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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732340/vascular-regulation-of-glioma-stem-like-cells-a-balancing-act
#1
REVIEW
Lucy J Brooks, Simona Parrinello
Glioblastoma (GBM) are aggressive and therapy-resistant brain tumours driven by glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSC behaviour is controlled by the microenvironment, or niche, in which the cells reside. It is well-established that the vasculature is a key component of the GSC niche, which drives maintenance in the tumour bulk and invasion at the margin. Emerging evidence now indicates that the specific properties of the vasculature within these two regions impose different functional states on resident GSCs, generating distinct subpopulations...
July 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732337/critical-review-of-soil-contamination-by-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-pbdes-and-novel-brominated-flame-retardants-nbfrs-concentrations-sources-and-congener-profiles
#2
REVIEW
Thomas J McGrath, Andrew S Ball, Bradley O Clarke
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a broad array of polymeric materials such as plastics, foams, resins and adhesives to inhibit the spread of fires since the 1970s. The widespread environmental contamination and well documented toxic effects of PBDEs have led to bans and voluntary withdrawals in many jurisdictions. Replacement novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have, however, exhibited many of the same toxic characteristics as PBDEs and appear to share similar environmental fate...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732178/reproductive-plasticity-in-the-nematode-gyrinicola-batrachiensis-does-an-intermediate-reproductive-strategy-exist-in-sexually-reproducing-didelphic-pinworms
#3
Jasmine N Childress, Sean C Rogers, Matthew G Bolek, Gabriel J Langford
Phenotypic plasticity is a process in which multiple phenotypes arise from one genotype due to environmental selection pressures. Gyrinicola batrachiensis has a heterogeneous reproductive strategy such that females reproduce either via parthogenesis with thick-shelled eggs in a single uterus or sexual reproduction with thick and thin-shelled eggs in separate uterine horns. No evidence exists that strains of G. batrachiensis are able to switch between parthenogenetic and sexual reproduction. Thin-shelled eggs are autoinfective while thick-shelled eggs act as transmission agents once shed into the aquatic environment...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731853/hormonal-factors-in-the-control-of-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue
#4
REVIEW
Jiamiao Hu, Mark Christian
Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue (WAT) and catabolic brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent studies have revealed the plasticity of WAT, where white adipocytes can be induced into 'brown-like' heat-producing adipocytes (BRITE or beige adipocytes). Recruiting and activating BRITE adipocytes in WAT (so-called 'browning') is believed to provide new avenues for the treatment of obesity-related diseases. A number of hormonal factors have been found to regulate BRITE adipose development and activity through autocrine, paracrine and systemic mechanisms...
July 21, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731801/diversification-of-trait-combinations-in-coevolving-plant-and-insect-lineages
#5
John N Thompson, Christopher Schwind, Magne Friberg
Closely related species often have similar traits and sometimes interact with the same species. A crucial problem in evolutionary ecology is therefore to understand how coevolving species diverge when they interact with a set of closely related species from another lineage rather than with a single species. We evaluated geographic differences in the floral morphology of all woodland star plant species (Lithophragma, Saxifragaceae) that are pollinated by Greya (Prodoxidae) moths. Flowers of each woodland star species differed depending on whether plants interact locally with one, two, or no pollinating moth species...
August 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731472/high-abundance-and-expression-of-transposases-in-bacteria-from-the-baltic-sea
#6
Theoden Vigil-Stenman, Karolina Ininbergs, Birgitta Bergman, Martin Ekman
Transposases are mobile genetic elements suggested to have an important role in bacterial genome plasticity and host adaptation but their transcriptional activity in natural bacterial communities is largely unexplored. Here we analyzed metagenomes and -transcriptomes of size fractionated (0.1-0.8, 0.8-3.0 and 3.0-200 μm) bacterial communities from the brackish Baltic Sea, and adjacent marine waters. The Baltic Sea transposase levels, up to 1.7% of bacterial genes and 2% of bacterial transcripts, were considerably higher than in marine waters and similar to levels reported for extreme environments...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731468/a-role-for-the-cell-wall-protein-silacidin-in-cell-size-of-the-diatom-thalassiosira-pseudonana
#7
Amy R Kirkham, Patrick Richthammer, Katrin Schmidt, Martin Wustmann, Yoshiaki Maeda, René Hedrich, Eike Brunner, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Angela Falciatore, Thomas Mock
Diatoms contribute 20% of global primary production and form the basis of many marine food webs. Although their species diversity correlates with broad diversity in cell size, there is also an intraspecific cell-size plasticity owing to sexual reproduction and varying environmental conditions. However, despite the ecological significance of the diatom cell size for food-web structure and global biogeochemical cycles, our knowledge about genes underpinning the size of diatom cells remains elusive. Here, a combination of reverse genetics, experimental evolution and comparative RNA-sequencing analyses enabled us to identify a previously unknown genetic control of cell size in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana...
July 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731445/colivelin-ameliorates-impairments-in%C3%A2-cognitive-behaviors-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#8
Meina Wu, Hui Shi, Yexin He, Li Yuan, Xuesong Qu, Jun Zhang, Zhaojun Wang, Hongyan Cai, Jinshun Qi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, and effective therapeutics are lacking. Colivelin (CLN), a novel, strong humanin derivative, is effective in vitro in preventing cell death induced by AD-causative genes and amyloid-β protein (Aβ) even at a low concentration. We recently demonstrated that intrahippocampal injection of CLN prevents Aβ25-35-induced deficits in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in normal rats. Here, we further observed the effects of chronically intranasally (i...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731403/safe-and-sustainable-the-extracranial-approach-toward-frontoethmoidal-meningoencephalocele-repair
#9
Paul I Heidekrueger, Myat Thu, Wolfgang Mühlbauer, Charlotte Holm-Mühlbauer, Philippe Schucht, Hans Anderl, Heinrich Schoeneich, Kyawzwa Aung, Mg Mg Ag, Ag Thu Soe Myint, Sabrina Juran, Thiha Aung, Denis Ehrl, Milomir Ninkovic, P Niclas Broer
OBJECTIVE Although rare, frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles continue to pose a challenge to neurosurgeons and plastic reconstructive surgeons. Especially when faced with limited infrastructure and resources, establishing reliable and safe surgical techniques is of paramount importance. The authors present a case series in order to evaluate a previously proposed concise approach for meningoencephalocele repair, with a focus on sustainability of internationally driven surgical efforts. METHODS Between 2001 and 2016, a total of 246 patients with frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles were treated using a 1-stage extracranial approach by a single surgeon in the Department of Neurosurgery of the Yangon General Hospital in Yangon, Myanmar, initially assisted by European surgeons...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731141/botulinum-toxin-a-improves-adipose-tissue-engraftment-by-promoting-cell-proliferation-adipogenesis-and-angiogenesis
#10
Qi Tang, Chang Chen, Xiaqi Wang, Wei Li, Yan Zhang, Muyao Wang, Wei Jing, Hang Wang, Weihua Guo, Weidong Tian
Adipose tissue engraftment has become a well-established therapy in plastic and reconstructive surgery used to restore age-related or injury-related soft tissue loss. However, the unpredictable absorption rates limit its further application. Some clinicians have noted that more optimal aesthetic results are achieved when botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) is applied prior to adipose tissue grafting. In the present study, we transplanted allogeneic adipose tissue treated with or without BoNTA in SD rats in vivo. We subsequently evaluated the survival rate (weight, volume, apoptosis and cellular integrity) and revascularization of the adipose tissue...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730825/the-implication-of-ampa-receptor-in-synaptic-plasticity-impairment-and-intellectual-disability-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#11
G-R Cheng, X-Y Li, Y-D Xiang, D Liu, S M McClintock, Y Zeng
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequently inherited form of intellectual disability and prevalent single-gene cause of autism. A priority of FXS research is to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive and social functioning impairments in humans and the FXS mouse model. Glutamate ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) mediate a majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and are critically important for nearly all aspects of brain function, including neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730818/nanoscale-mechanics-of-the-solid-electrolyte-interphase-on-lithiated-silicon-electrodes
#12
Haoran Wang, Huck Beng Chew
The ~300% volume changes of lithiated silicon electrodes (LixSi) during electrochemical cycling lead to cracking of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). Here, we report how strain is transferred from LixSi to two primary inorganic SEI components: LiF and Li2O. Our first principle calculations show that LiF, effectively bonded on LixSi at x > 1, enables the entire interface structure to deform plastically by forming delocalized stable voids. In contrast, Li2O tightly bonded to LixSi is stiffer, and deforms rigidly across all x...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730808/determination-of-the-relationship-between-expression-and-functional-activity-of-multidrug-resistance-associated-protein-1-using-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#13
David Polcari, Javier Alejandro Hernandez-Castro, Kebin Li, Matthias Geissler, Janine Mauzeroll
Cancer cells can develop multidrug resistance (MDR) after prolonged exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, which is a severe impediment to successful treatment. MDR is typically associated with transmembrane proteins mediating efflux of administered drugs, thereby keeping their intracellular concentration below the threshold required to kill cells. Although expression assays based on flow cytometry and immunostaining have shown that multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is prevalent in many cancer types, the functional activity of this efflux pump is more difficult to elucidate, especially at the single-cell level...
July 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730478/high-content-imaging-and-rnai-screens-for-investigating-kinase-network-plasticity
#14
Simon R Stockwell, Sibylle Mittnacht
High-content imaging connects the information-rich method of microscopy with the systematic objective principles of software-driven analysis. Suited to automation and, therefore, considerable scale-up of study size, this approach can deliver multiparametric data over cell populations or at the level of the individual cell and has found considerable utility in reverse genetic and pharmacological screens. Here we present a method to screen small interfering RNA (siRNA) libraries allowing subsequent observation of the impact of each knockdown on two interlinked, high-content, G1-/S-phase cell cycle transition assays related to cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 activity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730469/optogenetic-control-of-ras-erk-signaling-using-the-phy-pif-system
#15
Alexander G Goglia, Maxwell Z Wilson, Daniel B DiGiorno, Jared E Toettcher
The Ras/Erk signaling pathway plays a central role in diverse cellular processes ranging from development to immune cell activation to neural plasticity to cancer. In recent years, this pathway has been widely studied using live-cell fluorescent biosensors, revealing complex Erk dynamics that arise in many cellular contexts. Yet despite these high-resolution tools for measurement, the field has lacked analogous tools for control over Ras/Erk signaling in live cells. Here, we provide detailed methods for one such tool based on the optical control of Ras activity, which we call "Opto-SOS...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730313/derivatization-free-lc-ms-ms-method-for-estrogen-quantification-in-mouse-brain-highlights-a-local-metabolic-regulation-after-oral-versus-subcutaneous-administration
#16
Ecaterina Lozan, Svitlana Shinkaruk, Shaam Alice Al Abed, Valérie Lamothe, Mylène Potier, Aline Marighetto, Jean-Marie Schmitter, Catherine Bennetau-Pelissero, Corinne Buré
17β-Estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid with pleiotropic actions. In addition to being a sexual hormone, it is also produced in the brain where it modulates the reproductive axis. It has been shown that 17β-E2 also acts on synaptic plasticity and plays a role in neurological pathways and in neurodegenerative diseases. Assaying this steroid in the brain is thus interesting to improve our knowledge of 17β-E2 effects in the brain. However, 17β-E2 concentration in the central nervous system has been reported to be of a few nanograms per gram wet weight (nanomolar range concentration); therefore, its quantification requires both an efficient extraction process and a sensitive detection method...
July 20, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730219/histological-immunohistochemical-and-clinical-considerations-on-amniotic-membrane-transplant-for-ocular-surface-reconstruction
#17
Elena Şapte, Claudia Florida Costea, Alexandru Cărăuleanu, Cristina Dancă, Gabriela FlorenŢa Dumitrescu, Gabriela Dimitriu, Mădălina Adriana Chihaia, Cătălin Mihai Buzdugă, Andrei Cucu, Mihaela Dana Turliuc
Amniotic membrane (AM) transplantation has been used successfully worldwide in ophthalmology plastic surgery for over 100 years. This review presents the histological and the immunohistochemical features of AM compared to those of the conjunctiva and discusses the techniques of processing and preservation, its mechanism of action in ocular reconstruction, its clinical ophthalmic indications, but also advantages and limitations of grafting with this biomaterial.
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729930/structural-differences-in-impaired-verbal-fluency-in-essential-tremor-patients-compared-to-healthy-controls
#18
Esther A Pelzer, Christian Nelles, David J Pedrosa, Carsten Eggers, Lothar Burghaus, Corina Melzer, Marc Tittgemeyer, Lars Timmermann
OBJECTIVE: We wanted to identify differences in grey and white matter in essential tremor patients compared to controls in the non-motor domain, using the example of impaired verbal fluency. BACKGROUND: A disturbance of verbal fluency in essential tremor patients compared to healthy controls is behaviorally well described. METHODS: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze structural differences in grey and white matter in 19 essential tremor patients compared to 23 age- and gender-matched controls...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729826/sleep-dependent-oscillatory-synchronization-a-role-in-fear-memory-consolidation
#19
Michael S Totty, Logan A Chesney, Phillip A Geist, Subimal Datta
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation through the facilitation of neuronal plasticity; however, how sleep accomplishes this remains to be completely understood. It has previously been demonstrated that neural oscillations are an intrinsic mechanism by which the brain precisely controls neural ensembles. Inter-regional synchronization of these oscillations is also known to facilitate long-range communication and long-term potentiation (LTP). In the present study, we investigated how the characteristic rhythms found in local field potentials (LFPs) during non-REM and REM sleep play a role in emotional memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#20
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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