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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145006/a-cross-disciplinary-evaluation-of-evidence-for-multipollutant-effects-on-cardiovascular-disease
#1
REVIEW
Thomas J Luben, Barbara J Buckley, Molini M Patel, Tina Stevens, Evan Coffman, Kristen M Rappazzo, Elizabeth O Owens, Erin P Hines, Danielle Moore, Kyle Painter, Ryan Jones, Laura Datko-Williams, Adrien A Wilkie, Meagan Madden, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
BACKGROUND: The current single-pollutant approach to regulating ambient air pollutants is effective at protecting public health, but efficiencies may be gained by addressing issues in a multipollutant context since multiple pollutants often have common sources and individuals are exposed to more than one pollutant at a time. OBJECTIVE: We performed a cross-disciplinary review of the effects of multipollutant exposures on cardiovascular effects. METHODS: A broad literature search for references including at least two criteria air pollutants (particulate matter [PM], ozone [O3], oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide) was conducted...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137886/diesel-exhaust-inhalation-exposure-induces-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-mice
#2
Jing Liu, Xiaoqing Ye, Dapeng Ji, Xiaofei Zhou, Cong Qiu, Weiping Liu, Luyang Yu
Diesel exhaust (DE) is one of the main sources of urban air pollution. An increasing number of evidence showed the association of air pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the most disastrous vascular diseases, which results in right ventricular failure and death. However, the relationship of DE inhalation exposure with PAH is still unknown. In this study, male adult mice were exposed by inhalation to filtered ambient air (negative control), 10% O2 hypoxia (PAH-phenotype positive control), 350 μg/m(3) particulate matter whole DE, or the combination of DE and hypoxic condition...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137207/the-interaction-between-ambient-pm10-and-no%C3%A2-on-mortality-in-guangzhou-china
#3
Yuzhou Gu, Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Zhihao Li, Xiaojuan Lv, Wenjun Ma
Air pollution is now a significant environmental issue in China. To better understand the health impacts of ambient air pollution, this study investigated the potential interaction between PM10 and NO₂ on mortality in Guangzhou, China. Time series data of daily non-accidental mortality and concentrations of PM10 and NO₂ from 2006 to 2010 were collected. Based on generalized additive model, we developed two models (bivariate model and stratified model) to explore the interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136143/time-varying-cycle-average-and-daily-variation-in-ambient-air-pollution-and-fecundability
#4
Carrie J Nobles, Enrique F Schisterman, Sandie Ha, Germaine M Buck Louis, Seth Sherman, Pauline Mendola
STUDY QUESTION: Does ambient air pollution affect fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: While cycle-average air pollution exposure was not associated with fecundability, we observed some associations for acute exposure around ovulation and implantation with fecundability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and decrements in semen quality. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The LIFE study (2005-2009), a prospective time-to-pregnancy study, enrolled 501 couples who were followed for up to one year of attempting pregnancy...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133855/effect-of-short-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-particulate-matter-on-incidence-of-delirium-in-a-surgical-population
#5
Lu Che, Yan Li, Cheng Gan
Delirium remains an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among older surgical adults. Recent research has shed light on the relationship between pollution and dementia, yet little is known about the health impacts of particulate matter (PM) on delirium. Therefore, we aim to further explore association of PM and delirium among surgical population. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study. Electronic hospitalization summary reports derived from 26 major cities in China between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2015 were used...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133596/exposure-to-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-and-semen-quality-in-taiwan
#6
Xiang Qian Lao, Zilong Zhang, Alexis Kh Lau, Ta-Chien Chan, Yuan Chieh Chuang, Jimmy Chan, Changqing Lin, Cui Guo, Wun Kai Jiang, Tony Tam, Gerard Hoek, Haidong Kan, Eng-Kiong Yeoh, Ly-Yun Chang
OBJECTIVES: Environmental exposure to chemicals has been considered a potential factor contributing to deteriorated semen quality. However, previous literature on exposure to air pollution and semen quality is inconsistent. We therefore investigated the health effects of short-term and long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on semen quality in Taiwanese men from the general population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 6475 male participants aged 15-49 years who participated in a standard medical examination programme in Taiwan between 2001 and 2014...
November 13, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128246/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-pm2-5-associated-with-fall-related-injury-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#7
Yanfei Guo, Hualiang Lin, Yan Shi, Yang Zheng, Xing Li, Jianpeng Xiao, Tao Liu, Weilin Zeng, Michael G Vaughn, Lenise A Cummings-Vaughn, Erik J Nelson, Zhengmin Min Qian, Wenjun Ma, Fan Wu
Exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked with adverse health outcomes of the circulatory and nervous systems. Given that falls are closely related to circulatory and nervous health, we hypothesize that air pollution may adversely affect fall-related injury. We employed Wave 1 data from 36,662 participants aged ≥50 years in WHO's Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health in six low- and middle-income countries. Ambient annual concentration of PM2.5 was estimated using satellite data. A three-level logistic regression model was applied to examine the long-term association between ambient PM2...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128032/acute-effects-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-lower-respiratory-infections-in-hanoi-children-an-eight-year-time-series-study
#8
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Christian Schindler, Tran Minh Dien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino Künzli
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory diseases are the most frequent causes of hospital admission in children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Daily levels of air pollution are associated with lower respiratory diseases, as documented in many time-series studies. However, investigations in low-and-middle-income countries, such as Vietnam, remain sparse. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the short-term association of ambient air pollution with daily counts of hospital admissions due to pneumonia, bronchitis and asthma among children aged 0-17 in Hanoi, Vietnam...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126093/temporal-spatial-characteristics-and-source-apportionment-of-pm2-5-as-well-as-its-associated-chemical-species-in-the-beijing-tianjin-hebei-region-of-china
#9
Jiajia Gao, Kun Wang, Yong Wang, Shuhan Liu, Chuanyong Zhu, Jiming Hao, Huanjia Liu, Shenbing Hua, Hezhong Tian
PM2.5 and its major chemical compositions were sampled and analyzed in January, April, July and October of 2014 at Beijing (BJ), Tianjin (TJ), Langfang (LF) and Baoding (BD) in order to probe the temporal and spatial characteristics as well as source apportionment of PM2.5 in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. The results showed that PM2.5 pollution was severe in the BTH region. The average annual concentrations of PM2.5 at four sampling sites were in the range of 126-180 μg/m(3), with more than 95% of sampling days exceeding 35 μg/m(3), the limit ceiling of average annual concentration of PM2...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123138/chemical-and-cellular-oxidant-production-induced-by-naphthalene-secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-effect-of-redox-active-metals-and-photochemical-aging
#10
Wing Y Tuet, Yunle Chen, Shierly Fok, Dong Gao, Rodney J Weber, Julie A Champion, Nga L Ng
Exposure to air pollution is a leading global health risk. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constitute a large portion of ambient particulate matter (PM). In this study, the water-soluble oxidative potential (OP) determined by dithiothreitol (DTT) consumption and intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) production was measured for SOA generated from the photooxidation of naphthalene in the presence of iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate seed particles. The measured intrinsic OP varied for aerosol formed using different initial naphthalene concentrations, however, no trends were observed between OP and bulk aerosol composition or seed type...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122091/temporal-trend-in-lung-cancer-burden-attributed-to-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-in-guangzhou-china
#11
Yu Liao, Lin Xu, Xiao Lin, Yuan Tao Hao
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lung cancer burden that may be attributable to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in Guangzhou city in China from 2005 to 2013. METHODS: The data regarding PM2.5 exposure were obtained from the 'Ambient air pollution exposure estimation for the Global Burden of Disease 2013' dataset at 0.1° ×0.1° spatial resolution. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were estimated based on the information of mortality and incidence of lung cancer...
October 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121489/health-impacts-quantification-of-ambient-air-pollutants-using-airq-model-approach-in-hamadan-iran
#12
Farshad Bahrami Asl, Mostafa Leili, Yaser Vaziri, Soheila Salahshour Arian, Antonio Cristaldi, Gea Oliveri Conti, Margherita Ferrante
Iranian western cities, including Hamadan, have been experiencing Middle East Dust Storms (MEDS) phenomenon problems in recent years, so the air quality is getting worse every year in these cities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human health impacts of criteria air pollutants including PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO and O3 on the citizens of Hamadan using AirQ model software 2.2.3. Considering the determined baseline incidence (BI) and relative risk (RR) rate, the attributable proportion (AP) of deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory mortality attributed to PM2...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111690/aerosol-health-effects-from-molecular-to-global-scales
#13
Manabu Shiraiwa, Kayo Ueda, Andrea Pozzer, Gerhard Lammel, Christopher J Kampf, Akihiro Fushimi, Shinichi Enami, Andrea M Arangio, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Yuji Fujitani, Akiko Furuyama, Pascale Sylvie Jeanne Lakey, Jos Lelieveld, Kurt Lucas, Yu Morino, Ulrich Pöschl, Satoshi Takahama, Akinori Takami, Haijie Tong, Bettina Weber, Ayako Yoshino, Kei Sato
Poor air quality is the globally largest environmental health risk. Epidemiological studies have uncovered clear relationships of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) with adverse health outcomes, including mortality by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Studies of health impacts by aerosols are highly multidisciplinary with a broad range of scales in space and time. We assess recent advances and future challenges regarding aerosol effects on health from molecular to global scales, through epidemiological studies, field measurements, health-related properties of PM, and multiphase interactions of oxidants and PM upon respiratory deposition...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111255/comment-on-mortality-effects-assessment-of-ambient-pm2-5-pollution-in-the-74-leading-cities-of-china-by-die-fang-qin-geng-wang-huiming-li-yiyong-yu-yan-lu-xin-qian
#14
EDITORIAL
Liqun Liu, Xia Wan, Gonghuan Yang
In a recent publication in the journal Science of the Total Environment, Die Fang et al. (2016) reported health effects of current ambient PM2.5 (particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters <2.5μm) pollution in 74 leading cities in China. It is a meaningful original study using the latest air quality surveillance data. However, we suppose their results may over-estimate the long-term exposure-response coefficients for per 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration. Moreover, we have concern about the linear relationship the authors assumed for long-term exposure to PM2...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107876/size-dependent-emission-characteristics-of-airborne-parent-and-halogenated-pahs-from-municipal-solid-waste-incinerators-in-shenzhen-china
#15
Wen-Bo Shu, Yi-Bo Zhao, Hong-Gang Ni, Hui Zeng
Two waste incinerators were selected for investigation of size-dependent emission characteristics of airborne parent and halogenated PAHs (PAHs and HPAHs) and incidence of these pollutants from trash incineration. The concentrations of total PAHs (gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter 0.43-10 μm) in ambient air of Shenzhen incinerators were at the lower end of the global range while those of HPAHs were higher than those of urban air in other studies. High-ring PAHs dominated in PM2.5 (66%-86%), while low-ring PAHs dominated in PM10 (83%-86%)...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107071/role-of-tlr4-in-olfactory-based-spatial-learning-activity-of-neonatal-mice-after-developmental-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-origin-secondary-organic-aerosol
#16
Nay Chi Nway, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano, Ohn Mar, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe
Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104007/perinatal-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-particulates-results-in-autism-like-behavioral-deficits-in-adult-mice
#17
Jamie S Church, Pamella B Tijerina, Felicity J Emerson, Morgan A Coburn, Jason L Blum, Judith T Zelikoff, Jared J Schwartzer
Exposure to fine ambient particulates (PM2.5) during gestation or neonatally has potent neurotoxic effects. While biological and behavioral data indicate a vulnerability to environmental pollutants across distinct neurodevelopmental windows, the behavioral consequences following exposure across the entire developmental period remain unknown. Moreover, several epidemiological studies support a link between developmental exposure to air pollution and an increased risk of later receiving a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that persists throughout life...
November 2, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103040/association-of-low-level-ozone-with-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults
#18
Ekaterina Galkina Cleary, Manuel Cifuentes, Georges Grinstein, Doug Brugge, Thomas B Shea
Increasing evidence points to an association of airborne pollutant exposure with respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological pathology. We examined whether or not ground-level ozone or fine particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) was associated with accelerated cognitive decline. Using repeated measures mixed regression modeling, we analyzed cognitive performance of a geographically diverse sampling of individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center between 2004-2008. Ambient air concentrations of ozone and PM2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102883/acute-respiratory-symptoms-associated-with-short-term-fluctuations-in-ambient-pollutants-among-schoolchildren-in-durban-south-africa
#19
Graciela Mentz, Thomas G Robins, Stuart Batterman, Rajen N Naidoo
Ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, especially among children with asthma. This study reports on associations between daily ambient air pollutant concentrations and the respiratory symptoms of schoolchildren living in Durban, South Africa. This city is Africa's busiest port and a key hub for imported crude oil and exported refined petroleum and petrochemical products, and it experiences a mixture of air pollutants that reflects emissions from industry, traffic and biomass burning...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102183/the-impact-of-the-2016-fort-mcmurray-horse-river-wildfire-on-ambient-air-pollution-levels-in-the-athabasca-oil-sands-region-alberta-canada
#20
Matthew S Landis, Eric S Edgerton, Emily M White, Gregory R Wentworth, Amy P Sullivan, Ann M Dillner
An unprecedented wildfire impacted the northern Alberta city of Fort McMurray in May 2016 causing a mandatory city wide evacuation and the loss of 2,400 homes and commercial structures. A two-hectare wildfire was discovered on May 1, grew to ~157,000ha by May 5, and continued to burn an estimated ~590,000ha by June 13. A comprehensive air monitoring network operated by the Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) in and around Fort McMurray provided essential health-related real-time air quality data to firefighters during the emergency, and provided a rare opportunity to elucidate the impact of gaseous and particulate matter emissions on near-field communities and regional air pollution concentrations...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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