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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820709/performance-of-a-high-sensitivity-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-asymptomatic-individuals-from-uganda-and-myanmar-and-naive-human-challenge-infections
#1
Smita Das, Ihn Kyung Jang, Becky Barney, Roger Peck, John C Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Harriet Adrama, Maxwell Murphy, Mallika Imwong, Clare L Ling, Stephane Proux, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Melissa Rist, Annette M Seilie, Amelia Hanron, Glenda Daza, Ming Chang, Tomoka Nakamura, Michael Kalnoky, Paul Labarre, Sean C Murphy, James S McCarthy, Francois Nosten, Bryan Greenhouse, Sophie Allauzen, Gonzalo J Domingo
Sensitive field-deployable diagnostic tests can assist malaria programs in achieving elimination. The performance of a new Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f Ultra Sensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT) was compared with the currently available SD Bioline Malaria Ag P.f RDT in blood specimens from asymptomatic individuals in Nagongera, Uganda, and in a Karen Village, Myanmar, representative of high- and low-transmission areas, respectively, as well as in pretreatment specimens from study participants from four Plasmodium falciparum-induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) studies...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810866/the-development-of-an-ivermectin-based-attractive-toxic-sugar-bait-atsb-to-target-anopheles-arabiensis
#2
Frank Chelestino Tenywa, Athumani Kambagha, Adam Saddler, Marta Ferreira Maia
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are moving towards malaria-elimination, mostly thanks to successful vector control campaigns. However, elimination has proven challenging, resulting in the persistence of malaria transmission. It is now accepted that in order to eliminate malaria, new complementary vector control approaches must be developed. This study describes the development of a sugar-baited resting place containing a toxic dose of ivermectin for the control of Anopheles arabiensis...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810125/cheminformatic-analysis-of-anti-malarial-chemical-space-illuminates-therapeutic-mechanisms-and-offers-strategies-for-therapy-development
#3
Julia Nogueira Varela, María Fernanda Fernanda Lammoglia Cobo, Sandip V Pawar, Vikramaditya G Yadav
The clear and present danger of malaria, which has been amplified in recent years by climate change, and the progressive thinning of our drug arsenal over the past two decades raise uncomfortable questions about the current state and future of anti-malarial drug development. Besides suffering from many of the same technical challenges that affect drug development in other disease areas, the quest for new anti-malarial therapies is also hindered by the complex, dynamic life cycle of the malaria parasite, P. falciparum, in its mosquito and human hosts, and its role thereof in the elicitation of drug resistance...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797253/first-record-of-anopheles-stephensi-in-sri-lanka-a-potential-challenge-for-prevention-of-malaria-reintroduction
#4
A G Gayan Dharmasiri, A Yashan Perera, Jeevanie Harishchandra, Hemantha Herath, Kandasamy Aravindan, H T R Jayasooriya, Gaya R Ranawaka, Mihirini Hewavitharane
BACKGROUND: The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. METHODS: A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782517/structural-analysis-of-owl-monkey-mhc-dr-shows-that-fully-protective-malaria-vaccine-components-can-be-readily-used-in-humans
#5
Carlos F Suárez, Laura Pabón, Ana Barrera, Jorge Aza-Conde, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo
More than 50 years ago the owl monkey (genus Aotus) was found to be highly susceptible to developing human malaria, making it an excellent experimental model for this disease. Microbes and parasites' (especially malaria) tremendous genetic variability became resolved during our malaria vaccine development, involving conserved peptides having high host cell binding activity (cHABPs); however, cHABPs are immunologically silent and must be specially modified (mHABPs) to induce a perfect fit into major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (HLA in humans)...
August 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747381/rapid-evolution-of-female-biased-genes-among-four-species-of-anopheles-malaria-mosquitoes
#6
Francesco Papa, Nikolai Windbichler, Robert M Waterhouse, Alessia Cagnetti, Rocco D'Amato, Tania Persampieri, Mara K N Lawniczak, Tony Nolan, Philippos A Papathanos
Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes...
July 26, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722582/population-movement-as-a-risk-factor-for-malaria-infection-in-high-altitude-villages-of-tahtay-maychew-district-tigray-northern-ethiopia-a-case-ccontrol-study
#7
Mebrahtom Haile, Hailemariam Lemma, Yemane Weldu
Key goal and targets of the Ethiopian national malaria control strategy are to achieve malaria elimination within specific geographical areas with historically low malaria transmission and to reach near-zero malaria transmission in the remaining malarious areas by 2020. However, back and forth population movement between high-transmission and low-transmission area imposes challenge on the success of national malaria control programs. Therefore, examining the effect of human movement and identification of at-risk populations is crucial in an elimination setting...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702028/immunization-with-the-malaria-diversity-covering-blood-stage-vaccine-candidate-plasmodium-falciparum-apical-membrane-antigen-1-dico-in-complex-with-its-natural-ligand-pfron2-does-not-improve-the-in-vitro-efficacy
#8
Holger Spiegel, Alexander Boes, Rolf Fendel, Andreas Reimann, Stefan Schillberg, Rainer Fischer
The blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) can induce strong parasite growth-inhibitory antibody responses in animals but has not achieved the anticipated efficacy in clinical trials. Possible explanations in humans are the insufficient potency of the elicited antibody responses, as well as the high degree of sequence polymorphisms found in the field. Several strategies have been developed to improve the cross-strain coverage of PfAMA1-based vaccines, whereas innovative concepts to increase the potency of PfAMA1-specific IgG responses have received little attention even though this may be an essential requirement for protective efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673996/host-mediated-impairment-of-parasite-maturation-during-blood-stage-plasmodium-infection
#9
David S Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Jasmin Akter, Ismail Sebina, Trish Elliott, Bryce S Thomas, Megan S F Soon, Kylie R James, Shannon E Best, Ashraful Haque, Miles P Davenport
Severe malaria and associated high parasite burdens occur more frequently in humans lacking robust adaptive immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Nevertheless, the host may partly control blood-stage parasite numbers while adaptive immunity is gradually established. Parasite control has typically been attributed to enhanced removal of parasites by the host, although in vivo quantification of this phenomenon remains challenging. We used a unique in vivo approach to determine the fate of a single cohort of semisynchronous, Plasmodium berghei ANKA- or Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL-parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) after transfusion into naive or acutely infected mice...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673287/new-gorilla-adenovirus-vaccine-vectors-induce-potent-immune-responses-and-protection-in-a-mouse-malaria-model
#10
Keith Limbach, Maureen Stefaniak, Ping Chen, Noelle B Patterson, Grant Liao, Shaojie Weng, Svetlana Krepkiy, Greg Ekberg, Holly Torano, Damodar Ettyreddy, Kalpana Gowda, Sharvari Sonawane, Arnel Belmonte, Esteban Abot, Martha Sedegah, Michael R Hollingdale, Ann Moormann, John Vulule, Eileen Villasante, Thomas L Richie, Douglas E Brough, Joseph T Bruder
BACKGROUND: A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655825/a-plastid-protein-that-evolved-from-ubiquitin-and-is-required-for-apicoplast-protein-import-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Justin D Fellows, Michael J Cipriano, Swati Agrawal, Boris Striepen
Apicomplexan parasites cause a variety of important infectious diseases, including malaria, toxoplasma encephalitis, and severe diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium Most apicomplexans depend on an organelle called the apicoplast which is derived from a red algal endosymbiont. The apicoplast is essential for the parasite as the compartment of fatty acid, heme, and isoprenoid biosynthesis. The majority of the approximate 500 apicoplast proteins are nucleus encoded and have to be imported across the four membranes that surround the apicoplast...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655315/comparison-of-apoptosis-in-human-primary-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-and-a-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cell-line-co-cultured-with-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates
#12
Jean Claude Biteghe Bi Essone, Nadine N'Dilimabaka, Julien Ondzaga, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Dieudonné Nkoghe Mba, Philippe Deloron, Dominique Mazier, Frédrérick Gay, Fousseyni S Touré Ndouo
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infection can progress unpredictably to severe forms including respiratory distress and cerebral malaria. The mechanisms underlying the variable natural course of malaria remain elusive. METHODS: The cerebral microvascular endothelial cells-D3 and lung endothelial cells both from human were cultured separately and challenged with P. falciparum field isolates taken directly from malaria patients or 3D7 strain (in vitro maintained culture)...
June 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646586/vaccine-candidate-discovery-for-the-next-generation-of-malaria-vaccines
#13
REVIEW
James Tuju, Gathoni Kamuyu, Linda M Murungi, Faith H A Osier
Although epidemiological observations, IgG passive transfer studies and experimental infections in humans all support the feasibility of developing highly effective malaria vaccines, the precise antigens that induce protective immunity remain uncertain. Here, we review the methodologies applied to vaccine candidate discovery for Plasmodium falciparum malaria from the pre- to post- genomic era. Probing of genomic and/or cDNA libraries with antibodies of defined specificities or functional activity predominated the former, while reverse vaccinology encompassing high throughput in silico analyses of genomic, transcriptomic or proteomic parasite datasets is the mainstay of the latter...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619071/new-adenovirus-based-vaccine-vectors-targeting-pfs25-elicit-antibodies-that-inhibit-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission
#14
Kathleen A McGuire, Kazutoyo Miura, Christopher M Wiethoff, Kim C Williamson
BACKGROUND: An effective malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) would be a major advance in the current efforts to eliminate and, ultimately, eradicate malaria. Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum surface protein, Pfs25, are known to block parasite development in the mosquito vector. However, in initial clinical trials the limited immunogenicity of recombinant Pfs25 protein-in-adjuvant vaccines has been a challenge. METHODS: Novel human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors were used in heterologous prime boost vaccination strategies to augment the immune response against Pfs25...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607435/preferential-suppression-of-anopheles-gambiae-host-sequences-allows-detection-of-the-mosquito-eukaryotic-microbiome
#15
Eugeni Belda, Boubacar Coulibaly, Abdrahamane Fofana, Abdoul H Beavogui, Sekou F Traore, Daryl M Gohl, Kenneth D Vernick, Michelle M Riehle
Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The vector microbiota is a likely factor influencing parasite transmission. The prokaryotic microbiota of mosquitoes is efficiently surveyed by sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. However, identification of the eukaryotic microbiota by targeting the 18s rRNA gene is challenging due to simultaneous amplification of the abundant 18s rRNA gene target in the mosquito host. Consequently, the eukaryotic microbial diversity of mosquitoes is vastly underexplored...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603136/report-unsupervised-identification-of-malaria-parasites-using-computer-vision
#16
Najeed Ahmed Khan, Hassan Pervaz, Arsalan Latif, Ayesha Musharaff
Malaria in human is a serious and fatal tropical disease. This disease results from Anopheles mosquitoes that are infected by Plasmodium species. The clinical diagnosis of malaria based on the history, symptoms and clinical findings must always be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria involves identification of malaria parasite or its antigen / products in the blood of the patient. Manual diagnosis of malaria parasite by the pathologists has proven to become cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need of automatic, efficient and accurate identification of malaria parasite...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596090/liposomes-containing-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-qs-21-serve-as-an-effective-adjuvant-for-soluble-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine-fmp013
#17
Christopher J Genito, Zoltan Beck, Timothy W Phares, Fanta Kalle, Keith J Limbach, Maureen E Stefaniak, Noelle B Patterson, Elke S Bergmann-Leitner, Norman C Waters, Gary R Matyas, Carl R Alving, Sheetij Dutta
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continues to threaten millions of people living in the tropical parts of the world. A vaccine that confers sterile and life-long protection remains elusive despite more than 30years of effort and resources invested in solving this problem. Antibodies to a malaria vaccine candidate circumsporozoite protein (CSP) can block invasion and can protect humans against malaria. We have manufactured the Falciparum Malaria Protein-013 (FMP013) vaccine based on the nearly full-length P...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588574/predicting-rts-s-vaccine-mediated-protection-from-transcriptomes-in-a-malaria-challenge-clinical-trial
#18
Robert A van den Berg, Margherita Coccia, W Ripley Ballou, Kent E Kester, Christian F Ockenhouse, Johan Vekemans, Erik Jongert, Arnaud M Didierlaurent, Robbert G van der Most
The RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine can protect against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), but how protection is achieved remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptome and immunogenicity data from a clinical efficacy trial in which healthy adults received three RTS,S doses 4 weeks apart followed by CHMI 2 weeks later. Multiway partial least squares discriminant analysis (N-PLS-DA) of transcriptome data identified 110 genes that could be used in predictive models of protection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576979/controlled-human-malaria-infection-leads-to-long-lasting-changes-in-innate-and-innate-like-lymphocyte-populations
#19
Maxmillian Mpina, Nicholas J Maurice, Masanao Yajima, Chloe K Slichter, Hannah W Miller, Mukta Dutta, M Juliana McElrath, Kenneth D Stuart, Stephen C De Rosa, John P McNevin, Peter S Linsley, Salim Abdulla, Marcel Tanner, Stephen L Hoffman, Raphael Gottardo, Claudia A Daubenberger, Martin Prlic
Animal model studies highlight the role of innate-like lymphocyte populations in the early inflammatory response and subsequent parasite control following Plasmodium infection. IFN-γ production by these lymphocytes likely plays a key role in the early control of the parasite and disease severity. Analyzing human innate-like T cell and NK cell responses following infection with Plasmodium has been challenging because the early stages of infection are clinically silent. To overcome this limitation, we examined blood samples from a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study in a Tanzanian cohort, in which volunteers underwent CHMI with a low or high dose of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531310/nascent-rna-sequencing-reveals-mechanisms-of-gene-regulation-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Xueqing Maggie Lu, Gayani Batugedara, Michael Lee, Jacques Prudhomme, Evelien M Bunnik, Karine G Le Roch
Gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum is tightly regulated to ensure successful propagation of the parasite throughout its complex life cycle. The earliest transcriptomics studies in P. falciparum suggested a cascade of transcriptional activity over the course of the 48-hour intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC); however, the just-in-time transcriptional model has recently been challenged by findings that show the importance of post-transcriptional regulation. To further explore the role of transcriptional regulation, we performed the first genome-wide nascent RNA profiling in P...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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