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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702028/immunization-with-the-malaria-diversity-covering-blood-stage-vaccine-candidate-plasmodium-falciparum-apical-membrane-antigen-1-dico-in-complex-with-its-natural-ligand-pfron2-does-not-improve-the-in-vitro-efficacy
#1
Holger Spiegel, Alexander Boes, Rolf Fendel, Andreas Reimann, Stefan Schillberg, Rainer Fischer
The blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) can induce strong parasite growth-inhibitory antibody responses in animals but has not achieved the anticipated efficacy in clinical trials. Possible explanations in humans are the insufficient potency of the elicited antibody responses, as well as the high degree of sequence polymorphisms found in the field. Several strategies have been developed to improve the cross-strain coverage of PfAMA1-based vaccines, whereas innovative concepts to increase the potency of PfAMA1-specific IgG responses have received little attention even though this may be an essential requirement for protective efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673996/host-mediated-impairment-of-parasite-maturation-during-blood-stage-plasmodium-infection
#2
David S Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Jasmin Akter, Ismail Sebina, Trish Elliott, Bryce S Thomas, Megan S F Soon, Kylie R James, Shannon E Best, Ashraful Haque, Miles P Davenport
Severe malaria and associated high parasite burdens occur more frequently in humans lacking robust adaptive immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Nevertheless, the host may partly control blood-stage parasite numbers while adaptive immunity is gradually established. Parasite control has typically been attributed to enhanced removal of parasites by the host, although in vivo quantification of this phenomenon remains challenging. We used a unique in vivo approach to determine the fate of a single cohort of semisynchronous, Plasmodium berghei ANKA- or Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL-parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) after transfusion into naive or acutely infected mice...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673287/new-gorilla-adenovirus-vaccine-vectors-induce-potent-immune-responses-and-protection-in-a-mouse-malaria-model
#3
Keith Limbach, Maureen Stefaniak, Ping Chen, Noelle B Patterson, Grant Liao, Shaojie Weng, Svetlana Krepkiy, Greg Ekberg, Holly Torano, Damodar Ettyreddy, Kalpana Gowda, Sharvari Sonawane, Arnel Belmonte, Esteban Abot, Martha Sedegah, Michael R Hollingdale, Ann Moormann, John Vulule, Eileen Villasante, Thomas L Richie, Douglas E Brough, Joseph T Bruder
BACKGROUND: A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors...
July 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655825/a-plastid-protein-that-evolved-from-ubiquitin-and-is-required-for-apicoplast-protein-import-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Justin D Fellows, Michael J Cipriano, Swati Agrawal, Boris Striepen
Apicomplexan parasites cause a variety of important infectious diseases, including malaria, toxoplasma encephalitis, and severe diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium Most apicomplexans depend on an organelle called the apicoplast which is derived from a red algal endosymbiont. The apicoplast is essential for the parasite as the compartment of fatty acid, heme, and isoprenoid biosynthesis. The majority of the approximate 500 apicoplast proteins are nucleus encoded and have to be imported across the four membranes that surround the apicoplast...
June 27, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655315/comparison-of-apoptosis-in-human-primary-pulmonary-endothelial-cells-and-a-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cell-line-co-cultured-with-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates
#5
Jean Claude Biteghe Bi Essone, Nadine N'Dilimabaka, Julien Ondzaga, Jean Bernard Lekana-Douki, Dieudonné Nkoghe Mba, Philippe Deloron, Dominique Mazier, Frédrérick Gay, Fousseyni S Touré Ndouo
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infection can progress unpredictably to severe forms including respiratory distress and cerebral malaria. The mechanisms underlying the variable natural course of malaria remain elusive. METHODS: The cerebral microvascular endothelial cells-D3 and lung endothelial cells both from human were cultured separately and challenged with P. falciparum field isolates taken directly from malaria patients or 3D7 strain (in vitro maintained culture)...
June 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646586/vaccine-candidate-discovery-for-the-next-generation-of-malaria-vaccines
#6
REVIEW
James Tuju, Gathoni Kamuyu, Linda M Murungi, Faith H A Osier
Although epidemiological observations, IgG passive transfer studies and experimental infections in humans all support the feasibility of developing highly effective malaria vaccines, the precise antigens that induce protective immunity remain uncertain. Here, we review the methodologies applied to vaccine candidate discovery for Plasmodium falciparum malaria from the pre- to post- genomic era. Probing of genomic and/or cDNA libraries with antibodies of defined specificities or functional activity predominated the former, while reverse vaccinology encompassing high throughput in silico analyses of genomic, transcriptomic or proteomic parasite datasets is the mainstay of the latter...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619071/new-adenovirus-based-vaccine-vectors-targeting-pfs25-elicit-antibodies-that-inhibit-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission
#7
Kathleen A McGuire, Kazutoyo Miura, Christopher M Wiethoff, Kim C Williamson
BACKGROUND: An effective malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) would be a major advance in the current efforts to eliminate and, ultimately, eradicate malaria. Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum surface protein, Pfs25, are known to block parasite development in the mosquito vector. However, in initial clinical trials the limited immunogenicity of recombinant Pfs25 protein-in-adjuvant vaccines has been a challenge. METHODS: Novel human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors were used in heterologous prime boost vaccination strategies to augment the immune response against Pfs25...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607435/preferential-suppression-of-anopheles-gambiae-host-sequences-allows-detection-of-the-mosquito-eukaryotic-microbiome
#8
Eugeni Belda, Boubacar Coulibaly, Abdrahamane Fofana, Abdoul H Beavogui, Sekou F Traore, Daryl M Gohl, Kenneth D Vernick, Michelle M Riehle
Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The vector microbiota is a likely factor influencing parasite transmission. The prokaryotic microbiota of mosquitoes is efficiently surveyed by sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. However, identification of the eukaryotic microbiota by targeting the 18s rRNA gene is challenging due to simultaneous amplification of the abundant 18s rRNA gene target in the mosquito host. Consequently, the eukaryotic microbial diversity of mosquitoes is vastly underexplored...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603136/report-unsupervised-identification-of-malaria-parasites-using-computer-vision
#9
Najeed Ahmed Khan, Hassan Pervaz, Arsalan Latif, Ayesha Musharaff
Malaria in human is a serious and fatal tropical disease. This disease results from Anopheles mosquitoes that are infected by Plasmodium species. The clinical diagnosis of malaria based on the history, symptoms and clinical findings must always be confirmed by laboratory diagnosis. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria involves identification of malaria parasite or its antigen / products in the blood of the patient. Manual diagnosis of malaria parasite by the pathologists has proven to become cumbersome. Therefore, there is a need of automatic, efficient and accurate identification of malaria parasite...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596090/liposomes-containing-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-and-qs-21-serve-as-an-effective-adjuvant-for-soluble-circumsporozoite-protein-malaria-vaccine-fmp013
#10
Christopher J Genito, Zoltan Beck, Timothy W Phares, Fanta Kalle, Keith J Limbach, Maureen E Stefaniak, Noelle B Patterson, Elke S Bergmann-Leitner, Norman C Waters, Gary R Matyas, Carl R Alving, Sheetij Dutta
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum continues to threaten millions of people living in the tropical parts of the world. A vaccine that confers sterile and life-long protection remains elusive despite more than 30years of effort and resources invested in solving this problem. Antibodies to a malaria vaccine candidate circumsporozoite protein (CSP) can block invasion and can protect humans against malaria. We have manufactured the Falciparum Malaria Protein-013 (FMP013) vaccine based on the nearly full-length P...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588574/predicting-rts-s-vaccine-mediated-protection-from-transcriptomes-in-a-malaria-challenge-clinical-trial
#11
Robert A van den Berg, Margherita Coccia, W Ripley Ballou, Kent E Kester, Christian F Ockenhouse, Johan Vekemans, Erik Jongert, Arnaud M Didierlaurent, Robbert G van der Most
The RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine can protect against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), but how protection is achieved remains unclear. Here, we have analyzed longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptome and immunogenicity data from a clinical efficacy trial in which healthy adults received three RTS,S doses 4 weeks apart followed by CHMI 2 weeks later. Multiway partial least squares discriminant analysis (N-PLS-DA) of transcriptome data identified 110 genes that could be used in predictive models of protection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576979/controlled-human-malaria-infection-leads-to-long-lasting-changes-in-innate-and-innate-like-lymphocyte-populations
#12
Maxmillian Mpina, Nicholas J Maurice, Masanao Yajima, Chloe K Slichter, Hannah W Miller, Mukta Dutta, M Juliana McElrath, Kenneth D Stuart, Stephen C De Rosa, John P McNevin, Peter S Linsley, Salim Abdulla, Marcel Tanner, Stephen L Hoffman, Raphael Gottardo, Claudia A Daubenberger, Martin Prlic
Animal model studies highlight the role of innate-like lymphocyte populations in the early inflammatory response and subsequent parasite control following Plasmodium infection. IFN-γ production by these lymphocytes likely plays a key role in the early control of the parasite and disease severity. Analyzing human innate-like T cell and NK cell responses following infection with Plasmodium has been challenging because the early stages of infection are clinically silent. To overcome this limitation, we examined blood samples from a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study in a Tanzanian cohort, in which volunteers underwent CHMI with a low or high dose of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531310/nascent-rna-sequencing-reveals-mechanisms-of-gene-regulation-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#13
Xueqing Maggie Lu, Gayani Batugedara, Michael Lee, Jacques Prudhomme, Evelien M Bunnik, Karine G Le Roch
Gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum is tightly regulated to ensure successful propagation of the parasite throughout its complex life cycle. The earliest transcriptomics studies in P. falciparum suggested a cascade of transcriptional activity over the course of the 48-hour intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC); however, the just-in-time transcriptional model has recently been challenged by findings that show the importance of post-transcriptional regulation. To further explore the role of transcriptional regulation, we performed the first genome-wide nascent RNA profiling in P...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507380/malaria-and-diabetes
#14
Sanjay Kalra, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajiv Singla, Sameer Aggarwal, Deep Dutta
Both malaria and diabetes are more common in the developing world, and are major public health challenges. A direct relationship between these 2 conditions has not been evaluated. This review article assessed the literature guaging the relationship between these two conditions, and suggests a pragmatic approach to management. References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed, Medline, and Embase for articles published to October 2016 using the terms "diabetes" [MeSH Terms] AND "malaria" [All Fields]...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504441/vector-bionomics-and-malaria-transmission-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-baseline-entomological-survey
#15
N Kwansomboon, V Chaumeau, P Kittiphanakun, D Cerqueira, V Corbel, T Chareonviriyaphap
Baseline entomological surveys were conducted in four sentinel sites along the Thailand-Myanmar border to address vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the context of a study on malaria elimination. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human-landing catch and cow-bait collection in four villages during the rainy season from May-June, 2013. Mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characters and by AS-PCR. Sporozoite indexes were determined on head/thoraces of primary and secondary malaria vectors using real-time PCR...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500788/unraveling-the-importance-of-the-malaria-parasite-helicases
#16
REVIEW
Renu Tuteja
Malaria is a human parasitic disease caused by infection from Plasmodium species, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. Each year millions of people are infected with malaria and large numbers of deaths result due to this deadly infection. P. falciparum contains 14 chromosomes, nearly 5400 genes and a multistage life cycle in humans and mosquitoes. The control of malaria is still a challenge as the parasite is continuously developing resistance to available anti-malarial drugs and the mosquito vector is developing resistance to insecticides...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490534/malaria-transmission-and-prospects-for-malaria-eradication-the-role-of-the-environment
#17
Marcia C Castro
Environmental factors affect the transmission intensity, seasonality, and geographical distribution of malaria, and together with the vector, the human, and the parasite compose the malaria system. Strategies that alter the environment are among the oldest interventions for malaria control, but currently are not the most prominent despite historical evidence of their effectiveness. The importance of environmental factors, the role they play considering the current goals of malaria eradication, the different strategies that can be adopted, and the current challenges for their implementation are discussed...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483199/a-prime-boost-immunization-regimen-based-on-a-simian-adenovirus-36-vectored-multi-stage-malaria-vaccine-induces-protective-immunity-in-mice
#18
Jairo A Fonseca, Jessica N McCaffery, Elena Kashentseva, Balwan Singh, Igor P Dmitriev, David T Curiel, Alberto Moreno
Malaria remains a considerable burden on public health. In 2015, the WHO estimates there were 212 million malaria cases causing nearly 429,000 deaths globally. A highly effective malaria vaccine is needed to reduce the burden of this disease. We have developed an experimental vaccine candidate (PyCMP) based on pre-erythrocytic (CSP) and erythrocytic (MSP1) stage antigens derived from the rodent malaria parasite P. yoelii. Our protein-based vaccine construct induces protective antibodies and CD4(+) T cell responses...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469196/malaria-was-a-weak-selective-force-in-ancient-europeans
#19
Pere Gelabert, Iñigo Olalde, Toni de-Dios, Sergi Civit, Carles Lalueza-Fox
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasites, is thought to be one of the strongest selective forces that has shaped the genome of modern humans and was endemic in Europe until recent times. Due to its eradication around mid-twentieth century, the potential selective history of malaria in European populations is largely unknown. Here, we screen 224 ancient European genomes from the Upper Palaeolithic to the post-Roman period for 22 malaria-resistant alleles in twelve genes described in the literature. None of the most specific mutations for malaria resistance, like those at G6PD, HBB or Duffy blood group, have been detected among the available samples, while many other malaria-resistant alleles existed well before the advent of agriculture...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468980/identification-of-protective-b-cell-epitopes-within-the-novel-malaria-vaccine-candidate-plasmodium-falciparum-schizont-egress-antigen-1
#20
Christina E Nixon, Sangshin Park, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Dipak Raj, Lynn E Lambert, Sachy Orr-Gonzalez, Emma K Barnafo, Kelly M Rausch, Jennifer F Friedman, Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy, Jonathan D Kurtis
Naturally acquired antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum schizont egress antigen 1 (PfSEA-1A) are associated with protection against severe malaria in children. Vaccination of mice with SEA-1A from Plasmodium berghei (PbSEA-1A) decreases parasitemia and prolongs survival following P. berghei ANKA challenge. To enhance the immunogenicity of PfSEA-1A, we identified five linear B-cell epitopes using peptide microarrays probed with antisera from nonhuman primates vaccinated with recombinant PfSEA-1A (rPfSEA-1A). We evaluated the relationship between epitope-specific antibody levels and protection from parasitemia in a longitudinal treatment-reinfection cohort in western Kenya...
July 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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