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Felipe Melo-Gonzalez, Matthew R Hepworth
Group 3 ILCs (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor RORγt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR(+) ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, yet also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets...
December 9, 2016: Immunology
Jasmin Krismer, Manu Tamminen, Simone Fontana, Renato Zenobi, Anita Narwani
Phenotypic variation is vital for microbial populations to survive environmental perturbations. Both genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to an organism's phenotypic variation and therefore its fitness. To investigate the correlation between genetic diversity and phenotypic variation, we applied our recently developed mass spectrometry method that allows for the simultaneous measurement of more than 25 different lipids and pigments with high throughput in the unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii...
December 9, 2016: ISME Journal
David Tg Barrett, Sophie Denève, Christian K Machens
The brain has an impressive ability to withstand neural damage. Diseases that kill neurons can go unnoticed for years, and incomplete brain lesions or silencing of neurons often fail to produce any behavioral effect. How does the brain compensate for such damage, and what are the limits of this compensation? We propose that neural circuits immediately compensate for neuron loss, thereby preserving their function as much as possible. We show that this compensation can explain changes in tuning curves induced by neuron silencing across a variety of systems, including the primary visual cortex...
December 9, 2016: ELife
Eva Nogales, Jie Fang, Robert K Louder
TFIID is a large protein complex required for the recognition and binding of eukaryotic gene core promoter sequences and for the recruitment of the rest of the general transcription factors involved in initiation of eukaryotic protein gene transcription. Cryo-electron microscopy studies have demonstrated the conformational complexity of human TFIID, where one third of the mass of the complex can shift its position by well over 100 Å. This conformational plasticity appears to be linked to the capacity of TFIID to bind DNA and suggests how it would allow both the recognition of different core promoter elements and the tuning of its binding affinity by regulatory factors...
December 9, 2016: Transcription
Jingui Yu, Mingchao Wang, Shangchao Lin
Although organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been extensively investigated for promising applications in energy-related devices, their mechanical properties, which restrict their practical deployment as flexible and wearable devices, have been largely unexplored at the atomistic level. Toward this level of understanding, we predict the elastic constant matrix and various elastic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) using atomistic simulations. We find that single-crystalline MAPbI3 is much stiffer and exhibits higher ultimate tensile strength than polycrystalline samples, but the latter exhibit unexpected, greatly enhanced nanoductility and fracture toughness, resulting from the extensive amorphization during the yielding process...
December 9, 2016: ACS Nano
Hugo L van Beek, Elvira Romero, Marco W Fraaije
A previous study showed that cyclohexanone monooxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (AcCHMO) catalyzes the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of 2-butanone, yielding ethyl acetate and methyl propanoate as products. Methyl propanoate is of industrial interest as a precursor of acrylic plastic. Here, various residues near the substrate and NADP+ binding sites in AcCHMO were subjected to saturation mutagenesis to enhance both the activity on 2-butanone and the regioselectivity toward methyl propanoate. The resulting libraries were screened using whole cell biotransformations, and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify improved AcCHMO variants...
December 9, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Loran D Solorio, Martin L Bocks, Scott J Hollister
A major challenge in the repair and regeneration of soft tissue damage occurring as a result of aging, injury, or disease is recapitulating the biomechanical properties of the native tissue. Ideally, a candidate biomaterial for soft tissue engineering applications should be biocompatible, nonlinearly elastic to match soft tissue mechanical behavior, biodegradable to enable tissue remodeling, and tailorable to achieve a range of nonlinear elastic mechanical properties to match specific soft tissues. In addition, for cardiac and other applications, the biomaterial should have shape memory characteristics to facilitate minimally invasive and/or catheter-based delivery...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Christopher S Fry, Darren L Johnson, Mary Lloyd Ireland, Brian Noehren
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are associated with significant loss of strength in knee extensor muscles that persists despite physical therapy. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this protracted muscle weakness are poorly understood; however, we recently showed significant myofiber atrophy and altered muscle phenotype following ACL injury. We sought to further explore perturbations in skeletal muscle morphology and progenitor cell activity following an ACL injury. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the injured and non-injured vastus lateralis of young adults (n = 10) following ACL injury, and histochemical/immunohistochemical analyses were undertaken to determine collagen content, abundance of connective tissue fibroblasts, fibrogenic/adipogenic progenitor (FAP) cells, satellite cells, in addition to indices of muscle fiber denervation and myonuclear apoptosis...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Gitte B Christiansen, Katrine Andersen, Sarah Riis, Anders Nykjaer, Ulrik Bølcho, Morten Skovgaard Jensen, Mai Marie Holm
Correct function of glutamate receptors in the postsynaptic density is crucial to synaptic function and plasticity. SorCS3 (sortilin-related receptor CNS expressed 3) is a sorting receptor which previously has been shown to interact with the key postsynaptic proteins; PSD-95 and PICK1. In this study, we employed electrophysiological analyses of acute brain slices combined with immunohistochemistry to define the role of SorCS3 in hippocampal synapses in CA1 and the dentate gyrus. We analyzed a juvenile (P17-21) and a young adult (P55-65) group of animals from a Sorcs3 knockout mouse model...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
Tung-Yi Lin, Truong Do, Patrick Kwon, Peter B Lillehoj
Plastics are one of the most commonly used materials for fabricating microfluidic devices. While various methods exist for fabricating plastic microdevices, hot embossing offers several unique advantages including high throughput, excellent compatibility with most thermoplastics and low start-up costs. However, hot embossing requires metal or silicon molds that are fabricated using CNC milling or microfabrication techniques which are time consuming, expensive and required skilled technicians. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the fabrication of plastic microchannels using 3D printed metal molds...
December 9, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Frédéric Chamieh, Anne-Margaux Collignon, Benjamin R Coyac, Julie Lesieur, Sandy Ribes, Jérémy Sadoine, Annie Llorens, Antonino Nicoletti, Didier Letourneur, Marie-Laure Colombier, Showan N Nazhat, Philippe Bouchard, Catherine Chaussain, Gael Y Rochefort
Therapies using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) seeded scaffolds may be applicable to various fields of regenerative medicine, including craniomaxillofacial surgery. Plastic compression of collagen scaffolds seeded with MSC has been shown to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of MSC as it increases the collagen fibrillary density. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the osteogenic effects of dense collagen gel scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size calvarial defect model...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paul Le Tissier, Pauline Campos, Chrystel Lafont, Nicola Romanò, David J Hodson, Patrice Mollard
The discoveries of novel functional adaptations of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland for physiological regulation have transformed our understanding of their interaction. The activity of a small proportion of hypothalamic neurons can control complex hormonal signalling, which is disconnected from a simple stimulus and the subsequent hormone secretion relationship and is dependent on physiological status. The interrelationship of the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and pituitary cells with the vasculature has an important role in determining the pattern of neurohormone exposure...
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Willem Jonker, Ana Ballesteros-Gómez, Timo Hamers, Govert W Somsen, Marja H Lamoree, Jeroen Kool
The chemical safety of consumer products is an issue of emerging concern. Plastics are widely used, e.g. as casings of consumer electronics (TVs, computers, routers, etc.), which are present in houses and offices in continuously increasing numbers. In this study, we investigate the estrogenic activity of components of plastics coming from electronics' casings. A recently developed fractionation platform for effect-directed analysis (EDA) was used. This platform combines reversed-phase liquid chromatography in parallel with bioassay detection via nanofractionation and with online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for the identification of bioactives...
November 15, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Sukanya Bhattacharya, Dharmendar Kumar Sharma, Suman De, Jaladhar Mahato, Arindam Chowdhury
While dynamics of single-molecule (SM) fluorescent probes have been used to investigate the structure and relaxation processes in polymers near the glass transition temperature (Tg), it is difficult to perform SM imaging at elevated temperatures which restricts such studies to a limited number of polymers for which Tg is close to room temperature (RT). Plasticization, solvent (or additive) induced lowering of Tg, offers an alternate avenue to access various effective temperatures in the glassy and rubbery phases of polymers under ambient conditions...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Andrea Camposeo, Ryan D Pensack, Maria Moffa, Vito Fasano, Davide Altamura, Cinzia Giannini, Dario Pisignano, Gregory D Scholes
Conjugated polymers are complex multichromophore systems, with emission properties strongly dependent on the electronic energy transfer through active subunits. Although the packing of the conjugated chains in the solid state is known to be a key factor to tailor the electronic energy transfer and the resulting optical properties, most of the current solution-based processing methods do not allow for effectively controlling the molecular order, thus making the full unveiling of energy transfer mechanisms very complex...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mingyue Gu, Chenyu Jiang, Dagang Liu, Nana Prempeh, Ivan I Smalyukh
The broad utility as an environmentally friendly and colorful coating of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was limited by its instability of coloration, brittleness, and lack of adhesion to a hydrophobic surface. In the present work, a neutral polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was introduced into CNC coatings through evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) on polymer matrices. The structure-color and mechanical properties of the composite coating or coating film were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), and tensile tests...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Badal C Saha
Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (>80 g L(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g L(-1)). This review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of IA production. IA biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the TCA cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through the action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (CAD) enzyme encoded by the CadA gene in A...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Qiang Wang, Meirong Jia, Jung-Hyun Huh, Andrew Muchlinski, Reuben J Peters, Dorothea Tholl
Arabidopsis thaliana maintains a complex metabolism for the production of secondary or specialized metabolites. Such metabolites include volatile and semivolatile terpenes, which have been associated with direct and indirect defensive activities in flowers and leaves. In comparison, the structural diversity and function of terpenes in Arabidopsis roots has remained largely unexplored despite a substantial number of root-expressed genes in the Arabidopsis terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. We show that five root-expressed TPSs of an expanded subfamily-a type clade in the Arabidopsis TPS family function as class I diterpene synthases that predominantly convert geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to different semi-volatile diterpene products, which are in part detectable at low levels in the ecotypes Columbia (Col) and Cape Verde Island (Cvi)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joshua J Michel, Patricia Griffin, Abbe N Vallejo
The fundamental challenge of aging and long-term survivorship is maintenance of functional independence and compression of morbidity despite a life history of disease. Inasmuch as immunity is a determinant of individual health and fitness, unraveling novel mechanisms of immune homeostasis in late life is of paramount interest. Comparative studies of young and old persons have documented age-related atrophy of the thymus, the contraction of diversity of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, and the intrinsic inefficiency of classical TCR signaling in aged T cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Irina N Trofimova, William Sulis
Objective: Temperament and mental illness have been linked to the same systems of behavioral regulation. A temperament model, carefully structured to respond to subtle differences within systems of behavior regulation, should exhibit distinct temperament patterns in the presence of mental illness. Previous comparisons of temperament profiles in mental disorders used mostly emotionality-related traits. In contrast, the Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) model differentiates not only between emotionality traits, but also between traits related to physical, verbal, and mental aspects of behavior and maps 12 functional aspects of behavior to temperament traits as well as to symptoms of mental illnesses...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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