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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531310/nascent-rna-sequencing-reveals-mechanisms-of-gene-regulation-in-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum
#1
Xueqing Maggie Lu, Gayani Batugedara, Michael Lee, Jacques Prudhomme, Evelien M Bunnik, Karine G Le Roch
Gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum is tightly regulated to ensure successful propagation of the parasite throughout its complex life cycle. The earliest transcriptomics studies in P. falciparum suggested a cascade of transcriptional activity over the course of the 48-hour intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC); however, the just-in-time transcriptional model has recently been challenged by findings that show the importance of post-transcriptional regulation. To further explore the role of transcriptional regulation, we performed the first genome-wide nascent RNA profiling in P...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507380/malaria-and-diabetes
#2
Sanjay Kalra, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajiv Singla, Sameer Aggarwal, Deep Dutta
Both malaria and diabetes are more common in the developing world, and are major public health challenges. A direct relationship between these 2 conditions has not been evaluated. This review article assessed the literature guaging the relationship between these two conditions, and suggests a pragmatic approach to management. References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed, Medline, and Embase for articles published to October 2016 using the terms "diabetes" [MeSH Terms] AND "malaria" [All Fields]...
May 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504441/vector-bionomics-and-malaria-transmission-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-baseline-entomological-survey
#3
N Kwansomboon, V Chaumeau, P Kittiphanakun, D Cerqueira, V Corbel, T Chareonviriyaphap
Baseline entomological surveys were conducted in four sentinel sites along the Thailand-Myanmar border to address vector bionomics and malaria transmission in the context of a study on malaria elimination. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human-landing catch and cow-bait collection in four villages during the rainy season from May-June, 2013. Mosquitoes were identified to species level by morphological characters and by AS-PCR. Sporozoite indexes were determined on head/thoraces of primary and secondary malaria vectors using real-time PCR...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500788/unraveling-the-importance-of-the-malaria-parasite-helicases
#4
REVIEW
Renu Tuteja
Malaria is a human parasitic disease caused by infection from Plasmodium species, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. Each year millions of people are infected with malaria and large numbers of deaths result due to this deadly infection. P. falciparum contains 14 chromosomes, nearly 5400 genes and a multistage life cycle in humans and mosquitoes. The control of malaria is still a challenge as the parasite is continuously developing resistance to available anti-malarial drugs and the mosquito vector is developing resistance to insecticides...
May 13, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490534/malaria-transmission-and-prospects-for-malaria-eradication-the-role-of-the-environment
#5
Marcia C Castro
Environmental factors affect the transmission intensity, seasonality, and geographical distribution of malaria, and together with the vector, the human, and the parasite compose the malaria system. Strategies that alter the environment are among the oldest interventions for malaria control, but currently are not the most prominent despite historical evidence of their effectiveness. The importance of environmental factors, the role they play considering the current goals of malaria eradication, the different strategies that can be adopted, and the current challenges for their implementation are discussed...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483199/a-prime-boost-immunization-regimen-based-on-a-simian-adenovirus-36-vectored-multi-stage-malaria-vaccine-induces-protective-immunity-in-mice
#6
Jairo A Fonseca, Jessica N McCaffery, Elena Kashentseva, Balwan Singh, Igor P Dmitriev, David T Curiel, Alberto Moreno
Malaria remains a considerable burden on public health. In 2015, the WHO estimates there were 212 million malaria cases causing nearly 429,000 deaths globally. A highly effective malaria vaccine is needed to reduce the burden of this disease. We have developed an experimental vaccine candidate (PyCMP) based on pre-erythrocytic (CSP) and erythrocytic (MSP1) stage antigens derived from the rodent malaria parasite P. yoelii. Our protein-based vaccine construct induces protective antibodies and CD4(+) T cell responses...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469196/malaria-was-a-weak-selective-force-in-ancient-europeans
#7
Pere Gelabert, Iñigo Olalde, Toni de-Dios, Sergi Civit, Carles Lalueza-Fox
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasites, is thought to be one of the strongest selective forces that has shaped the genome of modern humans and was endemic in Europe until recent times. Due to its eradication around mid-twentieth century, the potential selective history of malaria in European populations is largely unknown. Here, we screen 224 ancient European genomes from the Upper Palaeolithic to the post-Roman period for 22 malaria-resistant alleles in twelve genes described in the literature. None of the most specific mutations for malaria resistance, like those at G6PD, HBB or Duffy blood group, have been detected among the available samples, while many other malaria-resistant alleles existed well before the advent of agriculture...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468980/identification-of-protective-b-cell-epitopes-within-the-novel-malaria-vaccine-candidate-p-falciparum-schizont-egress-antigen-1
#8
Christina E Nixon, Sangshin Park, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Dipak Raj, Lynn E Lambert, Sachy Orr-Gonzales, Emma K Barnafo, Jennifer F Friedman, Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy, Jonathan D Kurtis
Naturally-acquired antibodies to PfSEA-1A are associated with protection against severe malaria in children. Vaccination of mice with PbSEA-1A decreases parasitemia and prolongs survival following Plasmodium berghei ANKA challenge. To enhance the immunogenicity of PfSEA-1A, we identified five linear, B-cell epitopes using peptide microarrays probed with anti-sera from rPfSEA-1A-vaccinated non-human primates. We evaluated the relationship between epitope-specific antibody levels and protection from parasitemia in a longitudinal treatment-reinfection cohort in Western Kenya...
May 3, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468322/virus-like-particle-vlp-plus-microcrystalline-tyrosine-mct-adjuvants-enhance-vaccine-efficacy-improving-t-and-b-cell-immunogenicity-and-protection-against-plasmodium-berghei-vivax
#9
Gustavo Cabral-Miranda, Matthew D Heath, Mona O Mohsen, Ariane C Gomes, Paul Engeroff, Amy Flaxman, Fabiana M S Leoratti, Aadil El-Turabi, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Murray A Skinner, Matthias F Kramer, Martin F Bachmann
Vaccination is the most effective prophylactic tool against infectious diseases. Despite continued efforts to control malaria, the disease still generally represents a significant unmet medical need. Microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT) is a well described depot used in licensed allergy immunotherapy products and in clinical development. However, its proof of concept in prophylactic vaccines has only recently been explored. MCT has never been used in combination with virus-like particles (VLPs), which are considered to be one of the most potent inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses in mice and humans...
May 2, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465097/challenges-in-conducting-post-authorisation-safety-studies-pass-a-vaccine-manufacturer-s-view
#10
Catherine Cohet, Dominique Rosillon, Corinne Willame, Francois Haguinet, Marie-Noëlle Marenne, Sandrine Fontaine, Hubert Buyse, Vincent Bauchau, Laurence Baril
Post-authorisation safety studies (PASS) of vaccines assess or quantify the risk of adverse events following immunisation that were not identified or could not be estimated pre-licensure. The aim of this perspective paper is to describe the authors' experience in the design and conduct of twelve PASS that contributed to the evaluation of the benefit-risk of vaccines in real-world settings. We describe challenges and learnings from selected PASS of rotavirus, malaria, influenza, human papillomavirus and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccines that assessed or identified potential or theoretical risks, which may lead to changes to risk management plans and/or to label updates...
April 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438218/malaria-elimination-in-lao-pdr-the-challenges-associated-with-population-mobility
#11
REVIEW
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Deyer Gopinath, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Chanthalone Khamkong, Odai Sichanthongthip
Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is comparatively small landlocked country with patterns of both in- and out-migration, its human migration situation has been poorly studied. This is despite all of the country's 18 provinces sharing both official and unofficial border checkpoints with neighboring countries. Economic reforms in the last decade have seen a gradual increase in the promotion of foreign investment, and main towns and transportation networks have been expanding thus offering new opportunities for livelihoods and economic activities...
April 25, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437083/dual-plug-and-display-synthetic-assembly-using-orthogonal-reactive-proteins-for-twin-antigen-immunization
#12
Karl D Brune, Can M Buldun, Yuanyuan Li, Iona J Taylor, Florian Brod, Sumi Biswas, Mark Howarth
Engineering modular platforms to control biomolecular architecture can advance both the understanding and the manipulation of biological systems. Icosahedral particles uniformly displaying single antigens stimulate potent immune activation and have been successful in various licensed vaccines. However, it remains challenging to display multiple antigens on a single particle and to induce broader immunity protective across strains or even against distinct diseases. Here, we design a dually addressable synthetic nanoparticle by engineering the multimerizing coiled-coil IMX313 and two orthogonally reactive split proteins...
May 5, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417968/rational-development-of-a-protective-p-vivax-vaccine-evaluated-with-transgenic-rodent-parasite-challenge-models
#13
Ahmed M Salman, Eduardo Montoya-Díaz, Heather West, Amar Lall, Erwan Atcheson, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Jai Ramesar, Karolis Bauza, Katharine A Collins, Florian Brod, Fernando Reis, Leontios Pappas, Lilia González-Cerón, Chris J Janse, Adrian V S Hill, Shahid M Khan, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
Development of a protective and broadly-acting vaccine against the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, will be a major step towards malaria elimination. However, a P. vivax vaccine has remained elusive by the scarcity of pre-clinical models to test protective efficacy and support further clinical trials. In this study, we report the development of a highly protective CSP-based P. vivax vaccine, a virus-like particle (VLP) known as Rv21, able to provide 100% sterile protection against a stringent sporozoite challenge in rodent models to malaria, where IgG2a antibodies were associated with protection in absence of detectable PvCSP-specific T cell responses...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392732/external-quality-assessment-in-resource-limited-countries
#14
Jane Y Carter
INTRODUCTION: Health laboratory services are a critical component of national health systems but face major operational challenges in resource-limited (RL) settings. New funding for health systems strengthening in RL countries has increased the demand for diagnostics and provided opportunities to address these constraints. An approach to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in sub-Saharan African countries is the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363637/dsm265-for-plasmodium-falciparum-chemoprophylaxis-a-randomised-double-blinded-phase-1-trial-with-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#15
Mihály Sulyok, Thomas Rückle, Alexandra Roth, Raymund E Mürbeth, Stephan Chalon, Nicola Kerr, Sonia Schnieper Samec, Nathalie Gobeau, Carlos Lamsfus Calle, Javier Ibáñez, Zita Sulyok, Jana Held, Tamirat Gebru, Patricia Granados, Sina Brückner, Christian Nguetse, Juliana Mengue, Albert Lalremruata, Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Jörg J Möhrle, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller
BACKGROUND: A drug for causal (ie, pre-erythrocytic) prophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with prolonged activity would substantially advance malaria control. DSM265 is an experimental antimalarial that selectively inhibits the parasite dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. DSM265 shows in vitro activity against liver and blood stages of P falciparum. We assessed the prophylactic activity of DSM265 against controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). METHODS: At the Institute of Tropical Medicine, Eberhard Karls University (Tübingen, Germany), healthy, malaria-naive adults were allocated to receive 400 mg DSM265 or placebo either 1 day (cohort 1A) or 7 days (cohort 2) before CHMI by direct venous inoculation (DVI) of 3200 aseptic, purified, cryopreserved P falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge; Sanaria Inc, Rockville, MD, USA)...
March 28, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362549/cd8-t-cell-mediated-anti-malaria-protection-induced-by-malaria-vaccines-assessment-of-hepatic-cd8-t-cells-by-scbc-assay
#16
Jing Zhou, Alaina Kaiser, Colin Ng, Rachel Karcher, Tim McConnell, Patrick Paczkowski, Cristina Fernandez, Min Zhang, Sean Mackay, Moriya Tsuji
Malaria is a severe infectious disease with relatively high mortality, thus having been a scourge of humanity. There are a few candidate malaria vaccines that have shown a protective efficacy in humans against malaria. One of the candidate human malaria vaccines, which is based on human malaria sporozoites and called PfSPZ Vaccine, has been shown to protect a significant proportion of vaccine recipients from getting malaria. PfSPZ Vaccine elicits a potent response of hepatic CD8+ T cells that are specific for malaria antigens in non-human primates...
March 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361899/towards-a-humanized-mouse-model-of-liver-stage-malaria-using-ectopic-artificial-livers
#17
Shengyong Ng, Sandra March, Ani Galstian, Nil Gural, Kelly R Stevens, Maria M Mota, Sangeeta N Bhatia
The malaria liver stage is an attractive target for antimalarial development, and preclinical malaria models are essential for testing such candidates. Given ethical concerns and costs associated with non-human primate models, humanized mouse models containing chimeric human livers offer a valuable alternative as small animal models of liver stage human malaria. The best available human liver chimeric mice rely on cellular transplantation into mice with genetically engineered liver injury, but these systems involve a long and variable humanization process, are expensive, and require the use of breeding-challenged mouse strains which are not widely accessible...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359340/world-malaria-report-time-to-acknowledge-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria
#18
Bridget E Barber, Giri S Rajahram, Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Nicholas M Anstey
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. MAIN TEXT: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia...
March 31, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353120/the-molecular-basis-of-evolution-and-disease-a-cold-war-alliance
#19
Edna Suárez-Díaz
This paper extends previous arguments against the assumption that the study of variation at the molecular level was instigated with a view to solving an internal conflict between the balance and classical schools of population genetics. It does so by focusing on the intersection of basic research in protein chemistry and the molecular approach to disease with the enactment of global health campaigns during the Cold War period. The paper connects advances in research on protein structure and function as reflected in Christian Anfinsen's The molecular basis of evolution, with a political reading of Emilé Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling's identification of molecular disease and evolution...
March 28, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336173/effects-of-artesunate-on-some-biochemical-parameters-in-pregnant-albino-wistar-rats-challenged-with-lethal-strain-plasmodium-berghei-nk65-appreciating-the-activities-of-artemisinin-drugs-on-key-pregnancy-hormone-balance
#20
Chinaka O Nwaehujor, Onyeka V Asuzu, Daniel D Nwibo, Obichukwu C Nwobi, Ihechiluru I Ezeigbo
In humans, malaria in pregnancy can cause serious maternal and foetal morbidity and in extreme untreated cases, foetal mortality occurs. The therapeutic approach to curbing this malaise is the administration of an effective and/or combinations of anti-malaria medicaments. Acute or chronic administration of some of these drugs, however, gives rise to some adverse medical conditions including reproductive dysfunction, especially in pregnancy. Studies aimed at the hormonal interplays following administration of these drugs in pregnancy have been limited due to too few appropriate animal models...
March 20, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
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