christopher R Cormier, Lanxia Cheng, Ruoyu Yue, Christopher M Smyth, Akash Laturia, Jiyoung Kim, William G Vandenberghe, Moon J Kim, Robert M Wallace, Christopher L Hinkle
The transfer-free direct growth of high-performance materials and devices can enable transformative new technologies. Here, room-temperature field-effect hole mobilities as high as 707 cm2 V-1 s-1 are reported, achieved using transfer-free, low-temperature (≤120 °C) direct growth of helical tellurium (Te) nanostructure devices on SiO2 /Si. The Te nanostructures exhibit significantly higher device performance than other low-temperature grown semiconductors, and it is demonstrated that through careful control of the growth process, high-performance Te can be grown on other technologically relevant substrates including flexible plastics like polyethylene terephthalate and graphene in addition to amorphous oxides like SiO2 /Si and HfO2 ...
July 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
Marta Zagrebelsky, N Gödecke, A Remus, Martin Korte
Brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) has been implicated in neuronal survival, differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. It was suggested that during postnatal development BDNF regulates neuronal architecture and spine morphology of neurons within certain brain areas but not others. Particularly striking are the differences between striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Whether this is due to region- or cell type-specific effects is so far not known. We address this question using conditional bdnf knock-out mice to analyze neuronal architecture and spine morphology of pyramidal cortical and hippocampal neurons as well as inhibitory neurons from these brain areas and excitatory granule neurons from the dentate gyrus...
July 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hanyu Hui, Re Xia, Juying Li, Qingsong Mei, Ye Ma, Feng Chen, Yan Lei
The properties of nanoporous gold (NPG) were known to be dependent on the microstructure of NPG. In this study, the effects of cold rolling and annealing of the original Ag0.7 Au0.3 alloy on the microstructure of NPG produced by dealloying under free corrosion condition were investigated. Ag0.7 Au0.3 alloy samples were cold-rolled to different strain levels/thickness reductions up to 98% and annealed at 900 °C for 3 h before dealloying. It was found that cold rolling and annealing of the original alloy can lead to reduced ligament and pore sizes of NPG...
July 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Seog-Kyun Mun, Kyu-Hee Han, Jong Tae Baek, Suk-Won Ahn, Hyun Sang Cho, Mun Young Chang
Objectives: Hearing loss disrupts the balance of auditory-somatosensory inputs in the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the brainstem, which has been suggested to be a mechanism of tinnitus. This disruption. Results.: from maladaptive auditory-somatosensory plasticity, which is a form of axonal sprouting. Axonal sprouting is promoted by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which can be inhibited by losartan. We investigated whether losartan prevents maladaptive auditory-somatosensory plasticity after hearing loss...
July 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
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