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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926789/profiling-quinones-in-ambient-air-samples-collected-from-the-athabasca-region-canada
#1
Andrzej Wnorowski, Jean-Pierre Charland
This paper presents new findings on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation products-quinones that were collected in ambient air samples in the proximity of oil sands exploration. Quinones were characterized for their diurnal concentration variability, phase partitioning, and molecular size distribution. Gas-phase (GP) and particle-phase (PM) ambient air samples were collected separately in the summer; a lower quinone content was observed in the PM samples from continuous 24-h sampling than from combined 12-h sampling (day and night)...
September 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917207/exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Karen Tu, Jeffrey R Brook, Mark S Goldberg, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. METHODS: The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917171/ambient-air-pollution-and-daily-hospital-admissions-for-mental-disorders-in-shanghai-china
#3
Chen Chen, Cong Liu, Renjie Chen, Weibing Wang, Weihua Li, Haidong Kan, Chaowei Fu
Few studies have investigated the associations between ambient air pollution and mental disorders (MDs), especially in developing countries. We conducted a time-series study to explore the associations between six criteria air pollutants and daily hospital admissions for MDs in Shanghai, China, from 2013 to 2015. The MDs data were derived from the Shanghai Health Insurance System. We used over-dispersed, generalized additive models to estimate the associations after controlling for time trend, weather conditions, day of the week, and holidays...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917169/short-term-associations-of-ambient-air-pollution-and-cause-specific-emergency-department-visits-in-guangzhou-china
#4
Pi Guo, Wenru Feng, Murui Zheng, Jiayun Lv, Li Wang, Ju Liu, Yanhong Zhang, Gangfeng Luo, Yanting Zhang, Changyu Deng, Tongxing Shi, Pengda Liu, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Evidence of association of ambient air pollution with cause-specific emergency department visits in China is still limited. This study aimed to investigate short-term associations between exposures to air pollutants and daily cause-specific emergency department visits using a large-scale multicenter database involving a total of 65 sentinel hospitals in Guangzhou, the most densely-populated city in south China, during 2013-2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We obtained data on 162,771 emergency department visits from 65 hospitals from the Emergency Medical Command Center in Guangzhou between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915873/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-ambient-air-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidities-including-childhood-asthma-in-adolescents-from-the-western-cape-province-study-protocol
#5
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895888/health-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-in-developing-countries
#6
REVIEW
Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Massimo Franchini
The deleterious effects of ambient air pollution on human health have been consistently documented by many epidemiologic studies worldwide, and it has been calculated that globally at least seven million deaths are annually attributable to the effects of air pollution. The major air pollutants emitted into the atmosphere by a number of natural processes and human activities include nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. In addition to the poor ambient air quality, there is increasing evidence that indoor air pollution also poses a serious threat to human health, especially in low-income countries that still use biomass fuels as an energy resource...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894179/ambient-air-pollution-smog-episodes-and-mortality-in-jinan-china
#7
Jun Zhang, Yao Liu, Liang-Liang Cui, Shou-Qin Liu, Xi-Xiang Yin, Huai-Chen Li
We aimed to assess the acute effects of ambient air pollution and weather conditions on mortality in the context of Chinese smog episodes. A total of 209,321 deaths were recorded in Jinan, a large city in eastern China, during 2011-15. The mean concentrations of daily particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were 169 μg/m(3), 100 μg/m(3), 77 μg/m(3), and 54 μg/m(3), respectively. Increases of 10 μg/m(3) in PM10, PM2...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893721/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-during-specific-gestational-periods-produces-adverse-obstetric-consequences-in-mice
#8
Jason L Blum, Lung-Chi Chen, Judith T Zelikoff
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies associate inhalation of fine-sized particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy with preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) but disagree over which time frames are most sensitive, or if effects are cumulative. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to provide experimental plausibility for epidemiological observations by testing the hypothesis that exposure to PM2.5 during discrete periods of pregnancy results in PTB and LBW. METHODS: For the first study, timed-pregnant B6C3F1 mice were exposed to concentrated ambient PM2...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892786/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-road-traffic-noise-a-cohort-study
#9
Marie Pedersen, Sjurdur F Olsen, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Cuilin Zhang, Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Matthias Ketzel, Charlotta Grandström, Mette Sørensen, Peter Damm, Jens Langhoff-Roos, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic is a main source of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with type 2 diabetes, but associations with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been studied less. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine single and joint associations of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise on GDM in a prospective cohort. METHODS: We identified GDM cases from self-reports and hospital records, using two different criteria, among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort...
September 8, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890728/ambient-air-quality-classification-by-grey-wolf-optimizer-based-support-vector-machine
#10
Akash Saxena, Shalini Shekhawat
With the development of society along with an escalating population, the concerns regarding public health have cropped up. The quality of air becomes primary concern regarding constant increase in the number of vehicles and industrial development. With this concern, several indices have been proposed to indicate the pollutant concentrations. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework to formulate a Cumulative Index (CI) on the basis of an individual concentration of four major pollutants (SO2, NO2, PM2...
2017: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888238/gis-based-analysis-of-population-exposure-to-pm2-5-air-pollution-a-case-study-of-beijing
#11
Zhao Liu, Meihui Xie, Kun Tian, Peichao Gao
PM2.5, formally defined as particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5μm, is one of most harmful air pollutants threatening human health. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that both short-term and long-term exposures to PM2.5 are strongly linked with respiratory diseases. In this study, various types of spatio-temporal data were collected and used to estimate the spatio-temporal variation of PM2.5 exposure in Beijing in 2014. The seasonal and daily variation of the population-weighted exposure level (PWEL) in 2014 was estimated and compared...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886601/ambient-air-pollution-and-cancer-mortality-in-the-cancer-prevention-study-ii
#12
Michelle C Turner, Daniel Krewski, W Ryan Diver, C Arden Pope, Richard T Burnett, Michael Jerrett, Julian D Marshall, Susan M Gapstur
BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II)...
August 21, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886532/chemical-characterization-and-sources-of-personal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-in-the-megacity-of-guangzhou-china
#13
Xiao-Cui Chen, Heiko J Jahn, Guenter Engling, Tony J Ward, Alexander Kraemer, Kin-Fai Ho, S H L Yim, Chuen-Yu Chan
Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO4(2-), NO3(-), NH4(+), C2O4(2-)) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios < 1 accompanied by strong P-C correlations, indicating that these constituents in personal PM2...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883037/ischaemic-heart-disease-in-the-former-soviet-union-1990-2015-according-to-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#14
Adrianna Murphy, Catherine O Johnson, Gregory A Roth, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Mohsen Naghavi, Marie Ng, Nana Pogosova, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Andrew E Moran
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and risk factor burden across former Soviet Union (fSU) and satellite countries and regions in 1990 and 2015. METHODS: The fSU and satellite countries were grouped into Central Asian, Central European and Eastern European regions. IHD mortality data for men and women of any age were gathered from national vital registration, and age, sex, country, year-specific IHD mortality rates were estimated in an ensemble model...
September 7, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879476/impact-assessment-of-atmospheric-dust-on-foliage-pigments-and-pollution-resistances-of-plants-grown-nearby-coal-based-thermal-power-plants
#15
Manisha Hariram, Ravi Sahu, Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category...
September 6, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873665/land-use-regression-modelling-estimating-nitrogen-oxides-exposure-in-industrial-south-durban-south-africa
#16
Sheena Muttoo, Lisa Ramsay, Bert Brunekreef, Rob Beelen, Kees Meliefste, Rajen N Naidoo
BACKGROUND: The South Durban (SD) area of Durban, South Africa, has a history of air pollution issues due to the juxtaposition of low-income communities with industrial areas. This study used measurements of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to explain the spatial variation of air pollution concentrations in this area. METHODS: Ambient NOx was measured over two two-week sampling periods at 32 sites using Ogawa badges. Following the ESCAPE approach, an annual adjusted average was calculated for these results and regressed against pre-selected geographic predictor variables in a multivariate regression model...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871018/early-life-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-protocol-for-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-beijing
#17
Jing Song, Yi Chen, Ling Wei, Ying Ma, Ning Tian, Shi Yun Huang, Yin Mei Dai, Li Hong Zhao, Yuan Yuan Kong
INTRODUCTION: The association between early exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in China is unclear. This study will assess the risk of early-life exposure to air pollutants in Beijing and explore the viability of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biological indicator to assess oxidative stress induced by early-life exposure to air pollution. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Here, 2500 women with singleton pregnancies and their infants will be recruited from the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital...
September 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866396/estimating-premature-mortality-attributable-to-pm2-5-exposure-and-benefit-of-air-pollution-control-policies-in-china-for-2020
#18
Kamal Jyoti Maji, Anil Kumar Dikshit, Mohit Arora, Ashok Deshpande
In past decade of rapid industrial development and urbanization, China has witnessed increasingly persistent severe haze and smog episodes, posing serious health hazards to the Chinese population, especially in densely populated cities. Quantification of health impacts attributable to PM2.5 (particulates with aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm) has important policy implications to tackle air pollution. The Chinese national monitoring network has recently included direct measurements of ground level PM2.5, providing a potentially more reliable source for exposure assessment...
August 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863376/reducing-mortality-risk-by-targeting-specific-air-pollution-sources-suva-fiji
#19
C F Isley, P F Nelson, M P Taylor, E Stelcer, A J Atanacio, D D Cohen, F S Mani, M Maata
Health implications of air pollution vary dependent upon pollutant sources. This work determines the value, in terms of reduced mortality, of reducing ambient particulate matter (PM2.5: effective aerodynamic diameter 2.5μm or less) concentration due to different emission sources. Suva, a Pacific Island city with substantial input from combustion sources, is used as a case-study. Elemental concentration was determined, by ion beam analysis, for PM2.5 samples from Suva, spanning one year. Sources of PM2.5 have been quantified by positive matrix factorisation...
August 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863301/long-term-atmospheric-visibility-trends-in-megacities-of-china-india-and-the-united-states
#20
Yue Hu, Ling Yao, Zhen Cheng, Yungang Wang
Millions of premature deaths worldwide every year mostly in China and India are contributed by the poor air quality. The atmospheric visibility is a proven indicator of the ambient air quality. In this study, nine megacities were selected, including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou from China, Chicago, Los Angeles (LA) and New York City (NYC) from the United States, and Mumbai, Chennai and Jaipur from India. The data of visibility, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and meteorological factors from 1973 to 2015 were collected...
August 29, 2017: Environmental Research
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