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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228986/addressing-vulnerability-building-resilience-community-based-adaptation-to-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-context-of-global-change
#1
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216395/a-randomized-trial-of-the-prophylactic-activity-of-dsm265-against-pre-erythrocytic-plasmodium-falciparum-controlled-human-malaria-infection-by-mosquito-bites-and-direct-venous-inoculation
#2
Sean C Murphy, Elizabeth R Duke, Kelly J Shipman, Ryan L Jensen, Youyi Fong, Sue Ferguson, Holly E Janes, Kevin Gillespie, Annette M Seilie, Amelia E Hanron, Laurie Rinn, Matthew Fishbaugher, Tracie VonGoedert, Emma Fritzen, Stefan H Kappe, Ming Chang, Jason C Sousa, Sean R Marcsisin, Stephan Chalon, Stephan Duparc, Nicola Kerr, Jörg J Möhrle, Nicole Andenmatten, Thomas Rueckle, James G Kublin
Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered one day pre-challenge and provided partial protection when administered seven days pre-challenge. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of one oral dose of 400 mg DSM265 pre-CHMI...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215793/genetic-history-of-the-african-sahelian-populations
#3
REVIEW
V Černý, I Kulichová, E S Poloni, J M Nunes, L Pereira, A Mayor, A Sanchez-Mazas
From a biogeographic perspective Africa is subdivided into distinct horizontal belts. Human populations living along the Sahel/Savannah belt south of the Sahara Desert have often been overshadowed by extensive studies focusing on other African populations such as hunter-gatherers or Bantu in particular. However, the Sahel together with the savannah bordering it in the south, is a challenging region where people had and still have to cope with harsh climatic conditions and show resilient behaviours. Besides exponentially growing urban populations, several local groups leading various lifestyles and speaking languages belonging to three main linguistic families still live in rural localities across that region today...
December 7, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215067/profiling-invasive-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoites-using-an-integrated-omics-approach
#4
Krishan Kumar, Prakash Srinivasan, Michael J Nold, J Kathleen Moch, Karine Reiter, Dan Sturdevant, Thomas D Otto, R Burke Squires, Raul Herrera, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Julian C Rayner, Stephen F Porcella, Scott J Geromanos, J David Haynes, David L Narum
The symptoms of malaria are brought about by blood-stage parasites, which are established when merozoites invade human erythrocytes. Our understanding of the molecular events that underpin erythrocyte invasion remains hampered by the short-period of time that merozoites are invasive. To address this challenge, a Plasmodium falciparum gamma-irradiated long-lived merozoite (LLM) line was developed and investigated. Purified LLMs invaded erythrocytes by an increase of 10-300 fold compared to wild-type (WT) merozoites...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207239/the-human-microbiota-infectious-disease-and-global-health-challenges-and-opportunities
#5
Abraham J Waldman, Emily P Balskus
Despite significant advances in treating infectious diseases worldwide, morbidity and mortality associated with these pathogens remains extraordinarily high and represents a critical scientific and global health challenge. Current strategies to combat these infectious agents include a combination of vaccines, small molecule drugs, increased hygiene standards, and disease-specific interventions. While these approaches have helped to drastically reduce the incidence and number of deaths associated with infection, continued investment in current strategies and the development of novel therapeutic approaches will be required to address these global health threats...
December 5, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198877/the-future-role-of-the-united-states-in-global-health-emphasis-on-cardiovascular-disease
#6
REVIEW
Valentin Fuster, Jendayi Frazer, Megan Snair, Rajesh Vedanthan, Victor Dzau
U.S. global health investment has focused on detection, treatment, and eradication of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, with significant results. Although efforts should be maintained and expanded to provide ongoing therapy for chronic infectious disease, there is a pressing need to meet the challenge of noncommunicable diseases, which constitute the highest burden of diseases globally. A Committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has made 14 recommendations that require ongoing commitments to eradication of infectious disease and increase the emphasis on chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease...
November 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193128/pathogen-reduction-and-blood-transfusion-safety-in-africa-strengths-limitations-and-challenges-of-implementation-in-low-resource-settings
#7
REVIEW
A D Ware, C Jacquot, A A R Tobian, E A Gehrie, P M Ness, E M Bloch
Transfusion-transmitted infection risk remains an enduring challenge to blood safety in Africa. A high background incidence and prevalence of the major transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), dependence on high-risk donors to meet demand, suboptimal testing and quality assurance collectively contribute to the increased risk. With few exceptions, donor testing is confined to serological evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and syphilis. Barriers to implementation of broader molecular methods include cost, limited infrastructure and lack of technical expertise...
November 30, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190279/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-characterising-the-reservoir-and-measuring-transmission-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#8
(no author information available yet)
This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190277/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-basic-science-and-enabling-technologies-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#9
(no author information available yet)
Basic science holds enormous power for revealing the biological mechanisms of disease and, in turn, paving the way toward new, effective interventions. Recognizing this power, the 2011 Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication included key priorities in fundamental research that, if attained, could help accelerate progress toward disease elimination and eradication. The Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies reviewed the progress, continuing challenges, and major opportunities for future research...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167197/rare-pfcsp-c-terminal-antibodies-induced-by-live-sporozoite-vaccination-are-ineffective-against-malaria-infection
#10
Stephen W Scally, Rajagopal Murugan, Alexandre Bosch, Gianna Triller, Giulia Costa, Benjamin Mordmüller, Peter G Kremsner, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Elena A Levashina, Hedda Wardemann, Jean-Philippe Julien
Antibodies against the central repeat of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) inhibit parasite activity and correlate with protection from malaria. However, the humoral response to the PfCSP C terminus (C-PfCSP) is less well characterized. Here, we describe B cell responses to C-PfCSP from European donors who underwent immunization with live Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge) under chloroquine prophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac), and were protected against controlled human malaria infection. Out of 215 PfCSP-reactive monoclonal antibodies, only two unique antibodies were specific for C-PfCSP, highlighting the rare occurrence of C-PfCSP-reactive B cells in PfSPZ-CVac-induced protective immunity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162320/controlled-human-infections-a-report-from-the-controlled-human-infection-models-workshop-leiden-university-medical-centre-4-6-may-2016
#11
Meta Roestenberg, Annie Mo, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
The principle of deliberately infecting humans with infectious agents in a controlled setting, so-called controlled human infections (CHI), is not novel. Many CHI models have a long history and were established decades ago such as the intentional exposure to yellow fever and dengue performed in the 1900's (Reed, 1902) [2]. In these times bioethics and scientific reasoning were in their infancy. Nowadays, clinical trials are highly regulated and CHI are executed worldwide. Controlled human malaria infections and influenza infections are the two most frequently practiced...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153778/the-frontline-of-controlled-human-malaria-infections-a-report-from-the-controlled-human-infection-models-workshop-in-leiden-university-medical-centre-5-may-2016
#12
Meta Roestenberg, Benjamin Mordmüller, Chris Ockenhouse, Annie Mo, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Peter G Kremsner
Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) is the most practiced controlled human infection model nowadays and there is an exponential increase in implementation of the model worldwide. During the Controlled Human Infection Models Workshop in Leiden, one day was dedicated to the discussion of the advances made and gaps in Controlled Human Malaria Infection (CHMI) trials. Factors contributing to this impressive expansion in the number of CHMI trials have been related to the ability to perform CHMI using injectable cryopreserved sporozoites (a product from Sanaria Inc...
November 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123086/assessing-the-impact-of-imperfect-adherence-to-artemether-lumefantrine-on-malaria-treatment-outcomes-using-within-host-modelling
#13
Joseph D Challenger, Katia Bruxvoort, Azra C Ghani, Lucy C Okell
Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the most widely-recommended treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria worldwide. Its safety and efficacy have been extensively demonstrated in clinical trials; however, its performance in routine health care settings, where adherence to drug treatment is unsupervised and therefore may be suboptimal, is less well characterised. Here we develop a within-host modelling framework for estimating the effects of sub-optimal adherence to AL treatment on clinical outcomes in malaria patients...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#14
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100506/long-term-in-vitro-culture-of-plasmodium-vivax-isolates-from-madagascar-maintained-in-saimiri-boliviensis-blood
#15
Rajeev K Mehlotra, D'Arbra Blankenship, Rosalind E Howes, Tovonahary A Rakotomanga, Brune Ramiranirina, Stephanie Ramboarina, Thierry Franchard, Marlin H Linger, Melinda Zikursh-Blood, Arsène C Ratsimbasoa, Peter A Zimmerman, Brian T Grimberg
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent human malaria parasite and is likely to increase proportionally as malaria control efforts more rapidly impact the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum. Despite the prominence of P. vivax as a major human pathogen, vivax malaria qualifies as a neglected and under-studied tropical disease. Significant challenges bringing P. vivax into the laboratory, particularly the capacity for long-term propagation of well-characterized strains, have limited the study of this parasite's red blood cell (RBC) invasion mechanism, blood-stage development, gene expression, and genetic manipulation...
November 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093263/human-vaccination-against-rh5-induces-neutralizing-antimalarial-antibodies-that-inhibit-rh5-invasion-complex-interactions
#16
Ruth O Payne, Sarah E Silk, Sean C Elias, Kazutoyo Miura, Ababacar Diouf, Francis Galaway, Hans de Graaf, Nathan J Brendish, Ian D Poulton, Oliver J Griffiths, Nick J Edwards, Jing Jin, Geneviève M Labbé, Daniel Gw Alanine, Loredana Siani, Stefania Di Marco, Rachel Roberts, Nicky Green, Eleanor Berrie, Andrew S Ishizuka, Carolyn M Nielsen, Martino Bardelli, Frederica D Partey, Michael F Ofori, Lea Barfod, Juliana Wambua, Linda M Murungi, Faith H Osier, Sumi Biswas, James S McCarthy, Angela M Minassian, Rebecca Ashfield, Nicola K Viebig, Fay L Nugent, Alexander D Douglas, Johan Vekemans, Gavin J Wright, Saul N Faust, Adrian Vs Hill, Carole A Long, Alison M Lawrie, Simon J Draper
The development of a highly effective vaccine remains a key strategic goal to aid the control and eventual eradication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In recent years, the reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5) has emerged as the most promising blood-stage P. falciparum candidate antigen to date, capable of conferring protection against stringent challenge in Aotus monkeys. We report on the first clinical trial to our knowledge to assess the RH5 antigen - a dose-escalation phase Ia study in 24 healthy, malaria-naive adult volunteers...
November 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092797/gold-nanoparticles-against-parasites-and-insect-vectors
#17
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli
Nanomaterials are currently considered for many biological, biomedical and environmental purposes, due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is of high interest for research in parasitology and entomology, since these nanomaterials showed promising applications, ranging from detection techniques to drug development, against a rather wide range of parasites of public health relevance, as well as on insect vectors. Here, I reviewed current knowledge about the bioactivity of Au NPs on selected insect species of public health relevance, including major mosquito vectors, such as Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus...
October 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069611/metabolic-modeling-helps-interpret-transcriptomic-changes-during-malaria
#18
Yan Tang, Anuj Gupta, Swetha Garimalla, Mary R Galinski, Mark P Styczynski, Luis L Fonseca, Eberhard O Voit
Disease represents a specific case of malfunctioning within a complex system. Whereas it is often feasible to observe and possibly treat the symptoms of a disease, it is much more challenging to identify and characterize its molecular root causes. Even in infectious diseases that are caused by a known parasite, it is often impossible to pinpoint exactly which molecular profiles of components or processes are directly or indirectly altered. However, a deep understanding of such profiles is a prerequisite for rational, efficacious treatments...
October 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041927/diagnostic-performance-of-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-based-illumigene-%C3%A2-malaria-assay-in-a-non-endemic-region
#19
Anne-Sophie De Koninck, Lieselotte Cnops, Mattias Hofmans, Jan Jacobs, Dorien Van den Bossche, Jan Philippé
BACKGROUND: Light microscopy and antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests are the primary diagnostic tools for detecting malaria, although being labour-intensive and frequently challenged by lack of personnel's experience and low levels of parasite density. The latter being especially important in non-endemic settings. Novel molecular techniques aim to overcome this drawback. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the illumigene malaria assay(®) (Meridian Bioscience) compared to microscopy, RDT and real-time PCR...
October 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036170/quantifying-the-effects-of-temperature-on-mosquito-and-parasite-traits-that-determine-the-transmission-potential-of-human-malaria
#20
Lillian L M Shapiro, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
Malaria transmission is known to be strongly impacted by temperature. The current understanding of how temperature affects mosquito and parasite life history traits derives from a limited number of empirical studies. These studies, some dating back to the early part of last century, are often poorly controlled, have limited replication, explore a narrow range of temperatures, and use a mixture of parasite and mosquito species. Here, we use a single pairing of the Asian mosquito vector, An. stephensi and the human malaria parasite, P...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
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