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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340530/effect-of-severe-plastic-deformation-on-structure-and-properties-of-al-sc-ta-and-al-sc-ti-alloys
#1
Alla Berezina, Tetiana Monastyrska, Olexandr Davydenko, Oleh Molebny, Sergey Polishchuk
The comparative analysis of the effect of monotonous and non-monotonous severe plastic deformations (SPD) on the structure and properties of aluminum alloys has been carried out. Conventional hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a constant deformation direction and equal-channel angular hydroextrusion (ECAH) with an abrupt change in the deformation direction were chosen for the cases of monotonous and non-monotonous SPD, respectively. Model cast hypoeutectic Al-0.3%Sc alloys and hypereutectic Al-0.6%Sc alloys with Ta and Ti additives were chosen for studying...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340434/potentially-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-of-methanogenesis-for-syntrophic-metabolism-under-sulfate-reducing-conditions-with-stainless-steel
#2
Yue Li, Yaobin Zhang, Yafei Yang, Xie Quan, Zhiqiang Zhao
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is an alternative to syntrophic metabolism in natural carbon cycle as well as in anaerobic digesters, but its function in anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater have not yet to be described. Here, conductive stainless steel was added into anaerobic digesters for treating sulfate-containing wastewater to investigate the potential role of DIET in the response to the sulfate impact. Results showed that adding the conductive stainless steel made the anaerobic digestion less affected by the sulfate reduction than adding insulative plastic material...
March 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340187/biofilm-adherence-and-hydrophobicity-as-virulence-factors-in-malassezia-furfur
#3
Letizia Angiolella, Claudia Leone, Florencia Rojas, Javier Mussin, María de Los Angeles Sosa, Gustavo Giusiano
Malassezia species are natural inhabitants of the healthy skin. However, under certain conditions, they may cause or exacerbate several skin diseases. The ability of this fungus to colonize or infect is determined by complex interactions between the fungal cell and its virulence factors. This study aims to evaluate "in vitro" the hydrophobicity levels, the adherence on a plastic surface and the biofilm formation of 16 clinical isolates of Malassezia furfur. Cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH) levels were determined by two-phase system...
March 9, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339976/effects-of-two-different-broiler-flooring-systems-on-production-performances-welfare-and-environment-under-commercial-production-conditions
#4
H Li, X Wen, R Alphin, Z Zhu, Z Zhou
Research comparing conventional litter and alternative perforated flooring (netting) systems is relatively limited under commercial production conditions. A comprehensive comparison of broiler production performances, welfare quality, and housing environment of two broiler houses with conventional litter and new perforated plastic floors was conducted over four flocks for eight months in eastern China. The two broiler houses each had 31,700 broilers per flock on average and were ventilated using a negative-pressure system...
March 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339948/effects-of-dietary-coarsely-ground-corn-and-3-bedding-floor-types-on-broiler-live-performance-litter-characteristics-gizzard-and-proventriculus-weight-and-nutrient-digestibility
#5
Y Xu, Y M Lin, C R Stark, P R Ferket, C M Williams, J Brake
The effects of zero or 50% dietary coarsely ground corn (CC) in pelleted and screened grower and finisher diets on broilers reared on 3 bedding floor types (plastic net [NET], new pine wood shavings litter [NEW], or old pine wood shavings litter [OLD]) on broiler live performance, litter characteristics, gizzard and proventriculus weight, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) were studied in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Fine corn was produced with a hammermill (271 μm) and CC with a roller mill (1145 μm)...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339828/single-session-of-functional-electrical-stimulation-assisted-walking-produces-corticomotor-symmetry-changes-related-to-changes-in-poststroke-walking-mechanics
#6
Jacqueline A Palmer, HaoYuan Hsiao, Tamara Wright, Stuart A Binder-Macleod
Background: Recent research demonstrated that symmetry of corticomotor drive to paretic and nonparetic plantarflexor muscles are related to the biomechanical ankle moment strategy that individuals with chronic stroke used to achieve their greatest walking speeds. Rehabilitation strategies that promote corticomotor balance could potentially improve post-stroke walking mechanics and enhance functional ambulation. Objective: To 1) test the effectiveness of a single session of gait training using functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve plantarflexor corticomotor symmetry and plantarflexion ankle moment symmetry and 2) determine if changes in corticomotor symmetry relate to changes in ankle moment symmetry within the session...
February 23, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339467/a-non-canonical-rna-degradation-pathway-suppresses-rnai-dependent-epimutations-in-the-human-fungal-pathogen-mucor-circinelloides
#7
Silvia Calo, Francisco E Nicolás, Soo Chan Lee, Ana Vila, Maria Cervantes, Santiago Torres-Martinez, Rosa M Ruiz-Vazquez, Maria E Cardenas, Joseph Heitman
Mucorales are a group of basal fungi that includes the casual agents of the human emerging disease mucormycosis. Recent studies revealed that these pathogens activate an RNAi-based pathway to rapidly generate drug-resistant epimutant strains when exposed to stressful compounds such as the antifungal drug FK506. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this epimutation pathway, we performed a genetic analysis in Mucor circinelloides that revealed an inhibitory role for the non-canonical RdRP-dependent Dicer-independent silencing pathway, which is an RNAi-based mechanism involved in mRNA degradation that was recently identified...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339247/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-fragility-of-freon-113-the-most-fragile-plastic-crystal
#8
A Vispa, M Romanini, M A Ramos, L C Pardo, F J Bermejo, M Hassaine, A I Krivchikov, J W Taylor, J Ll Tamarit
We present a dynamic and thermodynamic study of the orientational glass former Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CCl_{2}F-CClF_{2}) in order to analyze its kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities. Freon 113 displays internal molecular degrees of freedom that promote a complex energy landscape. Experimental specific heat and its microscopic origin, the vibrational density of states from inelastic neutron scattering, together with the orientational dynamics obtained by means of dielectric spectroscopy have revealed the highest fragility value, both thermodynamic and kinetic, found for this orientational glass former...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334879/altered-sleep-homeostasis-correlates-with-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-focal-epilepsy
#9
Melanie Boly, Benjamin Jones, Graham Findlay, Erin Plumley, Armand Mensen, Bruce Hermann, Guilio Tononi, Rama Maganti
In animal studies, both seizures and interictal spikes induce synaptic potentiation. Recent evidence suggests that electroencephalogram slow wave activity during sleep reflects synaptic potentiation during wake, and that its homeostatic decrease during the night is associated with synaptic renormalization and its beneficial effects. Here we asked whether epileptic activity induces plastic changes that can be revealed by high-density electroencephalography recordings during sleep in 15 patients with focal epilepsy and 15 control subjects...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334836/trypanosoma-brucei-rap1-maintains-telomere-and-subtelomere-integrity-by-suppressing-terra-and-telomeric-rna-dna-hybrids
#10
Vishal Nanavaty, Ranjodh Sandhu, Sanaa E Jehi, Unnati M Pandya, Bibo Li
Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen, VSG, thereby evading the host's immune response. VSGs are monoallelically expressed from subtelomeric expression sites (ESs), and VSG switching exploits subtelomere plasticity. However, subtelomere integrity is essential for T. brucei viability. The telomeric transcript, TERRA, was detected in T. brucei previously. We now show that the active ES-adjacent telomere is transcribed. We find that TbRAP1, a telomere protein essential for VSG silencing, suppresses VSG gene conversion-mediated switching...
March 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334640/mirnas-in-synapse-development-and-synaptic-plasticity
#11
REVIEW
Zhonghua Hu, Zheng Li
Synapses are functional units of the nervous system, through which information is transferred between neurons. The development and activity-dependent modification of synapses require temporally and spatially controlled modulation of gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as essential regulators of gene expression. They are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability and translation by interacting with the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNAs. miRNAs are located to neuronal processes to regulate protein synthesis locally and their expression is regulated by synaptic activity...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334604/the-potential-role-of-gap-junctional-plasticity-in-the-regulation-of-state
#12
REVIEW
Philippe Coulon, Carole E Landisman
Electrical synapses are the functional correlate of gap junctions and allow transmission of small molecules and electrical current between coupled neurons. Instead of static pores, electrical synapses are actually plastic, similar to chemical synapses. In the thalamocortical system, gap junctions couple inhibitory neurons that are similar in their biochemical profile, morphology, and electrophysiological properties. We postulate that electrical synaptic plasticity among inhibitory neurons directly interacts with the switching between different firing patterns in a state-dependent and type-dependent manner...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334601/a-tale-of-two-inputs
#13
James Ashley, Vivian Budnik
In this issue of Neuron, Newman et al. (2017) image calcium events at single synapses of unanesthetized Drosophila larvae. Synaptic plasticity and homeostatic regulation of synapses is established to be input specific. Furthermore, plasticity forms involve selective recruitment of previously active or silent synapses.
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334383/a-critical-role-of-inhibition-in-temporal-processing-maturation-in-the-primary-auditory-cortex
#14
Dongqin Cai, Rongrong Han, Miaomiao Liu, Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Yi Zheng, Limin Zhao, Jun Yao, Yiwei Wang, Yin Yue, Christoph E Schreiner, Kexin Yuan
Faithful representation of sound envelopes in primary auditory cortex (A1) is vital for temporal processing and perception of natural sounds. However, the emergence of cortical temporal processing mechanisms during development remains poorly understood. Although cortical inhibition has been proposed to play an important role in this process, direct in-vivo evidence has been lacking. Using loose-patch recordings in rat A1 immediately after hearing onset, we found that stimulus-following ability in fast-spiking neurons was significantly better than in regular-spiking (RS) neurons...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334371/comparative-study-of-functional-nasal-reconstruction-using-structural-reinforcement
#15
Waleed H Ezzat, Sara W Liu
Importance: Nasal reconstruction after Mohs surgery is a unique challenge in that it must satisfy both functional and aesthetic goals. Despite some advocacy in the literature for using structural reinforcement to achieve both functional and aesthetic outcomes in soft-tissue reconstruction, no study has validated this claim by comparing reconstruction with and without structural support. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of and need for structural reinforcement when reconstructing the nasal alar and sidewall subunits...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#16
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334297/the-knight-stick-trap-and-knight-stick-sticky-wraps-new-tools-for-stable-fly-diptera-muscidae-management
#17
Jerome A Hogsette, Daniel L Kline
Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), management can be difficult, especially in situations where pesticide usage is restricted or disallowed. Traps have been used for monitoring stable flies, but have rarely been used for management. The Knight Stick (KS) trap recently became available, and preliminary studies indicated that it might be an improvement to traps currently in use. The Olson Sticky Fly trap was chosen as the control trap for the purpose of comparisons. Both traps attract stable flies by alteration of light waves and capture flies on a sticky wrap covering the trap base...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334286/differences-in-the-photosynthetic-plasticity-of-ferns-and-ginkgo-grown-in-experimentally-controlled-low-o2-co2-atmospheres-may-explain-their-contrasting-ecological-fate-across-the-triassic-jurassic-mass-extinction-boundary
#18
C Yiotis, C Evans-Fitz Gerald, J C McElwain
Background and Aims: Fluctuations in [CO 2 ] have been widely studied as a potential driver of plant evolution; however, the role of a fluctuating [O 2 ]:[CO 2 ] ratio is often overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the inherent physiological plasticity of early diverging, extant species following acclimation to an atmosphere similar to that across the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction interval (TJB, approx. 200 Mya), a time of major ecological change. Methods: Mature plants from two angiosperm ( Drimys winteri and Chloranthus oldhamii ), two monilophyte ( Osmunda claytoniana and Cyathea australis ) and one gymnosperm ( Ginkgo biloba ) species were grown for 2 months in replicated walk-in Conviron BDW40 chambers running at TJB treatment conditions of 16 % [O 2 ]-1900 ppm [CO 2 ] and ambient conditions of 21 % [O 2 ]-400 ppm [CO 2 ], and their physiological plasticity was assessed using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence methods...
March 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334281/blocking-c-fos-expression-reveals-the-role-of-auditory-cortex-plasticity-in-sound-frequency-discrimination-learning
#19
Livia de Hoz, Dorota Gierej, Victoria Lioudyno, Jacek Jaworski, Magda Blazejczyk, Hugo Cruces-Solís, Anna Beroun, Tomasz Lebitko, Tomasz Nikolaev, Ewelina Knapska, Israel Nelken, Leszek Kaczmarek
The behavioral changes that comprise operant learning are associated with plasticity in early sensory cortices as well as with modulation of gene expression, but the connection between the behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular changes is only partially understood. We specifically manipulated c-Fos expression, a hallmark of learning-induced synaptic plasticity, in auditory cortex of adult mice using a novel approach based on RNA interference. Locally blocking c-Fos expression caused a specific behavioral deficit in a sound discrimination task, in parallel with decreased cortical experience-dependent plasticity, without affecting baseline excitability or basic auditory processing...
March 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334277/in-bone-metastasis-mir-34a-5p-absence-inversely-correlates-with-met-expression-while-met-oncogene-is-unaffected-by-mir-34a-5p-in-non-metastatic-and-metastatic-breast-carcinomas
#20
Paola Maroni, Rossella Puglisi, Gianfranco Mattia, Alessandra Carè, Emanuela Matteucci, Paola Bendinelli, Maria Alfonsina Desiderio
The highlight of the molecular basis and therapeutic targets of the bone-metastatic process requires the identification of biomarkers of metastasis colonization. Here, we studied miR-34a-5p expression, and Met-receptor expression and localization in bone metastases from ductal breast carcinomas, and in ductal carcinomas without history of metastasis (20 cases). miR-34a-5p was elevated in non-metastatic breast carcinoma, intermediate in the adjacent tissue and practically absent in bone metastases, opposite to pair-matched carcinoma...
March 16, 2017: Carcinogenesis
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