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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432965/spatiotemporal-description-of-btex-volatile-organic-compounds-in-a-middle-eastern-megacity-tehran-study-of-exposure-prediction-for-environmental-health-research-tehran-sepehr
#1
Heresh Amini, Vahid Hosseini, Christian Schindler, Hossein Hassankhany, Masud Yunesian, Sarah B Henderson, Nino Künzli
The spatiotemporal variability of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Tehran, Iran, is not well understood. Here we present the design, methods, and results of the Tehran Study of Exposure Prediction for Environmental Health Research (Tehran SEPEHR) on ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene (BTEX), and total BTEX. To date, this is the largest study of its kind in a low- and middle-income country and one of the largest globally. We measured BTEX concentrations at five reference sites and 174 distributed sites identified by a cluster analytic method...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431389/prediction-of-size-fractionated-airborne-particle-bound-metals-using-mlr-bp-ann-and-svm-analyses
#2
Xiang'zi Leng, Jinhua Wang, Haibo Ji, Qin'geng Wang, Huiming Li, Xin Qian, Fengying Li, Meng Yang
Size-fractionated heavy metal concentrations were observed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from 2014 to 2015 (spanning all four seasons) from suburban (Xianlin) and industrial (Pukou) areas in Nanjing, a megacity of southeast China. Rapid prediction models of size-fractionated metals were established based on multiple linear regression (MLR), back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) by using meteorological factors and PM concentrations as input parameters...
April 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#3
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420118/ambient-air-pollution-and-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-in-beijing-china
#4
Ruixue Xia, Guopeng Zhou, Tong Zhu, Xueying Li, Guangfa Wang
Air pollutants are associated with cardiovascular death; however, there is limited evidence of the effects of different pollutants on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) in Beijing, China. We aimed to investigate the associations of OHCAs with the air pollutants PM2.5-10 (coarse particulate matter), PM2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O₃) between 2013 and 2015 using a time-stratified case-crossover study design...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417329/quantitative-cancer-risk-assessment-and-local-mortality-burden-for-ambient-air-pollution-in-an-eastern-mediterranean-city
#5
Hassan R Dhaini, Thérèse Salameh, Antoine Waked, Stéphane Sauvage, Agnès Borbon, Paola Formenti, Jean-François Doussin, Nadine Locoge, Charbel Afif
Health risks posed by ambient air pollutants to the urban Lebanese population have not been well characterized. The aim of this study is to assess cancer risk and mortality burden of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulates (PM) based on two field-sampling campaigns conducted during summer and winter seasons in Beirut. Seventy NMHCs were analyzed by TD-GC-FID. PM2.5 elemental carbon (EC) components were examined using a Lab OC-EC aerosol Analyzer, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed by GC-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417138/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-traffic-noise-and-incident-hypertension-in-seven-cohorts-of-the-european-study-of-cohorts-for-air-pollution-effects-escape
#6
Kateryna B Fuks, Gudrun Weinmayr, Xavier Basagaña, Olena Gruzieva, Regina Hampel, Bente Oftedal, Mette Sørensen, Kathrin Wolf, Geir Aamodt, Gunn Marit Aasvang, Inmaculada Aguilera, Thomas Becker, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Barbara Caracciolo, Josef Cyrys, Roberto Elosua, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Maria Foraster, Laura Fratiglioni, Agneta Hilding, Danny Houthuijs, Michal Korek, Nino Künzli, Jaume Marrugat, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Wim J R Swart, Annette Peters, Barbara Hoffmann
Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression...
April 1, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416013/no-seasonal-variation-in-physical-activity-of-han-chinese-living-in-beijing
#7
Guanlin Wang, Baoguo Li, Xueying Zhang, Chaoqun Niu, Jianbo Li, Li Li, John R Speakman
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is widely acknowledged to be beneficial to health and wellbeing, and is potentially influenced by a variety of environmental factors such as ambient temperature, weather conditions and air pollution levels. Since these factors vary seasonally, physical activity participation may also respond seasonally. Current population studies to profile physical activity often sample individuals only once, and this may result in biased estimates if there is strong seasonal variation...
April 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415983/exhaled-carbon-monoxide-a-non-invasive-biomarker-of-short-term-exposure-to-outdoor-air-pollution
#8
Herve Lawin, Lucie Ayi Fanou, Vikkey Hinson, Jacqueline Wanjiku, N Kingsley Ukwaja, Stephen B Gordon, Benjamin Fayomi, John R Balmes, Parfait Houngbegnon, Euripide Avokpaho, Ambaliou Sanni
BACKGROUND: In urban settings of Africa with rapidly increasing population, traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to outdoor air pollution (OAP). Although OAP has been identified as a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, there is however, lack of a simple biomarker to assess levels of exposure to OAP in resource-poor settings. This study evaluated the role of exhaled carbon monoxide (exhCO) as a potential biomarker of exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (ambCO) from OAP...
April 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412860/modeling-vascular-inflammation-and-atherogenicity-after-inhalation-of-ambient-levels-of-ozone-exploratory-lessons-from-transcriptomics
#9
Andrea Tham, Dominic Lullo, Sarah Dalton, Siyang Zeng, Ian van Koeverden, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have linked inhalation of air pollutants such as ozone to cardiovascular mortality. Human exposure studies have shown that inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway and systemic inflammation and an imbalance in sympathetic/parasympathetic tone. METHODS: To explore molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation contributes to cardiovascular mortality, we compared transcriptomics data previously obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from healthy subjects after inhalational exposure to ozone (200 ppb for 4 h) to those of various cell samples from 11 published studies of patients with atherosclerotic disease using the Nextbio genomic data platform...
April 16, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411895/the-environment-and-blood-pressure
#10
REVIEW
Robert D Brook
A host of environmental factors can significantly increase arterial blood pressure (BP) including cold temperature, high altitude, loud noises, and ambient air pollutants. Although brief exposures acutely elevate BP, over the long term, chronic exposures may be capable of promoting the development of sustained hypertension. Given their omnipresent nature, environmental factors may play a role in worsening BP control and heightening overall cardiovascular risk at the global public health level.
May 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409539/particulate-matter-air-pollution-from-the-city-of-quito-ecuador-activates-inflammatory-signaling-pathways-in%C3%A2-vitro
#11
Victoria M Cevallos, Valeria Díaz, Cherilyn M Sirois
Automobile traffic, industrial processes and natural phenomena cause notable air pollution, including gaseous and particulate contaminants, in urban centers. Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution affects human health, and has been linked to respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The mechanisms underlying inflammation in these diverse diseases, and to what extent health effects are different for PM obtained from different sources or locations, are still unclear. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient course (PM10) and fine (PM2...
May 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408373/association-of-air-pollution-exposures-with-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-particle-number-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#12
Griffith Bell, Samia Mora, Philip Greenland, Michael Tsai, Ed Gill, Joel D Kaufman
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM2...
April 13, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408086/estimates-and-25-year-trends-of-the-global-burden-of-disease-attributable-to-ambient-air-pollution-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-global-burden-of-diseases-study-2015
#13
Aaron J Cohen, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, H Ross Anderson, Joseph Frostad, Kara Estep, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Bert Brunekreef, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Valery Feigin, Greg Freedman, Bryan Hubbell, Amelia Jobling, Haidong Kan, Luke Knibbs, Yang Liu, Randall Martin, Lidia Morawska, C Arden Pope, Hwashin Shin, Kurt Straif, Gavin Shaddick, Matthew Thomas, Rita van Dingenen, Aaron van Donkelaar, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad H Forouzanfar
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution increases morbidity and mortality, and is a leading contributor to global disease burden. We explored spatial and temporal trends in mortality and burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution from 1990 to 2015 at global, regional, and country levels. METHODS: We estimated global population-weighted mean concentrations of particle mass with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm (PM2·5) and ozone at an approximate 11 km × 11 km resolution with satellite-based estimates, chemical transport models, and ground-level measurements...
April 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407574/air-pollution-by-particulate-matter-pm10-may-trigger-multiple-sclerosis-relapses
#14
Jonathan Roux, Denis Bard, Estelle Le Pabic, Claire Segala, Jacques Reis, Jean-Claude Ongagna, Jérôme de Sèze, Emmanuelle Leray
BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation of relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests that season-dependent factors, such as ambient air pollution, may trigger them. However, only few studies have considered possible role of air pollutants as relapse's risk factor. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10µm (PM10) on MS relapses. METHODS: In total, 536 relapsing MS patients from Strasbourg city (France) were included, accounting for 2052 relapses over 2000-2009 period...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398703/air-pollution-neighborhood-acculturation-factors-and-neural-tube-defects-among-hispanic-women-in-california
#15
Amy M Padula, Wei Yang, Suzan L Carmichael, Frederick Lurmann, John Balmes, S Katharine Hammond, Gary M Shaw
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common types of birth defects. Environmental pollutants and acculturation have been associated with NTDs independently. The potential effect modification of acculturation in the relationship between ambient air pollution and risks of NTDs is not well understood. METHODS: We investigated whether associations between traffic-related air pollutant exposure in early gestation and NTDs, and more specifically spina bifida, were modified by individual and neighborhood acculturation factors among 139 cases and 466 controls born in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997 to 2006...
April 3, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397785/unexpected-increase-in-the-oxidation-capacity-of-the-urban-atmosphere-of-madrid-spain
#16
A Saiz-Lopez, R Borge, A Notario, J A Adame, D de la Paz, X Querol, B Artíñano, F J Gómez-Moreno, C A Cuevas
Atmospheric oxidants such as ozone (O3), hydroxyl and nitrate radicals (OH and NO3) determine the ability of the urban atmosphere to process organic and inorganic pollutants, which have an impact on air quality, environmental health and climate. Madrid city has experienced an increase of 30-40% in ambient air O3 levels, along with a decrease of 20-40% in NO2, from 2007 to 2014. Using air pollution observations and a high-resolution air quality model, we find a large concentration increase of up to 70% and 90% in OH and NO3, respectively, in downtown Madrid (domain-wide average increase of 10% and 32% for OH and NO3, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392067/cognitive-impacts-of-ambient-air-pollution-in-the-national-social-health-and-aging-project-nshap-cohort
#17
Lindsay A Tallon, Justin Manjourides, Vivian C Pun, Carmel Salhi, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. METHODS: Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391918/typical-atmospheric-haze-during-crop-harvest-season-in-northeastern-china-a-case-in-the-changchun-region
#18
WeiWei Chen, Daniel Q Tong, Mo Dan, ShiChun Zhang, XueLei Zhang, YuePeng Pan
This study presents the mass concentrations of PM2.5, O3, SO2 and NOx at one urban, one suburban and two rural locations in the Changchun region from September 25 to October 27 2013. Major chemical components of PM2.5 at the four sites were daily sampled and analyzed. Most of daily concentrations of SO2 (7-82μg/m(3)), O3 (27-171μg/m(3)) and NOx (14-213μg/m(3)) were below the limits of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in China. However, PM2.5 concentrations (143-168μg/m(3)) were 2-fold higher than NAAQS...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391173/the-impact-of-ambient-air-pollution-on-the-human-blood-metabolome
#19
J J Vlaanderen, N A Janssen, G Hoek, P Keski-Rahkonen, D K Barupal, F R Cassee, I Gosens, M Strak, M Steenhof, Q Lan, B Brunekreef, A Scalbert, R C H Vermeulen
BACKGROUND: Biological perturbations caused by air pollution might be reflected in the compounds present in blood originating from air pollutants and endogenous metabolites influenced by air pollution (defined here as part of the blood metabolome). We aimed to assess the perturbation of the blood metabolome in response to short term exposure to air pollution. METHODS: We exposed 31 healthy volunteers to ambient air pollution for 5h. We measured exposure to particulate matter, particle number concentrations, absorbance, elemental/organic carbon, trace metals, secondary inorganic components, endotoxin content, gaseous pollutants, and particulate matter oxidative potential...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390661/ambient-air-pollution-and-low-birth-weight-are-some-women-more-vulnerable-than-others
#20
Nadja Westergaard, Ulrike Gehring, Rémy Slama, Marie Pedersen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term (TLBW, <2500g among infants born ≥37 completed weeks of gestation), a maker of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and suggest that some subgroups of pregnant women who are smoking, of low or high body-mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status (SES) or asthma are more vulnerable towards the effect of ambient air pollution...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
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