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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077589/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-prophylaxis-during-live-malaria-sporozoite-immunization-induces-long-lived-homologous-and-heterologous-protective-immunity-against-sporozoite-challenge
#2
Charlotte V Hobbs, Charles Anderson, Jillian Neal, Tejram Sahu, Solomon Conteh, Tatiana Voza, Jean Langhorne, William Borkowsky, Patrick E Duffy
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is widely used in malaria-endemic areas in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and HIV-uninfected, HIV-exposed children as opportunistic infection prophylaxis. Despite the known effects that TMP-SMX has in reducing clinical malaria, its impact on development of malaria-specific immunity in these children remains poorly understood. Using rodent malaria models, we previously showed that TMP-SMX, at prophylactic doses, can arrest liver stage development of malaria parasites and speculated that TMP-SMX prophylaxis during repeated malaria exposures would induce protective long-lived sterile immunity targeting pre-erythrocytic stage parasites in mice...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062360/determination-of-glutathione-redox-potential-and-ph-value-in-subcellular-compartments-of-malaria-parasites
#3
Franziska Mohring, Mahsa Rahbari, Bernd Zechmann, Stefan Rahlfs, Jude M Przyborski, Andreas J Meyer, Katja Becker
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to multiple sources of oxidative challenge during its complex life cycle in the Anopheles vector and its human host. In order to further elucidate redox-based parasite host cell interactions and mechanisms of drug action, we targeted the genetically encoded glutathione redox sensor roGFP2 coupled to human glutaredoxin 1 (roGFP2-hGrx1) as well as the ratiometric pH sensor pHluorin to the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of P. falciparum. Using live cell imaging, this allowed for the first time the determination of the pH values of the apicoplast (7...
January 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053159/complete-attenuation-of-genetically-engineered-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-in-human-subjects
#4
James G Kublin, Sebastian A Mikolajczak, Brandon K Sack, Matt E Fishbaugher, Annette Seilie, Lisa Shelton, Tracie VonGoedert, Melike Firat, Sara Magee, Emma Fritzen, Will Betz, Heather S Kain, Dorender A Dankwa, Ryan W J Steel, Ashley M Vaughan, D Noah Sather, Sean C Murphy, Stefan H I Kappe
Immunization of humans with whole sporozoites confers complete, sterilizing immunity against malaria infection. However, achieving consistent safety while maintaining immunogenicity of whole parasite vaccines remains a formidable challenge. We generated a genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria parasite by deleting three genes expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stage (Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-)). We then tested the safety and immunogenicity of the genetically engineered (Pf GAP3KO) sporozoites in human volunteers...
January 4, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049486/towards-eliminating-malaria-in-high-endemic-countries-the-roles-of-community-health-workers-and-related-cadres-and-their-challenges-in-integrated-community-case-management-for-malaria-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Bruno F Sunguya, Linda B Mlunde, Rakesh Ayer, Masamine Jimba
BACKGROUND: Human resource for health crisis has impaired global efforts against malaria in highly endemic countries. To address this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended scaling-up of community health workers (CHWs) and related cadres owing to their documented success in malaria and other disease prevention and management. Evidence is inconsistent on the roles and challenges they encounter in malaria interventions. This systematic review aims to summarize evidence on roles and challenges of CHWs and related cadres in integrated community case management for malaria (iCCM)...
January 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038325/synthesis-biological-characterisation-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-aromatic-bisamidines-active-against-plasmodium-falciparum
#6
B Sauer, T S Skinner-Adams, A Bouchut, M J Chua, C Pierrot, F Erdmann, D Robaa, M Schmidt, J Khalife, K T Andrews, W Sippl
Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases and remains a major challenge due to the lack of a broadly effective vaccine and parasite resistance to current drugs. This means there is a need for new drug candidates with novel modes of action. Aromatic bisamidines, such as furamidine (DB75), were initially developed as anti-Trypanosoma agents however as clinical trials with furamidine highlighted potential side effects they were not pursued further in that setting. Despite apparent cytotoxicity liabilities the potency of furamidine against Plasmodium falciparum makes it a promising scaffold for the development of new anti-Plasmodium agents with improved selectivity...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031267/assessment-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-pre-erythrocytic-antigen-uis3-as-a-potential-candidate-for-a-malaria-vaccine
#7
Rhea J Longley, Benedict R Halbroth, Ahmed M Salman, Katie J Ewer, Susanne H Hodgson, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan, Adrian V S Hill, Alexandra J Spencer
Efforts are currently underway to improve the efficacy of sub-unit malaria vaccines through assessment of new adjuvants, vaccination platforms and antigens. In this study, we further assess the antigen P. falciparum (Pf) upregulated in infective sporozoites 3 (PfUIS3) as a vaccine candidate. PfUIS3 was expressed in the viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and used to immunize mice in a prime-boost regimen. We previously demonstrated that this regimen could provide partial protection against challenge with chimeric P...
December 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009103/experts-perceptions-on-china-s-capacity-to-manage-emerging-and-re-emerging-zoonotic-diseases-in-an-era-of-climate-change
#8
A Hansen, J Xiang, Q Liu, M X Tong, Y Sun, X Liu, K Chen, S Cameron, S Hanson-Easey, G-S Han, P Weinstein, C Williams, P Bi
Zoonotic diseases transmitted by arthropods and rodents are a major public health concern in China. However, interventions in recent decades have helped lower the incidence of several diseases despite the country's large, frequently mobile population and socio-economic challenges. Increasing globalization, rapid urbanization and a warming climate now add to the complexity of disease control and prevention and could challenge China's capacity to respond to threats of emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. To investigate this notion, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 30 infectious disease experts in four cities in China...
December 23, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007921/mosquito-behaviour-change-after-distribution-of-bednets-results-in-decreased-protection-against-malaria-exposure
#9
Edward K Thomsen, Gussy Koimbu, Justin Pulford, Sharon Jamea-Maiasa, Yangta Ura, John B Keven, Peter M Siba, Ivo Mueller, Manuel W Hetzel, Lisa J Reimer
BACKGROUND: Behavioural resilience in mosquitoes poses a significant challenge to mosquito control. Although behaviour changes in anopheline vectors have been reported over the last decade, there are no empirical data to suggest they compromise the efficacy of vector control in reducing malaria transmission. METHODS: In this study, we quantified human exposure to both bites and infective bites of a major malaria vector in Papua New Guinea over the course of four years surrounding a nationwide bednet distribution...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000709/characterization-of-a-novel-inhibitory-human-monoclonal-antibody-directed-against-plasmodium-falciparum-apical-membrane-antigen-1
#10
Dominika J Maskus, Michał Królik, Susanne Bethke, Holger Spiegel, Stephanie Kapelski, Melanie Seidel, Otchere Addai-Mensah, Andreas Reimann, Torsten Klockenbring, Stefan Barth, Rainer Fischer, Rolf Fendel
Malaria remains a major challenge to global health causing extensive morbidity and mortality. Yet, there is no efficient vaccine and the immune response remains incompletely understood. Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), a leading vaccine candidate, plays a key role during merozoite invasion into erythrocytes by interacting with Rhoptry Neck Protein 2 (RON2). We generated a human anti-AMA1-antibody (humAbAMA1) by EBV-transformation of sorted B-lymphocytes from a Ghanaian donor and subsequent rescue of antibody variable regions...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982302/successful-application-of-virtual-screening-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-against-antimalarial-molecular-targets
#11
Renata Rachide Nunes, Marina Dos Santos Costa, Bianca Dos Reis Santos, Amanda Luisa da Fonseca, Lorena Sales Ferreira, Rafael Cesar Russo Chagas, Alisson Marques da Silva, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, Alex Gutterres Taranto
The main challenge in the control of malaria has been the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. The presence of drug-resistant Plasmodium sp. has raised the need for new antimalarial drugs. Molecular modelling techniques have been used as tools to develop new drugs. In this study, we employed virtual screening of a pyrazol derivative (Tx001) against four malaria targets: plasmepsin-IV, plasmepsin-II, falcipain-II, and PfATP6. The receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were established for each molecular target...
December 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941102/impact-of-improving-community-based-access-to-malaria-diagnosis-and-treatment-on-household-costs
#12
Joëlle Castellani, Jesca Nsungwa-Sabiiti, Borislava Mihaylova, IkeOluwapo O Ajayi, Mohamadou Siribié, Chinenye Afonne, Andrew Balyeku, Luc Sermé, Armande K Sanou, Benjamin S Sombié, Alfred B Tiono, Sodiomon B Sirima, Vanessa Kabarungi, Catherine O Falade, Josephine Kyaligonza, Silvia M A A Evers, Aggie T G Paulus, Max Petzold, Jan Singlovic, Melba Gomes
BACKGROUND:  Community health workers (CHWs) were trained in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Uganda to diagnose febrile children using malaria rapid diagnostic tests, and treat positive malaria cases with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and those who could not take oral medicines with rectal artesunate. We quantified the impact of this intervention on private household costs for childhood febrile illness. METHODS:  Households with recent febrile illness in a young child in previous 2 weeks were selected randomly before and during the intervention and data obtained on household costs for the illness episode...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938369/achieving-development-goals-for-hiv-tuberculosis-and-malaria-in-sub-saharan-africa-through-integrated-antenatal-care-barriers-and-challenges
#13
EDITORIAL
Freya J I Fowkes, Bridget L Draper, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
BACKGROUND: The global health community is currently transitioning from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Unfortunately, progress towards maternal, newborn and infant health MDGs has lagged significantly behind other key health goals, demanding a renewed global effort in this key health area. The World Health Organization and other institutions heralded integrated antenatal care (ANC) as the best way to address the inter-related health issues of HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria in the high risk groups of pregnant women and infants; integrated ANC services also offer a mechanism to address slow progress towards improved maternal health...
December 12, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931232/retention-in-georgia-opioid-substitution-therapy-program-and-associated-factors
#14
Ekaterine Ruadze, Khatuna Todadze
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse has been considered as a growing challenge in Georgia that is closely linked with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C transmission due to unsafe injection and other uncontrolled behaviors. Methadone maintenance therapy is one of the major treatment options for opioid-dependent individuals. It has proven efficacy in decreasing illegal opioid consumption and criminal behavior as well as reducing the level of HIV infection, mortality, HCV infection, and increasing social functioning...
December 8, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912985/immunogenicity-and-malaria-transmission-reducing-potency-of-pfs48-45-and-pfs25-encoded-by-dna-vaccines-administered-by-intramuscular-electroporation
#15
Dibyadyuti Datta, Geetha P Bansal, Dietlind L Gerloff, Barry Ellefsen, Drew Hannaman, Nirbhay Kumar
Pfs48/45 and Pfs25 are leading candidates for the development of Plasmodium falciparum transmission blocking vaccines (TBV). Expression of Pfs48/45 in the erythrocytic sexual stages and presentation to the immune system during infection in the human host also makes it ideal for natural boosting. However, it has been challenging to produce a fully folded, functionally active Pfs48/45, using various protein expression platforms. In this study, we demonstrate that full-length Pfs48/45 encoded by DNA plasmids is able to induce significant transmission reducing immune responses...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906962/population-density-climate-variables-and-poverty-synergistically-structure-spatial-risk-in-urban-malaria-in-india
#16
Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J Bouma, Vijay Kohli, Mercedes Pascual
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891232/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections-in-blood-donors-of-pakistan
#17
Aisha Arshad, Munira Borhany, Nida Anwar, Imran Naseer, Rehan Ansari, Samson Boota, Naveena Fatima, Mustansir Zaidi, Tahir Shamsi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients requiring blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood products that are still affordable in health care systems with limited resources. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donors and to evaluate the demographic characteristics of reactive and non-reactive blood donors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at our institute in Karachi, Pakistan...
2016: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880764/malaria-elimination-campaigns-in-the-lake-kariba-region-of-zambia-a-spatial-dynamical-model
#18
Milen Nikolov, Caitlin A Bever, Alexander Upfill-Brown, Busiku Hamainza, John M Miller, Philip A Eckhoff, Edward A Wenger, Jaline Gerardin
As more regions approach malaria elimination, understanding how different interventions interact to reduce transmission becomes critical. The Lake Kariba area of Southern Province, Zambia, is part of a multi-country elimination effort and presents a particular challenge as it is an interconnected region of variable transmission intensities. In 2012-13, six rounds of mass test-and-treat drug campaigns were carried out in the Lake Kariba region. A spatial dynamical model of malaria transmission in the Lake Kariba area, with transmission and climate modeled at the village scale, was calibrated to the 2012-13 prevalence survey data, with case management rates, insecticide-treated net usage, and drug campaign coverage informed by surveillance...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#19
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836912/biology-of-malaria-transmission
#20
Elamaran Meibalan, Matthias Marti
Understanding transmission biology at an individual level is a key component of intervention strategies that target the spread of malaria parasites from human to mosquito. Gametocytes are specialized sexual stages of the malaria parasite life cycle developed during evolution to achieve crucial steps in transmission. As sexual differentiation and transmission are tightly linked, a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular events defining this relationship is essential to combat malaria. Recent advances in the field are gradually revealing mechanisms underlying sexual commitment, gametocyte sequestration, and dynamics of transmissible stages; however, key questions on fundamental gametocyte biology still remain...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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