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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637318/experience-dependent-regulation-of-cajal-retzius-cell-networks-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#1
Max Anstötz, Sun Kyong Lee, Tamra I Neblett, Gabriele M Rune, Gianmaria Maccaferri
In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal-Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal-Retzius cells. We used multiple mouse reporter lines to unequivocally identify Cajal-Retzius cells and quantify their densities during postnatal development...
June 16, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637203/morphological-diversity-strongly-constrains-synaptic-connectivity-and-plasticity
#2
Michael W Reimann, Anna-Lena Horlemann, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Eilif B Muller, Henry Markram
Synaptic connectivity between neurons is naturally constrained by the anatomical overlap of neuronal arbors, the space on the axon available for synapses, and by physiological mechanisms that form synapses at a subset of potential synapse locations. What is not known is how these constraints impact emergent connectivity in a circuit with diverse morphologies. We investigated the role of morphological diversity within and across neuronal types on emergent connectivity in a model of neocortical microcircuitry...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637173/crystallographic-analyses-illustrate-significant-plasticity-and-efficient-recoding-of-meganuclease-target-specificity
#3
Rachel Werther, Jazmine P Hallinan, Abigail R Lambert, Kyle Havens, Mark Pogson, Jordan Jarjour, Roberto Galizi, Nikolai Windbichler, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan, Barry L Stoddard
The retargeting of protein-DNA specificity, outside of extremely modular DNA binding proteins such as TAL effectors, has generally proved to be quite challenging. Here, we describe structural analyses of five different extensively retargeted variants of a single homing endonuclease, that have been shown to function efficiently in ex vivo and in vivo applications. The redesigned proteins harbor mutations at up to 53 residues (18%) of their amino acid sequence, primarily distributed across the DNA binding surface, making them among the most significantly reengineered ligand-binding proteins to date...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637094/acclimation-responses-to-high-light-by-guazuma-ulmifolia-lam-malvaceae-leaves-at-different-stages-of-development
#4
Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Juliana Silva Rocha, Geovana Lourenço, Karina Sanada, Cristiano Medri, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Renata Stolf-Moreira, Halley Caixeta Oliveira
The recomposition of deforested environments requires the prior acclimation of seedlings to full sun in nurseries. Seedlings can overcome excessive light either through the acclimation of pre-existing fully expanded leaves or through the development of new leaves that are acclimated to the new light environment. Here, we compared the acclimation capacity of mature (MatL, fully expanded at the time of transfer) and newly expanded leaves (NewL, expanded after the light shift) of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Malvaceae) seedlings to high light...
June 21, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636951/structure-of-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-with-a-potent-chemokine-antagonist-reveals-mechanisms-of-chemokine-recognition-and-molecular-mimicry-by-hiv
#5
Yi Zheng, Gye Won Han, Ruben Abagyan, Beili Wu, Raymond C Stevens, Vadim Cherezov, Irina Kufareva, Tracy M Handel
CCR5 is the primary chemokine receptor utilized by HIV to infect leukocytes, whereas CCR5 ligands inhibit infection by blocking CCR5 engagement with HIV gp120. To guide the design of improved therapeutics, we solved the structure of CCR5 in complex with chemokine antagonist [5P7]CCL5. Several structural features appeared to contribute to the anti-HIV potency of [5P7]CCL5, including the distinct chemokine orientation relative to the receptor, the near-complete occupancy of the receptor binding pocket, the dense network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and the similarity of binding determinants with the FDA-approved HIV inhibitor Maraviroc...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636947/assembly-secretory-pathway-trafficking-and-surface-delivery-of-kainate-receptors-is-regulated-by-neuronal-activity
#6
Ashley J Evans, Sonam Gurung, Kevin A Wilkinson, David J Stephens, Jeremy M Henley
Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) trafficking and function underpin excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity and shape neuronal networks. It is well established that the transcription, translation, and endocytosis/recycling of iGluRs are all regulated by neuronal activity, but much less is known about the activity dependence of iGluR transport through the secretory pathway. Here, we use the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 as a model iGluR cargo to show that the assembly, early secretory pathway trafficking, and surface delivery of iGluRs are all controlled by neuronal activity...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636741/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-area-oncologic-treatment-and-plastic-reconstructive-options
#7
Johannes A Veit, Julia Thierauf, Thomas K Hoffmann, Jens Greve, Nicole Rotter, Patrick J Schuler, Marc O Scheithauer
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck area is a rare malignant tumor with acceptable short-term but mediocre long-term prognosis. Radical tumor excision with clear resection margins, and sometimes resection of the facial nerve due to perineural growth, remains the fundamental therapy. We present 3 distinct clinical cases and discuss the current therapeutic options with special focus on plastic-reconstructive techniques. For reconstruction, the full armament of local and free flaps, as well as prosthetics, may be necessary...
June 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636662/differential-regulation-of-polarized-synaptic-vesicle-trafficking-and-synapse-stability-in-neural-circuit-rewiring-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Naina Kurup, Dong Yan, Karina Kono, Yishi Jin
Neural circuits are dynamic, with activity-dependent changes in synapse density and connectivity peaking during different phases of animal development. In C. elegans, young larvae form mature motor circuits through a dramatic switch in GABAergic neuron connectivity, by concomitant elimination of existing synapses and formation of new synapses that are maintained throughout adulthood. We have previously shown that an increase in microtubule dynamics during motor circuit rewiring facilitates new synapse formation...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636578/human-neuropsin-gene-in-depression
#9
Kinga Bobińska, Joanna Mossakowska-Wójcik, Janusz Szemraj, Piotr Gałecki, Marlena Zajączkowska, Monika Talarowska
BACKGROUND: Neuropsin (NP, kallikrein 8, KLK8) - a kallikrein gene-related (KLK) endoprotease - plays a key role in neuroplasticity processes, since intracellular signal cascades and regulation of gene expression are engaged in long-term synaptic plasticity. The main aim of this paper is to compare expression of the human neuropsin gene on the mRNA level in a group of patients diagnosed with depression and in a group of healthy subjects who have never been treated psychiatrically. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 291 people, aged 18-67, were qualified to participate in the experiment: major recurrent depression group (MRD) and the control group (CG)...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636217/research-on-potential-biomarker-correlates-for-suicidal-behavior-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Sangha Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Suicide is a world health priority. Studies over the last few decades have revealed the complexity underlying the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide. Researchers have found dysregulations in the serotonergic system, the stress system, neural plasticity, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling pathways in relation to suicidal behaviors. These findings have provided more insight into the final path leading to suicide, at which medical intervention should be applied to prevent the action. However, because these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in both depression and suicide, the specificity of the mechanisms has been obscured...
June 21, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636053/evidence-of-bad-recycling-practices-bfrs-in-children-s-toys-and-food-contact-articles
#11
A Guzzonato, F Puype, S J Harrad
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used intentionally in a wide range of plastics, but are now found in an even wider range of such materials (including children's toys and food contact articles) as a result of recycling practices that mix BFR-containing waste plastics with "virgin" materials. In this study Br was quantified in toy and food contact samples on the assumption that its concentration can be used as a metric for BFR contamination. Subsequently, compound specific determination of BFRs was performed to evaluate the validity of the aforementioned assumption, crucial to render rapid, inexpensive, in situ Br determination in non-laboratory environments (such as waste handling facilities) a viable option for sorting wastes according to their BFR content...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635872/-the-current-views-of-the-problem-of-the-plastic-correction-of-the-laryngo-tracheal-defects-in-the-patients-presenting-with-combined-laryngeal-stenoses
#12
L V Selezneva
The present review of the literature is designed to analyze the currently available methods for the plastic correction of the laryngo-tracheal defects in the patients presenting with combined laryngeal stenoses at the concluding stage of their medical rehabilitation. We looked through 56 literature sources including 28 publications of the foreign authors. The different approaches to the plastic correction of the laryngo-tracheal defects have been critically considered with special reference to their advantages and disadvantages...
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635355/aberrant-wnt-signaling-a-special-focus-in-cns-diseases
#13
Mercedes Arnés, Sergio Casas Tintó
Wnt signals regulate cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during development, as well as synaptic transmission and plasticity in the adult brain. Abnormal Wnt signaling is central to a number of brain pathologies. We review here, the significance of this pathway focused in the contribution of the most frequent alterations in receptors, secretable modulators and downstream targets in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Glioblastoma (GBM). β-catenin and GSK3 levels are pivotal in the neurodegeneration associated to AD contributing to memory deficits, tau phosphorylation, increased β-amyloid production and modulation of Apolipoprotein E in the brain...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635352/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-two-types-of-retractors-at-caesarean-delivery
#14
Abbey J Hardy-Fairbanks, Todd Mackenzie, Martin McCarthy, Marlene B Goldman, Michele R Lauria
The aim of this study was to determine if the use of a self-retaining, symmetrical retractor (OB/Mobius(®)) during caesarean delivery is associated with differences in post-operative pain experience. Consenting women undergoing caesarean delivery were randomly assigned to OB/Mobius(®) versus conventional retraction instruments. Women were blinded to retractor type and filled out surgical pain surveys each post-operative day. Additional outcome variables were collected through a provider survey and chart review...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635133/critical-role-of-glioma-associated-oncogene-homolog-1-in-maintaining-invasive-and-mesenchymal-like-properties-of-melanoma-cells
#15
I Ketut Gunarta, Rong Li, Ryota Nakazato, Ryusuke Suzuki, Jambaldorj Boldbaatar, Takeshi Suzuki, Katsuji Yoshioka
Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. This aggressiveness appears to be due to the cancer cells' ability to reversibly switch between phenotypes with non-invasive and invasive potentials, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is known to play a central role in this process. The transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a component of the canonical and noncanonical sonic hedgehog pathways. Although GLI1 has been suggested to be involved in melanoma progression, its precise role and the mechanism underlying invasion remain unclear...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634801/ameliorating-soil-acidity-and-physical-properties-of-two-contrasting-texture-ultisols-with-wastewater-sludge-biochar
#16
Yutong Zong, Yefeng Wang, Ye Sheng, Chengfeng Wu, Shenggao Lu
The production of biochar is a safe and beneficial disposal way for wastewater sludge. The biochar produced from wastewater sludge can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and for increasing crop yield. This work investigated the influences of wastewater sludge biochar (WSB) on the pH, exchangeable acidity, and physical properties of strongly acidic Ultisols with contrasting texture (clayey soil and sandy loam). Two soils were mixed with WSB at the rate of 0, 10, 20, and 40 g biochar kg(-1) soil and incubated for 240 days at 75% field water capacity...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634790/cellulose-acetate-butyrate-ammonio-methacrylate-copolymer-blends-as-a-novel-coating-in-osmotic-tablets
#17
R Ali, M Walther, R Bodmeier
The objective of this work was the preparation of osmotic tablets using polymer blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) or ethylcellulose with ammonio methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit® RL). The advantage of these coatings in comparison to the traditionally used cellulose acetate is their solubility in safer organic solvents like ethanol. Polymer films were characterized with respect to their water uptake, dry mass loss, and mechanical properties. The effect of the polymer blend ratio on drug release and on the rupture force of the coating was investigated...
June 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634701/the-50-most-cited-articles-in-facial-plastic-surgery
#18
Michael T Chang, Zachary G Schwam, Christopher A Schutt, Emily M Kamen, Boris Paskhover
Bibliometric analysis is a common method to determine the most influential articles in medical specialties, as it is an objective measure of peer recognition of scientific work. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in facial plastic surgery, to determine the most cited papers in the field. Bibliometric analysis was performed using the Science Citation Index from the Institute for Scientific Information, accessed through the Web of Science™. Filter terms relevant to the field of facial plastic surgery were used to identify the 50 most cited journal articles between 1900 and 2016...
June 20, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634562/a-simple-bone-cyst-in-cervical-vertebrae-of-an-adolescent-patient
#19
Adriana Bruges Boude, Lina González Vásquez, Fernando Alvarado-Gomez, María Constanza Bedoya, Andrés Rodríguez-Múnera, Luis Carlos Morales-Saenz
INTRODUCTION: Spinal simple bone cysts, also known as solitary cysts, are extremely unusual benign primary bone tumors with few cases reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Incidental Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) finding of a C2 Simple bone cyst in a 13-year-old female patient is reported. Complementary studies suggested the benign nature of the lesion. Patient underwent cervical curettage followed by tumor excision. A lateral submandibular approach to the upper cervical spine was used and careful bone resection was possible with a radiofrequency assisted burr and no instrumentation or fixation was required...
2017: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#20
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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