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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401670/converging-human-and-malaria-vector-diagnostics-with-data-management-towards-an-integrated-holistic-one-health-approach
#1
REVIEW
Konstantinos Mitsakakis, Sebastian Hin, Pie Müller, Nadja Wipf, Edward Thomsen, Michael Coleman, Roland Zengerle, John Vontas, Konstantinos Mavridis
Monitoring malaria prevalence in humans, as well as vector populations, for the presence of Plasmodium, is an integral component of effective malaria control, and eventually, elimination. In the field of human diagnostics, a major challenge is the ability to define, precisely, the causative agent of fever, thereby differentiating among several candidate (also non-malaria) febrile diseases. This requires genetic-based pathogen identification and multiplexed analysis, which, in combination, are hardly provided by the current gold standard diagnostic tools...
February 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397427/poly-i-c-adjuvant-strongly-enhances-parasite-inhibitory-antibodies-and-th1-response-against-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-surface-protein-1-42-kda-fragment-in-balb-c-mice
#2
Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Niloufar Rezvani, Sedigheh Zakeri, Atefeh Gholami, Laleh Babaeekhou
Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 142 (PfMSP-142) is a promising vaccine candidate for blood stage of malaria that has faced several difficulties in clinical trials, mainly due to improper adjuvants...
February 3, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382292/interpreting-challenge-data-from-early-phase-malaria-blood-stage-vaccine-trials
#3
Michael F Good, Louis H Miller
Introduction As the quest for an effective blood stage malaria vaccine continues, there is increasing reliance on the use of controlled human malaria infections (CHMI) in non-endemic settings to test vaccine efficacy at the earliest possible time. This is seen as a way to accelerate vaccine research and quickly eliminate candidates with poor efficacy. Areas covered The data from these studies need to be carefully examined and interpreted in light of the very different roles that antibody and cellular immunity play in protection and within the context of the distinct clinical sensitivities of volunteers living in malaria-non-endemic countries compared to those living in endemic countries...
January 30, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358287/using-yeast-synthetic-lethality-to-inform-drug-combination-for-malaria
#4
Suvitha Subramaniam, Christoph D Schmid, Xue Li Guan, Pascal Mäser
Combinatorial chemotherapy is imperative for the treatment of malaria. However, finding a suitable partner drug for a new candidate is challenging. Here we develop an algorithm that identifies all the gene pairs of Plasmodium falciparum which possess orthologues in yeast that have a synthetic lethal interaction, but are absent in humans. This suggests new options for drug combinations, in particular for inhibitors of targets like P. falciparum calcineurin, cation ATPase 4, or phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
January 22, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355852/drug-resistance-in-plasmodium
#5
REVIEW
Kasturi Haldar, Souvik Bhattacharjee, Innocent Safeukui
A marked decrease in malaria-related deaths worldwide has been attributed to the administration of effective antimalarials against Plasmodium falciparum, in particular, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Increasingly, ACTs are also used to treat Plasmodium vivax, the second major human malaria parasite. However, resistance to frontline artemisinins and partner drugs is now causing the failure of P. falciparum ACTs in southeast Asia. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of markers and mechanisms of resistance to artemisinins and ACTs...
January 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348479/prime-boost-vaccination-with-recombinant-protein-and-adenovirus-vector-expressing-plasmodium-vivax-circumsporozoite-protein-csp-partially-protects-mice-against-pb-pv-sporozoite-challenge
#6
Tarsila Mendes de Camargo, Elisângela Oliveira de Freitas, Alba Marina Gimenez, Luciana Chagas Lima, Karina de Almeida Caramico, Kátia Sanches Françoso, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Chiara Andolina, François Nosten, Laurent Rénia, Hildegund C J Ertl, Ruth S Nussenzweig, Victor Nussenzweig, Mauricio M Rodrigues, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Irene S Soares
Vaccine development against Plasmodium vivax malaria lags behind that for Plasmodium falciparum. To narrow this gap, we administered recombinant antigens based on P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP) to mice. We expressed in Pichia pastoris two chimeric proteins by merging the three central repeat regions of different CSP alleles (VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like). The first construct (yPvCSP-AllFL) contained the fused repeat regions flanked by N- and C-terminal regions. The second construct (yPvCSP-AllCT) contained the fused repeat regions and the C-terminal domain, plus RI region...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348295/tuning%C3%A2-crispr-cas9-gene-drives-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Emily Roggenkamp, Rachael M Giersch, Madison N Schrock, Emily Turnquist, Megan Halloran, Gregory C Finnigan
Control of biological populations is an ongoing challenge in many fields including agriculture, biodiversity, ecological preservation, pest control, and the spread of disease. In some cases, such as insects that harbor human pathogens (e.g. malaria), elimination or reduction of a small number of species would have a dramatic impact across the globe. Given the recent discovery and development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, a unique arrangement of this system-a nuclease based "gene drive"-allows for the Super-Mendelian spread and forced propagation of a genetic element through a population...
January 18, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345369/memory-b-cell-heterogeneity-remembrance-of-things-past
#8
REVIEW
Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Marion Pepper
B cells that persist for long periods of time after antigen encounter exist as either antibody-producing plasma cells (long-lived plasma cells, LLPCs) that reside primarily in the bone marrow or rapidly responsive memory B cells (MBCs) that reside in the spleen and circulation. Although LLPCs are thought to be non-responsive to a secondary infection, MBCs respond to subsequent infection through the production of antibody-secreting cells, formation of new germinal centers (GCs), and repopulation of the memory pool...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338736/spatial-panorama-of-malaria-prevalence-in-africa-under-climate-change-and-interventions-scenarios
#9
Francois M Moukam Kakmeni, Ritter Y A Guimapi, Frank T Ndjomatchoua, Sansoa A Pedro, James Mutunga, Henri E Z Tonnang
BACKGROUND: Malaria is highly sensitive to climatic variables and is strongly influenced by the presence of vectors in a region that further contribute to parasite development and sustained disease transmission. Mathematical analysis of malaria transmission through the use and application of the value of the basic reproduction number (R0) threshold is an important and useful tool for the understanding of disease patterns. METHODS: Temperature dependence aspect of R0 obtained from dynamical mathematical network model was used to derive the spatial distribution maps for malaria transmission under different climatic and intervention scenarios...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330676/quantitative-outcomes-of-a-one-health-approach-to-study-global-health-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Laura C Falzon, Isabel Lechner, Ilias Chantziaras, Lucie Collineau, Aurélie Courcoul, Maria-Eleni Filippitzi, Riikka Laukkanen-Ninios, Carole Peroz, Jorge Pinto Ferreira, Merel Postma, Pia G Prestmo, Clare J Phythian, Eleonora Sarno, Gerty Vanantwerpen, Timothée Vergne, Douglas J C Grindlay, Marnie L Brennan
Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis...
January 12, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330325/cutting-edge-plasmodium-falciparum-induces-trained-innate-immunity
#11
Jacob E Schrum, Juliet N Crabtree, Katherine R Dobbs, Michael C Kiritsy, George W Reed, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, Mihai G Netea, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Douglas T Golenbock
Malarial infection in naive individuals induces a robust innate immune response. In the recently described model of innate immune memory, an initial stimulus primes the innate immune system to either hyperrespond (termed training) or hyporespond (tolerance) to subsequent immune challenge. Previous work in both mice and humans demonstrated that infection with malaria can both serve as a priming stimulus and promote tolerance to subsequent infection. In this study, we demonstrate that initial stimulation with Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs or the malaria crystal hemozoin induced human adherent PBMCs to hyperrespond to subsequent ligation of TLR2...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316918/in-silico-epitope-mapping-and-experimental-evaluation-of-the-merozoite-adhesive-erythrocytic-binding-protein-maebl-as-a-malaria-vaccine-candidate
#12
Pedro Cravo, Renato B Machado, Juliana A Leite, Taizy Leda, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Najara Bittencourt, Letusa Albrecht, Carla Judice, Stefanie C P Lopes, Marcus V G Lacerda, Marcelo U Ferreira, Irene S Soares, Yun Shan Goh, Daniel Y Bargieri, François Nosten, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia, Fabio T M Costa
BACKGROUND: Technical limitations for culturing the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax have impaired the discovery of vaccine candidates, challenging the malaria eradication agenda. The immunogenicity of the M2 domain of the Merozoite Adhesive Erythrocytic Binding Protein (MAEBL) antigen cloned from the Plasmodium yoelii murine parasite, has been previously demonstrated. RESULTS: Detailed epitope mapping of MAEBL through immunoinformatics identified several MHCI, MHCII and B cell epitopes throughout the peptide, with several of these lying in the M2 domain and being conserved between P...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302175/human-rights-and-the-global-fund-to-fight-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-how-does-a-large-funder-of-basic-health-services-meet-the-challenge-of-rights-based-programs
#13
Ralf Jürgens, Joanne Csete, Hyeyoung Lim, Susan Timberlake, Matthew Smith
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was created to greatly expand access to basic services to address the three diseases in its name. From its beginnings, its governance embodied some human rights principles: civil society is represented on its board, and the country coordination mechanisms that oversee funding requests to the Global Fund include representatives of people affected by the diseases. The Global Fund's core strategies recognize that the health services it supports would not be effective or cost-effective without efforts to reduce human rights-related barriers to access and utilization of health services, particularly those faced by socially marginalized and criminalized persons...
December 2017: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300748/functional-interrogation-of-plasmodium-genus-metabolism-identifies-species-and-stage-specific-differences-in-nutrient-essentiality-and-drug-targeting
#14
Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem, Hooman Hefzi, Katsuhiko Mineta, Xin Gao, Takashi Gojobori, Bernhard O Palsson, Nathan E Lewis, Neema Jamshidi
Several antimalarial drugs exist, but differences between life cycle stages among malaria species pose challenges for developing more effective therapies. To understand the diversity among stages and species, we reconstructed genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism for five life cycle stages and five species of Plasmodium spanning the blood, transmission, and mosquito stages. The stage-specific models of Plasmodium falciparum uncovered stage-dependent changes in central carbon metabolism and predicted potential targets that could affect several life cycle stages...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298303/-every-day-they-keep-adding-new-tools-but-they-don-t-take-any-away-producing-indicators-for-intermittent-preventive-treatment-for-malaria-in-pregnancy-iptp-from-routine-data-in-kenya
#15
George Okello, Rene Gerrets, Scholastica Zakayo, Sassy Molyneux, Caroline Jones
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is part of a multi-pronged strategy aimed at preventing malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate to high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite being formally adopted as a malaria prevention policy over a decade ago, IPTp coverage has remained low. Recent demands for action have incorporated calls to strengthen IPTp monitoring and evaluation systems, including the use of routine data, to measure coverage, track implementation and identify roadblocks to improving uptake...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260650/impact-of-sickle-cell-trait-and-naturally-acquired-immunity-on-uncomplicated-malaria-after-controlled-human-malaria-infection-in-adults-in-gabon
#16
Bertrand Lell, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jean-Claude Dejon Agobe, Josiane Honkpehedji, Jeannot Zinsou, Juliana Boex Mengue, Marguerite Massinga Loembe, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Jana Held, Albert Lalremruata, The Trong Nguyen, Meral Esen, Natasha Kc, Adam J Ruben, Sumana Chakravarty, B Kim Lee Sim, Peter Billingsley, Eric James, Thomas L Richie, Stephen L Hoffman, Peter G Kremsner
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation (DVI) with 3,200 cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) consistently leads to parasitemia and malaria symptoms in malaria-naive adults. We used CHMI by DVI to investigate infection rates, parasite kinetics, and malaria symptoms in lifelong malaria-exposed (semi-immune) Gabonese adults with and without sickle cell trait. Eleven semi-immune Gabonese with normal hemoglobin (IA), nine with sickle cell trait (IS), and five nonimmune European controls with normal hemoglobin (NI) received 3,200 PfSPZ by DVI and were followed 28 days for parasitemia by thick blood smear (TBS) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for malaria symptoms...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249333/beyond-hemoglobin-screening-for-malaria-host-factors
#17
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Egan
Severe malaria is caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and results in significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly among young children and pregnant women. P. falciparum exclusively infects human erythrocytes during clinical illness, and several natural erythrocyte polymorphisms are protective against severe malaria. Since erythrocytes are enucleated and lack DNA, genetic approaches to understand erythrocyte determinants of malaria infection have historically been limited. This review highlights recent advances in the use of hematopoietic stem cells to facilitate genetic screening for malaria host factors...
December 14, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228986/addressing-vulnerability-building-resilience-community-based-adaptation-to-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-context-of-global-change
#18
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216395/a-randomized-trial-of-the-prophylactic-activity-of-dsm265-against-pre-erythrocytic-plasmodium-falciparum-controlled-human-malaria-infection-by-mosquito-bites-and-direct-venous-inoculation
#19
Sean C Murphy, Elizabeth R Duke, Kelly J Shipman, Ryan L Jensen, Youyi Fong, Sue Ferguson, Holly E Janes, Kevin Gillespie, Annette M Seilie, Amelia E Hanron, Laurie Rinn, Matthew Fishbaugher, Tracie VonGoedert, Emma Fritzen, Stefan H Kappe, Ming Chang, Jason C Sousa, Sean R Marcsisin, Stephan Chalon, Stephan Duparc, Nicola Kerr, Jörg J Möhrle, Nicole Andenmatten, Thomas Rueckle, James G Kublin
Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered one day pre-challenge and provided partial protection when administered seven days pre-challenge. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of one oral dose of 400 mg DSM265 pre-CHMI...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215793/genetic-history-of-the-african-sahelian-populations
#20
REVIEW
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara Desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the savannah bordering it in the south, is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
December 7, 2017: HLA
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