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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912985/immunogenicity-and-malaria-transmission-reducing-potency-of-pfs48-45-and-pfs25-encoded-by-dna-vaccines-administered-by-intramuscular-electroporation
#1
Dibyadyuti Datta, Geetha P Bansal, Dietlind L Gerloff, Barry Ellefsen, Drew Hannaman, Nirbhay Kumar
Pfs48/45 and Pfs25 are leading candidates for the development of Plasmodium falciparum transmission blocking vaccines (TBV). Expression of Pfs48/45 in the erythrocytic sexual stages and presentation to the immune system during infection in the human host also makes it ideal for natural boosting. However, it has been challenging to produce a fully folded, functionally active Pfs48/45, using various protein expression platforms. In this study, we demonstrate that full-length Pfs48/45 encoded by DNA plasmids is able to induce significant transmission reducing immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906962/population-density-climate-variables-and-poverty-synergistically-structure-spatial-risk-in-urban-malaria-in-india
#2
Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J Bouma, Vijay Kohli, Mercedes Pascual
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly becoming urban with the global population living in cities projected to double by 2050. This increase in urbanization poses new challenges for the spread and control of communicable diseases such as malaria. In particular, urban environments create highly heterogeneous socio-economic and environmental conditions that can affect the transmission of vector-borne diseases dependent on human water storage and waste water management. Interestingly India, as opposed to Africa, harbors a mosquito vector, Anopheles stephensi, which thrives in the man-made environments of cities and acts as the vector for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, making the malaria problem a truly urban phenomenon...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891232/prevalence-of-transfusion-transmissible-infections-in-blood-donors-of-pakistan
#3
Aisha Arshad, Munira Borhany, Nida Anwar, Imran Naseer, Rehan Ansari, Samson Boota, Naveena Fatima, Mustansir Zaidi, Tahir Shamsi
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients requiring blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood products that are still affordable in health care systems with limited resources. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donors and to evaluate the demographic characteristics of reactive and non-reactive blood donors. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at our institute in Karachi, Pakistan...
2016: BMC Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880764/malaria-elimination-campaigns-in-the-lake-kariba-region-of-zambia-a-spatial-dynamical-model
#4
Milen Nikolov, Caitlin A Bever, Alexander Upfill-Brown, Busiku Hamainza, John M Miller, Philip A Eckhoff, Edward A Wenger, Jaline Gerardin
As more regions approach malaria elimination, understanding how different interventions interact to reduce transmission becomes critical. The Lake Kariba area of Southern Province, Zambia, is part of a multi-country elimination effort and presents a particular challenge as it is an interconnected region of variable transmission intensities. In 2012-13, six rounds of mass test-and-treat drug campaigns were carried out in the Lake Kariba region. A spatial dynamical model of malaria transmission in the Lake Kariba area, with transmission and climate modeled at the village scale, was calibrated to the 2012-13 prevalence survey data, with case management rates, insecticide-treated net usage, and drug campaign coverage informed by surveillance...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879115/preface
#5
Avner Friedman, Mirosław Lachowicz, Urszula Ledzewicz, Monika Joanna Piotrowska, Zuzanna Szymanska
This volume was inspired by the topics presented at the international conference "Micro and Macro Systems in Life Sciences" which was held on Jun 8-12, 2015 in Będlewo, Poland. System biology is an approach which tries to understand how micro systems, at the molecular and cellular levels, affect macro systems such as organs, tissue and populations. Thus it is not surprising that a major theme of this volume evolves around cancer and its treatment. Articles on this topic include models for tumor induced angiogenesis, without and with delays, metastatic niche of the bone marrow, drug resistance and metronomic chemotherapy, and virotherapy of glioma...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836912/biology-of-malaria-transmission
#6
Elamaran Meibalan, Matthias Marti
Understanding transmission biology at an individual level is a key component of intervention strategies that target the spread of malaria parasites from human to mosquito. Gametocytes are specialized sexual stages of the malaria parasite life cycle developed during evolution to achieve crucial steps in transmission. As sexual differentiation and transmission are tightly linked, a deeper understanding of molecular and cellular events defining this relationship is essential to combat malaria. Recent advances in the field are gradually revealing mechanisms underlying sexual commitment, gametocyte sequestration, and dynamics of transmissible stages; however, key questions on fundamental gametocyte biology still remain...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833184/neglecting-human-ecology-the-common-element-of-global-health-failures
#7
Matthew Hanley
Attempts to control malaria, AIDS, and maternal mortality in Africa have been woefully inadequate. This has involved adopting an almost exclusively technical preventive approach in the context of AIDS even though emphasizing human behavior holds the most promise. But on the other hand, it has also involved abandoning highly effective technical measures, as in the case of malaria. This suggests that the failure, at root, is anthropological in nature. The common element, it is argued here, is the failure to place the human ecology resolutely above destructive ideologies...
February 2016: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825382/a-monoclonal-antibody-based-immunoassay-to-measure-the-antibody-response-against-the-repeat-region-of-the-circumsporozoite-protein-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#8
Kristina Radin, Frederic Clement, Erik Jongert, Yann G J Sterckx, Christian Ockenhouse, Jason Regules, Franck Lemiale, Geert Leroux-Roels
BACKGROUND: The malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S/AS01 (GSK Vaccines) induces high IgG concentration against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum. In human vaccine recipients circulating anti-CSP antibody concentrations are associated with protection against infection but appear not to be the correlate of protection. However, in a humanized mouse model of malaria infection prophylactic administration of a human monoclonal antibody (MAL1C), derived from a RTS,S/AS01-immunized volunteer, directed against the CSP repeat region, conveyed full protection in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that antibodies alone are able to prevent P...
November 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816564/community-health-workers-provide-integrated-community-case-management-using-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-test-kits
#9
Bright C Orji, Namratha Rao, Elizabeth Thompson, William R Brieger, Emmanuel 'Dipo Otolorin
BACKGROUND: Throughout Nigeria malaria is an endemic disease. Efforts to treat malaria can also be combined with other illnesses including pneumonia and diarrhea, which are killing children under five years of age. The use of Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) aids early diagnosis of malaria and informs when other illnesses should be considered. Those with positive RDT results should be treated with Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACTs), while those with negative RDTs results are further investigated for pneumonia and diarrhea...
October 26, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809907/high-prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocyte-infections-in-school-age-children-using-molecular-detection-patterns-and-predictors-of-risk-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-southern-malawi
#10
Jenna E Coalson, Jenny A Walldorf, Lauren M Cohee, Miriam D Ismail, Don Mathanga, Regina Joice Cordy, Matthias Marti, Terrie E Taylor, Karl B Seydel, Miriam K Laufer, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: In endemic areas, many people experience asymptomatic Plasmodium infections, particularly older children and adults, but their transmission contribution is unknown. Though not the exclusive determinant of infectiousness, transmission from humans to mosquitoes requires blood meals containing gametocytes. Gametocytes often occur at submicroscopic densities, challenging measurement in human populations. More sensitive molecular techniques allow better characterization of gametocyte epidemiologic patterns...
November 4, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809883/alternatives-to-currently-used-antimalarial-drugs-in-search-of-a-magic-bullet
#11
REVIEW
Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Asim Ahmed Elnour, Abdulla Shehab
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many African countries and parts of Asia and South America. Novel approaches to combating the disease have emerged in recent years and several drug candidates are now being tested clinically. However, it is long before these novel drugs can hit the market, especially due to a scarcity of safety and efficacy data.To reduce the malaria burden, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) was established in 1999 to develop novel medicines through industry and academic partners' collaboration...
November 4, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799639/epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-peru
#12
Angel Rosas-Aguirre, Dionicia Gamboa, Paulo Manrique, Jan E Conn, Marta Moreno, Andres G Lescano, Juan F Sanchez, Hugo Rodriguez, Hermann Silva, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz
Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792303/towards-the-development-of-next-generation-of-rapid-diagnostic-test-synthesis-of-glycophosphatidylinositol-gpi-analogues-of-plasmodium-falciparum-and-immunological-characterization
#13
Bharat P Gurale, Yun He, Xikai Cui, Hieu Dinh, Abasaheb N Dhawane, Naomi W Lucchi, Udhayakumar Venkatachalam, Suri S Iyer
A large number of proteins in malaria parasites are anchored using glycophosphatidylinositols (GPIs) with lipid tails. These GPIs are structurally distinct from human GPIs. Plasmodium falciparum GPIs have been considered as potential vaccine candidates as these molecules are involved in inducing inflammatory responses in human hosts and natural anti-GPI antibody responses have been shown to be associated with protection against severe disease. The GPIs can also be considered as targets for rapid diagnostic tests...
October 28, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790201/changes-in-serological-immunology-measures-in-uk-and-kenyan-adults-post-controlled-human-malaria-infection
#14
Susanne H Hodgson, David Llewellyn, Sarah E Silk, Kathryn H Milne, Sean C Elias, Kazutoyo Miura, Gathoni Kamuyu, Elizabeth A Juma, Charles Magiri, Alfred Muia, Jing Jin, Alexandra J Spencer, Rhea J Longley, Thomas Mercier, Laurent Decosterd, Carole A Long, Faith H Osier, Stephen L Hoffman, Bernhards Ogutu, Adrian V S Hill, Kevin Marsh, Simon J Draper
Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774815/immunomic-approaches-for-antigen-discovery-of-human-parasites
#15
Kokouvi Kassegne, Eniola Michael Abe, Jun-Hu Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
Genetics combined with proteomics allows for a better understanding of parasite-host interactions and host immune responses. Immunomics elucidates that antigens are targets of induced or naturally acquired immunity (NAI), a promising solution to the challenge of eradicating human infections. High-throughput protein microarrays enhance rapid antigen discovery for the development of serodiagnostic tests/vaccines. Areas covered: This review systematically analyzes the emergence of protein microarrays as a powerful technology for parasite antigen discovery and subsequently summarizes some of the attributes and disadvantages of these approaches...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769596/vaccine-development-from-concept-to-early-clinical-testing
#16
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729076/health-worker-perspectives-on-the-possible-use-of-intramuscular-artesunate-for-the-treatment-of-severe-malaria-at-lower-level-health-facilities-in-settings-with-poor-access-to-referral-facilities-in-nigeria-a-qualitative-study
#17
Olatunde Adesoro, Constance Shumba, John Kpamor, Jane Achan, Harriet Kivumbi, John Dada, Kolawole Maxwell, James Tibenderana, Madeline Marasciulo, Prudence Hamade, Olusola Oresanya, Joanita Nankabirwa, Ebenezer Baba
BACKGROUND: Innovative strategies are needed to reduce malaria mortality in high burden countries like Nigeria. Given that one of the important reasons for this high malaria mortality is delay in receiving effective treatment, improved access to such treatment is critical. Intramuscular artesunate could be used at lower-level facilities given its proven efficacy, ease of use and excellent safety profile. The objective of this study was therefore to explore health workers' perspectives on the possible use of intramuscular artesunate as definitive treatment for severe malaria at lower-level facilities, especially when access to referral facilities is challenging...
October 12, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709137/recent-trends-on-hydrogel-based-drug-delivery-systems-for-infectious-diseases
#18
Arti Vashist, Ajeet Kaushik, Atul Vashist, Rahul Dev Jayant, Asahi Tomitaka, Sharif Ahmad, Y K Gupta, Madhavan Nair
Since centuries, the rapid spread and cure of infectious diseases have been a major concern to the progress and survival of humans. These diseases are a global burden and the prominent cause for worldwide deaths and disabilities. Nanomedicine has emerged as the most excellent tool to eradicate and halt their spread. Various nanoformulations (NFs) using advanced nanotechnology are in demand. Recently, hydrogel and nanogel based drug delivery devices have posed new prospects to simulate the natural intelligence of various biological systems...
October 18, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708185/epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-indonesia
#19
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706158/colorimetric-detection-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-urine-using-msp10-oligonucleotides-and-gold-nanoparticles
#20
Yossef Alnasser, Cusi Ferradas, Taryn Clark, Maritza Calderon, Alejandro Gurbillon, Dionicia Gamboa, Uri S McKakpo, Isabella A Quakyi, Kwabena M Bosompem, David J Sullivan, Joseph M Vinetz, Robert H Gilman
Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent cause of human malaria in the world and can lead to severe disease with high potential for relapse. Its genetic and geographic diversities make it challenging to control. P. vivax is understudied and to achieve control of malaria in endemic areas, a rapid, accurate, and simple diagnostic tool is necessary. In this pilot study, we found that a colorimetric system using AuNPs and MSP10 DNA detection in urine can provide fast, easy, and inexpensive identification of P. vivax...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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