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Ambient air pollution

Eric Lavigne, Antonio Gasparrini, David M Stieb, Hong Chen, Abdool S Yasseen, Eric Crighton, Teresa To, Scott Weichenthal, Paul J Villeneuve, Sabit Cakmak, Frances Coates, Mark Walker
BACKGROUND: Daily changes in aeroallergens during pregnancy could trigger early labor, but few investigations have evaluated this issue. This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to aeroallergens during the week preceding birth and the risk of early delivery among preterm and term pregnancies. METHODS: We identified data on 225,234 singleton births that occurred in six large cities in the province of Ontario, Canada, from 2004 to 2011 (April to October) from a birth registry...
September 28, 2016: Epidemiology
Nicole Kurhanewicz, Rachel McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Haiyan Tong, Allen Ledbetter, Leon Walsh, Aimen Farraj, Mehdi Hazari
Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Hui-Chen Cheng, Ren-Hao Pan, Huan-Jui Yeh, K Robert Lai, May-Yung Yen, Chien-Lung Chan, An-Guor Wang
PURPOSE: To investigate whether daily changes in ambient air pollution were associated with an increased risk of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: We identified patients newly diagnosed with CRAO between 2001 and 2013 in a representative database of 1 000 000 patients that were randomly selected from all registered beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan...
October 13, 2016: Ophthalmology
Gongbo Chen, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Yongming Zhang, Gail Williams, Rachel Huxley, Hongyan Ren, Wei Cao, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: There is good evidence that air pollution is a risk factor for adverse respiratory and vascular health outcomes. However, data are limited as to whether ambient fine particles contribute to the transmission of influenza and if so, how the association is modified by weather conditions. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between ambient PM2.5 and influenza incidence at the national level in China and explored the associations at different temperatures...
October 10, 2016: Environment International
Juhwan Noh, Jungwoo Sohn, Jaelim Cho, Seong-Kyung Cho, Yoon Jung Choi, Changsoo Kim, Dong Chun Shin
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED) visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients' prior history of allergic diseases. METHODS: Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10]), a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days) were also explored...
September 2016: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Hong Qiu, Shengzhi Sun, Robert Tang, King-Pan Chan, Linwei Tian
The growth of pathogens potentially relevant to respiratory tract infection may be triggered by changes in ambient temperature. Few studies have examined the association between ambient temperature and pneumonia incidence, and no studies have focused on the susceptible elderly population. We aimed to examine the short-term association between ambient temperature and geriatric pneumonia and to assess the disease burden attributable to cold and hot temperatures in Hong Kong, China. Daily time-series data on emergency hospital admissions for geriatric pneumonia, mean temperature, relative humidity, and air pollution concentrations between January 2005 and December 2012 were collected...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Evmorfia Fotou, Maria Sakarellos-Daitsiotis, Eleni Ioakeimoglou, Eleni Tziamourani, Ekaterini Malea, George Panayiaris, Eugenia Panou-Pomonis
Among the materials constituting the natural and cultural heritage, organic materials of proteinaceous origin as bone (collagen), parchment and woolen textiles (keratin) are the most susceptible to damage and decay because of their exposure to air pollution, inappropriate values of ambient temperature, humidity and light. Aiming at contributing to the development of a reliable and reproducible immunoassay for the evaluation of collagen and keratin decay, three polypeptide models of these proteins were designed, synthesized and studied...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS: We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Isabel Malico, Sérgio Nepomuceno Pereira, Maria João Costa
Since black carbon concentrations are useful to reveal changes in anthropogenic activities, measurements taken from 2007 to 2015 in a Portuguese city are used to assess to which extent the ambient air was impacted by the economic crisis. The average black carbon concentrations are representative of an urban area of small size (1.3 ± 1.3 μg m(-3)). The highest concentrations are observed in the heating season, being biomass combustion one of the causes for the high values. The daily cycle of black carbon concentrations presents both morning and evening peaks, mainly due to road traffic and, in the heating season, to domestic heating as well...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S Levent Kuzu
Conventional air pollutants (PM10, CO, NOx) gradually increased from fall to winter during 2015 in Istanbul. Several air pollution episodes were observed during this period. This study was made in order to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels, identify the sources of air pollution, and make toxicity assessment based on Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations. The sampling took 14 sequential days during winter. High-pressure weather conditions prevailed at the start of the sampling. The conditions were then changed to low-pressure condition towards the end of the sampling...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yongqiang Zhang, Yangsheng Lin, Xi Li, Li Zhang, Wei Pan, Huili Zhu, Danfeng Yang
Growing concern has been raised over the potential hazard of nanoparticles (NPs) on human health from ambient particulate air pollution. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) NPs are one of the most widely used nanoparticles in many sectors of industry. Research on NPs has focused mainly on their toxicity in organs. Meanwhile, NPs are present in the air year-round, but are more serious in winter. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory response to SiO2 NPs using in vivo test systems. The composition of particulate matter is complicated; however, elemental silicon accounts for a significant proportion...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Małgorzata Kowalska, Krzysztof Kocot
Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Tianhao Zhang, Gang Liu, Zhongmin Zhu, Wei Gong, Yuxi Ji, Yusi Huang
The real-time estimation of ambient particulate matter with diameter no greater than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is currently quite limited in China. A semi-physical geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was adopted to estimate PM2.5 mass concentrations at national scale using the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth product fused by the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) algorithms, combined with meteorological parameters. The fitting results could explain over 80% of the variability in the corresponding PM2...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marta Oliveira, Klara Slezakova, Joana Madureira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Simone Morais, Maria do Carmo Pereira
Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority air pollutants that strongly affect human health, information concerning the indoor exposures is still limited. This study characterized PAH levels in primary schools and evaluated risk for the respective students (aged 8-10years) in comparison with school personnel. During January-April 2014, eighteen particulate-bound (PM2.5) PAHs (16 USEPA priority compounds, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, benzo[j]fluoranthene) were collected (indoors and outdoors) at ten primary urban schools in Portugal...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Luke F Gamon, Uta Wille
Air pollution is responsible for the premature death of about 7 million people every year. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2(•)) are the key gaseous pollutants in the troposphere, which predominantly result from combustion processes. Their inhalation leads to reactions with constituents in the airway surface fluids (ASF) of the respiratory tract and/or lungs. ASF contain small molecular-weight antioxidants, which protect the underlying epithelial cells against oxidative damage. When this defense system is overwhelmed, proteins and lipids present on cell surfaces or within the ASF become vulnerable to attack...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
L Novack, M Yitshak-Sade, D Landau, I Kloog, B Sarov, I Karakis
It has been established that ambient air pollution (AAP) has an adverse effect on human health. The pathophysiological mechanism of this impact is likely to be related to the oxidative stress. In the current study we estimate the association between AAP and cell proliferation (CP) of umbilical cord blood cells, representing maternal organism most proximal to the fetal body. Blood samples were tested for proliferation in 292 enrolled Arab-Bedouin women at delivery (July 2012-March 2013). The estimates of AAP were defined by a hybrid satellite based model predicting both PM2...
September 21, 2016: Environmental Research
Chih-Chun Chang, Hui-Jung Lin, Jen-Tang Sun, Pei-Yu Li, Tai-Chen Lee, Ming-Jang Su, Tzung-Hai Yen, Fang-Yeh Chu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has shown that ambient exposure to PM2.5, especially in the haze weather, increased the risk of various diseases. However, the association of air pollution status with blood transfusion utilization and the prevalence and severity of adverse transfusion reactions remain to be clarified. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of monthly transfusion usage of blood components, adverse transfusion reactions, as well as PM2.5 and PM10 levels from 2013 to 2015 were obtained...
October 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Mercedes A Bravo, Keita Ebisu, Francesca Dominici, Yun Wang, Roger D Peng, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: Evidence of health risks associated with ambient airborne fine particles in nonurban populations is extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: We estimate risk of hospitalization associated with short-term exposures to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5μ (PM2.5) in urban and nonurban counties with population ≥50,000. METHODS: We utilize a database of daily cardiovascular- and respiratory-related hospitalization rates constructed from Medicare National Claims History files (2002-2006), including 28 million Medicare beneficiaries in 708 counties...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Marie Pedersen, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Sjurdur F Olsen, Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Matthias Ketzel, Charlotta Grandström, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic is a majorsource of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with hypertension in adults, but pregnant womenhave been less studied. METHODS: We examined single and joint effects of ambient air pollution and road traffic noise on preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until liveborn birth...
September 15, 2016: Epidemiology
A Kofi Amegah, Samuel Agyei-Mensah
Air quality in cities of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries has deteriorated with the situation driven by rapid population growth and its attendant increased vehicle ownership, increased use of solid fuels for cooking and heating, and poor waste management practices. Industrial expansion in these cities is also a major contributor to the worsening air pollution. Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major threat to human health in SSA with 176,000 deaths and 626,000 DALYs in the region attributable to ambient air pollution exposure...
September 16, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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