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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813785/a-pilot-study-on-the-optimal-speeds-for-passive-wrist-movements-by-a-rehabilitation-robot-of-stroke-patients-a-functional-nirs-study
#1
Sung Jin Bae, Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo, Pyung Hun Chang
The optimal conditions inducing proper brain activation during performance of rehabilitation robots should be examined to enhance the efficiency of robot rehabilitation based on the concept of brain plasticity. In this study, we attempted to investigate differences in cortical activation according to the speeds of passive wrist movements performed by a rehabilitation robot for stroke patients. 9 stroke patients with right hemiparesis participated in this study. Passive movements of the affected wrist were performed by the rehabilitation robot at three different speeds: 0...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813439/comparative-ecophysiology-of-a-critically-endangered-cr-ectotherm-implications-for-conservation-management
#2
Andrea F T Currylow, Angelo Mandimbihasina, Paul Gibbons, Ernest Bekarany, Craig B Stanford, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction. However, critical ecophysiological information of wild counterparts may not be well documented or understood, leading to years of minimal breeding successes. We collected endocrine and associated ecological data on a critically endangered ectotherm concurrently in the wild and in captivity over several years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813435/chronic-imaging-through-transparent-skull-in-mice
#3
Anna Steinzeig, Dmitry Molotkov, Eero Castrén
Growing interest in long-term visualization of cortical structure and function requires methods that allow observation of an intact cortex in longitudinal imaging studies. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the "transparent skull" (TS) preparation based on skull clearing with cyanoacrylate, which is applicable for long-term imaging through the intact skull in mice. We characterized the properties of the TS in imaging of intrinsic optical signals and compared them with the more conventional cranial window preparation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812713/female-plasticity-tends-to-reduce-sexual-conflict
#4
David V McLeod, Troy Day
Sexual conflict is the divergence of evolutionary interests between the sexes. A neglected aspect of sexual conflict theory is that the conflict often occurs within the female's body, which can lead to a power asymmetry between the sexes. In particular, the female may often be able to respond flexibly to the actions of the male, and so exhibits plasticity. Here, we consider the implications of female plasticity, and find that it tends to result in lower levels of sexual conflict. We then relate our results to a comparison of pre- versus post-copulatory sexual conflict, and we also show that this asymmetry between males and females reduces the likelihood of runaway selection, preventing co-evolutionary arms races...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812686/interactions-of-microplastic-debris-throughout-the-marine-ecosystem
#5
REVIEW
Tamara S Galloway, Matthew Cole, Ceri Lewis
Marine microscopic plastic (microplastic) debris is a modern societal issue, illustrating the challenge of balancing the convenience of plastic in daily life with the prospect of causing ecological harm by careless disposal. Here we develop the concept of microplastic as a complex, dynamic mixture of polymers and additives, to which organic material and contaminants can successively bind to form an 'ecocorona', increasing the density and surface charge of particles and changing their bioavailability and toxicity...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812677/species-specific-responses-to-ocean-acidification-should-account-for-local-adaptation-and-adaptive-plasticity
#6
Cristian A Vargas, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies, Cristian Duarte, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, Bernardo Broitman, Steve Widdicombe, Sam Dupont
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812675/spatial-complementarity-in-tree-crowns-explains-overyielding-in-species-mixtures
#7
Laura J Williams, Alain Paquette, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Christian Messier, Peter B Reich
Deciphering the mechanisms that link biodiversity with ecosystem functions is critical to understanding the consequences of changes in biodiversity. The hypothesis that complementarity and selection effects drive relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions is well accepted, and an approach to statistically untangle the relative importance of these effects has been widely applied. In contrast, empirical demonstrations of the biological mechanisms that underlie these relationships remain rare. Here, on the basis of a field experiment with young trees, we provide evidence that one form of complementarity in plant communities-complementarity among crowns in canopy space-is a mechanism, related to light interception and use, that links biodiversity with ecosystem productivity...
March 1, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812643/a-submarine-volcanic-eruption-leads-to-a-novel-microbial-habitat
#8
Roberto Danovaro, Miquel Canals, Michael Tangherlini, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cristina Gambi, Galderic Lastras, David Amblas, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Jaime Frigola, Antoni M Calafat, Rut Pedrosa-Pàmies, Jesus Rivera, Xavier Rayo, Cinzia Corinaldesi
Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812568/gene-expression-plasticity-as-a-mechanism-of-coral-adaptation-to-a-variable-environment
#9
Carly D Kenkel, Mikhail V Matz
Local adaptation is ubiquitous, but the molecular mechanisms that give rise to this ecological phenomenon remain largely unknown. A year-long reciprocal transplant of mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) between a highly environmentally variable inshore habitat and a more stable offshore habitat demonstrated that populations exhibit phenotypic signatures that are consistent with local adaptation. We characterized the genomic basis of this adaptation in both coral hosts and their intracellular symbionts (Symbiodinium sp...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#10
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812284/new-nanocomposites-of-polystyrene-with-polyaniline-doped-with-lauryl-sulfuric-acid
#11
A A Pud, O A Nikolayeva, L O Vretik, Yu V Noskov, N A Ogurtsov, O S Kruglyak, E A Fedorenko
This work is concentrated on synthesis and investigation of new core-shell nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) with doped polyaniline (PANI). The latex containing PS nanoparticles with sizes of 15-30 nm was prepared by microemulsion polymerization of styrene in water media. The PS/PANI nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the PS latex media in a presence of lauryl sulfuric acid (LSA), which served as both dopant and plasticizer. The real content of PANI in the synthesized nanocomposites was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy method...
August 15, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812182/rheological-characterization-of-molten-polymer-drug-dispersions-as-a-predictive-tool-for-pharmaceutical-hot-melt-extrusion-processability
#12
Jeroen Van Renterghem, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate (i) the influence of drug solid-state (crystalline or dissolved in the polymer matrix) on the melt viscosity and (ii) the influence of the drug concentration, temperature and shear rate on polymer crystallization using rheological tests. METHODS: Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) (100.000 g/mol) and physical mixtures (PM) containing 10-20-30-40% (w/w) ketoprofen or 10% (w/w) theophylline in PEO were rheologically characterized...
August 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812177/host-plant-species-differentiation-in-a-polyphagous-moth-olfaction-is-enough
#13
Lucie Conchou, Peter Anderson, Göran Birgersson
Polyphagous herbivorous insects need to discriminate suitable from unsuitable host plants in complex plant communities. While studies on the olfactory system of monophagous herbivores have revealed close adaptations to their host plant's characteristic volatiles, such adaptive fine-tuning is not possible when a large diversity of plants is suitable. Instead, the available literature on polyphagous herbivore preferences suggests a higher level of plasticity, and a bias towards previously experienced plant species...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812146/engineering-rhodosporidium-toruloides-for-the-production-of-very-long-chain-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-rich-oils
#14
Sandy Fillet, Carmen Ronchel, Carla Callejo, María-José Fajardo, Helena Moralejo, José L Adrio
Erucic acid (cis-docosa-13-enoic acid, C22:1∆13) and nervonic acid (cis-tetracosa-15-enoic acid, C24:1 ∆15) are important renewable feedstocks in plastic, cosmetic, nylon, and lubricant industries. Furthermore, nervonic acid is also applied to the treatment of some neurological diseases. However, the production of these two very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) is very limited as both are not present in the main vegetable oils (e.g., soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, and palm). Ectopic integration and heterologous expression of fatty acid elongases (3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases, KCS) from different plants in Rhodosporidium toruloides resulted in the de novo synthesis of erucic acid and nervonic acid in this oleaginous yeast...
August 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811558/cross-modal-plasticity-in-the-deaf-enhances-processing-of-masked-stimuli-in-the-visual-modality
#15
Seema Prasad, Gouri Shanker Patil, Ramesh Kumar Mishra
Compensatory changes as a result of auditory deprivation in the deaf lead to higher visual processing skills. In two experiments, we explored if such brain plasticity in the deaf modulates processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality. Deaf and normal-hearing participants responded to targets either voluntarily or by instruction. Masked primes related to the response were presented briefly before the targets at the center and the periphery. In Experiment 1, targets appeared only at the foveal region whereas, in Experiment 2, they appeared both at the fovea and the periphery...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811181/beneficial-effects-of-postnatal-choline-supplementation-on-long-term-neurocognitive-deficit-resulting-from-fetal-neonatal-iron-deficiency
#16
Bruce C Kennedy, Phu V Tran, Maulika Kohli, Jamie J Maertens, Jonathan C Gewirtz, Michael K Georgieff
Early-life iron deficiency is a common nutrient condition worldwide and can result in cognitive impairment in adulthood despite iron treatment. In rodents, prenatal choline supplementation can diminish long-term hippocampal gene dysregulation and neurocognitive deficits caused by iron deficiency. Since fetal iron status is generally unknown in humans, we determined whether postnatal choline supplementation exerts similar beneficial effects. Male rat pups were made iron deficient (ID) by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (3-6ppm Fe) from gestational day (G) 3 through postnatal day (P) 7, and an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200ppm Fe) thereafter...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811128/a-newly-synthesized-ligustrazine-stilbene-derivative-inhibits-pdgf-bb-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotypic-switch-and-proliferation-via-delaying-cell-cycle-progression
#17
Chunlian Peng, Siming Zhang, Haixin Liu, Yanxiao Jiao, Guifa Su, Yan Zhu
Vascular Smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess remarkable phenotype plasticity that allows it to rapidly adapt to fluctuating environmental cues, including the period of development and progression of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Although VSMC phenotypic switch is an attractive target, there is no effective drug so far. Using rat aortic VSMCs, we investigate the effects of Ligustrazine and its synthetic derivatives on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced proliferation and phenotypic switch by a cell image-based screening of 60 Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811042/understanding-readmissions-in-children-undergoing-surgery-a-pediatric-nsqip-analysis
#18
Afif N Kulaylat, Dorothy V Rocourt, Anthony Y Tsai, Kathryn L Martin, Brett W Engbrecht, Mary C Santos, Robert E Cilley, Christopher S Hollenbeak, Peter W Dillon
BACKGROUND: Readmission is increasingly being utilized as an important clinical outcome and measure of hospital quality. Our aim was to delineate rates, risk factors, and reasons for unplanned readmission in pediatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of pediatric patients (n=130,274) undergoing surgery (2013-2014) at hospitals enrolled in the Pediatric National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP-P) was performed. Logistic regression was used to model factors associated with unplanned 30-day readmission...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810920/erratum-to-genomic-innovations-transcriptional-plasticity-and-gene-loss-underlying-the-evolution-and-divergence-of-two-highly-polyphagous-and-invasive-helicoverpa-pest-species
#19
S L Pearce, D F Clarke, P D East, S Elfekih, K H J Gordon, L S Jermiin, A McGaughran, J G Oakeshott, A Papanicolaou, O P Perera, R V Rane, S Richards, W T Tay, T K Walsh, A Anderson, C J Anderson, S Asgari, P G Board, A Bretschneider, P M Campbell, T Chertemps, J T Christeller, C W Coppin, S J Downes, G Duan, C A Farnsworth, R T Good, L B Han, Y C Han, K Hatje, I Horne, Y P Huang, D S T Hughes, E Jacquin-Joly, W James, S Jhangiani, M Kollmar, S S Kuwar, S Li, N-Y Liu, M T Maibeche, J R Miller, N Montagne, T Perry, J Qu, S V Song, G G Sutton, H Vogel, B P Walenz, W Xu, H-J Zhang, Z Zou, P Batterham, O R Edwards, R Feyereisen, R A Gibbs, D G Heckel, A McGrath, C Robin, S E Scherer, K C Worley, Y D Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 15, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810456/components-of-preoperative-anxiety-a-qualitative-study
#20
Amy King, Jim Bartley, Deborah L Johanson, Elizabeth Broadbent
Limited research has explored preoperative anxiety through qualitative methodologies. This study aimed to identify specific factors that contribute to preoperative anxiety. A total of 17 patients awaiting general, plastic reconstructive and hand, orthopaedic, or ear, nose, and throat/otorhinolaryngology surgery were interviewed about their concerns in a public hospital. Thematic analysis identified five main sources of anxiety: surgical procedures, surgical complications, symptoms, recovery process, and organisation and delivery of care...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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