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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732336/using-machine-learning-to-identify-air-pollution-exposure-profiles-associated-with-early-cognitive-skills-among-u-s-children
#1
Jeanette A Stingone, Om P Pandey, Luz Claudio, Gaurav Pandey
Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732305/association-between-gaseous-air-pollutants-and-inflammatory-hemostatic-and-lipid-markers-in-a-cohort-of-midlife-women
#2
Xiangmei May Wu, Rupa Basu, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin, Keita Ebisu, Ellen B Gold, Lihong Qi, Carol Derby, Rochelle S Green
BACKGROUND: Exposures to ambient gaseous pollutants have been linked to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but the biological mechanisms remain uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the changes in CVD marker levels resulting from elevated exposure to ambient gaseous pollutants in midlife women. METHODS: Annual repeated measurements of several inflammatory, hemostatic and lipid makers were obtained from 2306 midlife women enrolled in the longitudinal Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) between 1999 and 2004...
July 18, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732014/association-of-time-serial-changes-in-ambient-particulate-matters-pms-with-respiratory-emergency-cases-in-taipei-s-wenshan-district
#3
Jer-Hwa Chang, Shih-Chang Hsu, Kuan-Jen Bai, Shau-Ku Huang, Chin-Wang Hsu
Ambient air pollution poses a significant risk for a group of common and often debilitating respiratory diseases, but its direct impact on cause-specific respiratory diseases using emergency room visit (ERV) as an indicator remains to be fully explored. In this study, we conducted a time-series study of ambient PM2.5, NO2, SO2 and their association with ERV for asthma, COPD and pneumonia in a four-year time span. Relative risks for ERV as per log increase in the level of ambient pollutants with time lags of up to 10 days were calculated, using a generalized additive model of Poisson regression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727456/constrained-mixed-effect-models-with-ensemble-learning-for-prediction-of-nitrogen-oxides-concentrations-at-a-high-spatiotemporal-resolution
#4
Lianfa Li, Fred Lurmann, Rima Habre, Robert Urman, Edward Rappaport, Beate Ritz, Jiu-Chiuan Chen, Frank Gilliland, Jun Wu
Spatiotemporal models to estimate ambient exposures at high spatiotemporal resolutions are crucial in large-scale air pollution epidemiological studies that follow participants over extended periods. Previous models typically rely on central-site monitoring data and/or covered short periods, limiting their applications to long-term cohort studies. Here we developed a spatiotemporal model that can reliably predict nitrogen oxide concentrations with a high spatiotemporal resolution over a long time span (>20 years)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725443/associations-of-short-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-with-respiratory-hospital-admissions-in-arak-iran
#5
Mostafa Vahedian, Narges Khanjani, Moghaddameh Mirzaee, Ali Koolivand
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution, is one of the most frequently stated environmental problems. Many epidemiological studies have documented adverse health effects for ambient air pollution. This study aimed to investigate the association between ambient air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions. METHODS: In this ecological time series study data about air pollutant concentrations including CO, NO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 and, respiratory hospital admissions in the urban population of Arak, from January 1st 2010 to December 31st 2015; were inquired, from the Arak Department of Environment, and two major hospitals, respectively...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722632/pilot-intervention-study-of-household-ventilation-and-fine-particulate-matter-concentrations-in-a-low-income-urban-area-dhaka-bangladesh
#6
Anne M Weaver, Shahana Parveen, Doli Goswami, Christina Crabtree-Ide, Carole Rudra, Jihnhee Yu, Lina Mu, Alicia M Fry, Iffat Sharmin, Stephen P Luby, Pavani K Ram
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a risk factor for pneumonia; ventilation may be protective. We tested behavioral and structural ventilation interventions on indoor PM2.5 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We recruited 59 good ventilation (window or door in ≥ 3 walls) and 29 poor ventilation (no window, one door) homes. We monitored baseline indoor and outdoor PM2.5 for 48 hours. We asked all participants to increase ventilation behavior, including opening windows and doors, and operating fans. Where permitted, we installed windows in nine poor ventilation homes, then repeated PM2...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719626/impact-of-respiratory-infections-outdoor-pollen-and-socioeconomic-status-on-associations-between-air-pollutants-and-pediatric-asthma-hospital-admissions
#7
Julie E Goodman, Christine T Loftus, Xiaobin Liu, Ke Zu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiology studies have shown that ambient concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with increased emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HAs) for asthma. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the impact of outdoor pollen, respiratory infections, and socioeconomic status (SES) on the associations between ambient ozone and PM2.5 and asthma HAs in New York City. METHODS: Daily ozone, PM2.5, meteorological factors, pollen, and hospitalization records during 1999 to 2009 were obtained for New York City residents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715783/development-of-land-use-regression-models-for-pm2-5-so2-no2-and-o3-in-nanjing-china
#8
Lei Huang, Can Zhang, Jun Bi
Ambient air pollution has been a global problem, especially in China. Comparing with other methods, Land Use Regression (LUR) models can obtain air pollutant concentration distribution at finer scale without the air pollution source data based on a few monitoring sites and predictors. However, limited LUR studies have been conducted on the basis of regular monitoring networks. Thus, we explored the applicability of conducting LUR models for four key air pollutants: PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and O3, on the basis of national monitoring networks which have good representation of areas with different characteristics in Nanjing, China...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715576/association-of-ozone-exposure-with-cardiorespiratory-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-in-healthy-adults
#9
Drew B Day, Jianbang Xiang, Jinhan Mo, Feng Li, Mingkei Chung, Jicheng Gong, Charles J Weschler, Pamela A Ohman-Strickland, Jan Sundell, Wenguo Weng, Yinping Zhang, Junfeng Jim Zhang
Importance: Exposure to ozone has been associated with cardiovascular mortality, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not yet understood. Objective: To examine the association between ozone exposure and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic mechanisms. Design, Setting, and Participants: A longitudinal study involving 89 healthy adult participants living on a work campus in Changsha City, China, was conducted from December 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712086/pilot-study-investigating-ambient-air-toxics-emissions-near-a-canadian-kraft-pulp-and-paper-facility-in-pictou-county-nova-scotia
#10
Emma Hoffman, Judith R Guernsey, Tony R Walker, Jong Sung Kim, Kate Sherren, Pantelis Andreou
Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711568/is-prehypertension-more-strongly-associated-with-long-term-ambient-air-pollution-exposure-than-hypertension-findings-from-the-33-communities-chinese-health-study
#11
Bo-Yi Yang, Zhengmin Min Qian, Michael G Vaughn, Erik J Nelson, Shyamali C Dharmage, Joachim Heinrich, Shao Lin, Wayne R Lawrence, Huimin Ma, Duo-Hong Chen, Li-Wen Hu, Xiao-Wen Zeng, Shu-Li Xu, Chuan Zhang, Guang-Hui Dong
Numerous studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on hypertension. However, little information exists regarding its effects on prehypertension, a very common, but understudied cardiovascular indicator. We evaluated data from 24,845 adults (ages 18-74 years) living in three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009. Blood pressure (BP) was measured by trained observers using a standardized mercuric-column sphygmomanometer. Three-year (from 2006 to 2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated using data from monitoring stations...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711336/short-term-air-pollution-exposure-and-cardiovascular-events-a-10-year-study-in-the-urban-area-of-como-italy
#12
Simone Vidale, Marco Arnaboldi, Vittorio Bosio, Giovanni Corrado, Mario Guidotti, Roberto Sterzi, Carlo Campana
BACKGROUND: In the last years several studies have investigated the effects of some air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the results are not conclusive. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and CVD events in a long-term observational period. METHODS: All CVD events (myocardial infarction - MI and ischemic stroke - IS) which occurred in residents of Como between January 2005 and December 2014 were included...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705380/air-pollution-and-hospitalization-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-china
#13
Hui Liu, Yaohua Tian, Xiao Xiang, Kexin Sun, Juan Juan, Jing Song, Yaying Cao, Beibei Xu, Yonghua Hu
There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to explore the association in 14 Chinese cities using a time-stratified case-crossover design. We identified 80,787 hospital admissions for AMI between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015 from electronic hospitalization summary reports. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the percent changes with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in AMI admissions in relation to an interquartile range increase in ambient air pollutant concentrations...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702913/time-series-analysis-of-ambient-air-pollution-effects-on-daily-mortality
#14
Yinsheng Guo, Yue Ma, Yanwei Zhang, Suli Huang, Yongsheng Wu, Shuyuan Yu, Fei Zou, Jinquan Cheng
Although the growths of ambient pollutants have been attracting public concern, the characteristic of the associations between air pollutants and mortality remains elusive. Time series analysis with a generalized additive model was performed to estimate the associations between ambient air pollutants and mortality outcomes in Shenzhen City for the period of 2012-2014. The results showed that nitrogen dioxide (NO2)-induced excess risks (ER) of total non-accidental mortality and cardiovascular mortality were significantly increased (6...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697471/the-relationship-between-airborne-fine-particle-matter-and-emergency-ambulance-dispatches-in-a-southwestern-city-in-chengdu-china
#15
Ruicong Liu, Jie Zeng, Xianyan Jiang, Jianyu Chen, Xufang Gao, Li Zhang, Tiantian Li
High levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are known to cause adverse effects to human health. The goal of this study was to estimate the acute health effects of short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 by analyzing cause-specific emergency ambulance dispatches as the endpoint in Chengdu, a city in Sichuan Province in southwest China. The ambient PM2.5 concentration of Chengdu reached 63 μg/m(3) in 2015. Data related to the causes of specific emergency ambulance dispatches, air pollution, and meteorological conditions were collected from 2013 to 2015 (1095 days)...
July 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692651/effects-of-clinical-and-environmental-factors-on-bronchoalveolar-antibody-responses-to-pneumocystis-jirovecii-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-hiv-patients
#16
Robert J Blount, Kieran R Daly, Serena Fong, Emily Chang, Katherine Grieco, Meredith Greene, Stephen Stone, John Balmes, Robert F Miller, Peter D Walzer, Laurence Huang
BACKGROUND: Humoral immunity plays an important role against Pneumocystis jirovecii infection, yet clinical and environmental factors that impact bronchoalveolar antibody responses to P. jirovecii remain uncertain. METHODS: From October 2008-December 2011 we enrolled consecutive HIV-infected adults admitted to San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) who underwent bronchoscopy for suspected Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used local air quality monitoring data to assign ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and fine particulate matter exposures within 14 days prior to hospital admission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690815/how-weather-instead-of-urbanity-measures-affects-song-trait-variability-in-three-european-passerine-bird-species
#17
Julia E Schäfer, Marcel M Janocha, Sebastian Klaus, Dieter Thomas Tietze
Previous studies detected an influence of urban characteristics on song traits in passerine birds, that is, song adjustments to ambient noise in urban areas. Several studies already described the effect of weather conditions on the behavior of birds, but not the effect on song traits. We investigate, if song trait variability changes along a continuous urbanity gradient in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. We examined, for the first time on a larger scale, the influence of weather on song parameters. We made song recordings of three common passerine species: the blue and great tit (Cyanistes caeruleus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Parus major Linnaeus, 1758) and the European blackbird (Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758)...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689118/prenatal-and-postnatal-exposure-to-no2-and-child-attentional-function-at-4-5years-of-age
#18
Alexis Sentís, Jordi Sunyer, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Ainara Andiarena, Ferran Ballester, Marta Cirach, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Jesús Ibarluzea, Carmen Íñiguez, Aitana Lertxundi, Adonina Tardón, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Martine Vrijheid, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution has been linked to cognitive impairment in children, but very few studies have assessed its association with attentional function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and attentional function in children at 4-5years of age. METHODS: We used data from four regions of the Spanish INMA-Environment and Childhood-Project, a population-based birth cohort...
July 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686472/children-s-urinary-environmental-carbon-load-a-novel-marker-reflecting-residential-ambient-air-pollution-exposure
#19
Nelly D Saenen, Hannelore Bové, Christian Steuwe, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Eline B Provost, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Marcel Ameloot, Tim S Nawrot
RATIONALE: Ambient air pollution, including black carbon, entails a serious public health risk because of its carcinogenic potential and as climate pollutant. To date, an internal exposure marker to black carbon particles having cleared from the circulation into the urine does not exist. We developed and validated a novel method to measure black carbon particles in a label-free way in urine. METHODS: We detected urinary carbon load in 289 children (aged 9-12 years) using white-light generation under femtosecond pulsed laser illumination...
July 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685369/associations-between-air-pollution-in-the-industrial-and-suburban-parts-of-ostrava-city-and-their-use
#20
Vitezslav Jirik, Barbara Brezna, Ondrej Machaczka, Sabina Honkysova, Hana Miturova, Vladimir Janout
Selecting the locations and numbers of air quality monitoring stations is challenging as these are expensive to operate. Representative concentrations of pollutants in certain areas are usually determined by measuring. If there are significant correlations with concentrations of other pollutants or with other monitoring sites, however, concentrations could also be computed, partly reducing the costs. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of such possible relationships using data on concentrations of ambient air pollutants obtained in different areas of a larger city...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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