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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333580/air-quality-measurements-from-rubber-bands-to-tapping-the-rainbow
#1
George M Hidy, Peter K Mueller, Samuel L Altshuler, Judith C Chow, John G Watson
It is axiomatic that good measurements are integral to good public policy for environmental protection. The generalized term for "measurements" includes sampling and quantitation, data integrity, documentation, network design, sponsorship and operations, and archiving and accessing for applications. Each of these components has evolved and advanced over the last 200 years as knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics has matured. Air quality was first detected by what people could see smoke and smell contaminated air...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329943/-association-between-ambient-pm-l0-pm-2-5-concentration-and-outpatient-department-visits-due-to-respiratory-disease-in-a-hospital-in-jinan-2013-2015-a-time-series-analysis
#2
M J Zhao, X Y Geng, L L Cui, J W Zhou, J Zhang
Objective: To estimate the influence of the ambient PM(l0) and PM(2.5) pollution on the hospital outpatient department visit due to respiratory diseases in local residents in Jinan quantitatively. Methods: Time serial analysis using generalized addictive model (GAM) was conducted. After controlling the confounding factors, such as long term trend, weekly pattern and meteorological factors, considering lag effect and the influence of other air pollutants, the excess relative risks of daily hospital visits associated with increased ambient PM(10) and PM(2...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321701/burden-of-disease-attributed-to-ambient-pm2-5-and-pm10-exposure-in-190-cities-in-china
#3
Kamal Jyoti Maji, Mohit Arora, Anil Kumar Dikshit
Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities of China. Association of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss with air pollution-related health effects demand quantitative analysis for correctional measures in air quality. This study applies an epidemiology-based exposure-response function to obtain the quantitative estimate of health impact of particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10 across 190 cities of China during years 2014-2015. The annual average concentration of PM2...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319705/contributions-of-vehicular-emissions-and-secondary-formation-to-nitrous-acid-concentrations-in-ambient-urban-air-in-tokyo-in-the-winter
#4
Yoshihiro Nakashima, Yasuhiro Sadanaga, Shinji Saito, Junya Hoshi, Hiroyuki Ueno
Nitrous acid (HONO) plays an important role in the formation of OH radicals, which are involved in photochemical oxidation. HONO concentrations in ambient air at urban sites have previously been measured, but very few studies have been performed in central Tokyo. In this study, HONO concentrations in ambient air in southeast central Tokyo (near Tokyo Bay) in winter were determined by incoherent cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. The O3, NO, NO2, and SO2 concentrations were simultaneously determined. The NO concentrations were used to classify the parts of the study period into types I (high pollution), II (medium pollution), and III (low pollution)...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318790/wood-burning-pollution-in-southern-chile-pm2-5-source-apportionment-using-cmb-and-molecular-markers
#5
Ana M Villalobos, Francisco Barraza, Héctor Jorquera, James J Schauer
Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 μg/m(3) in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 μg/m(3) in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 μg/m(3). For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303599/impact-of-surface-ozone-interactions-on-indoor-air-chemistry-a-modelling-study
#6
Magdalena Kruza, Alastair C Lewis, Glenn Morrison, Nicola Carslaw
An INdoor air Detailed Chemical Model (INDCM) was developed to investigate the impact of ozone reactions with indoor surfaces (including occupants), on indoor air chemistry in simulated apartments subject to ambient air pollution. The results are consistent with experimental studies showing that approximately 80% of ozone indoors is lost through deposition to surfaces. The human body removes ozone most effectively from indoor air per square meter of surface, but the most significant surfaces for C6 -C10 aldehyde formation are soft furniture and painted walls owing to their large internal surfaces...
March 17, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303007/modeling-the-air-soil-exchange-secondary-emissions-and-residues-in-soil-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-china
#7
Song Cui, Qiang Fu, Yi-Fan Li, Jianmin Ma, Chongguo Tian, Liyan Liu, Leiming Zhang
The present study investigated the environmental distribution and fate of low molecular weight (LMW) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in China using the ChnGIPERM (Chinese Gridded Industrial Pollutants Emission and Residue Model), in which the air-soil exchange, spatial-temporal variations and the heterogeneity of secondary emission and residue in the non-source areas were studied. The model simulated the temporal and spatial variations of the PCB28 concentration in soils and air which agreed well with historical monitoring data across China...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302634/residential-proximity-to-major-roads-exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-and-aortic-calcium-the-framingham-heart-study-a-cohort-study
#8
Kirsten S Dorans, Elissa H Wilker, Wenyuan Li, Mary B Rice, Petter L Ljungman, Joel Schwartz, Brent A Coull, Itai Kloog, Petros Koutrakis, Ralph B D'Agostino, Joseph M Massaro, Udo Hoffmann, Christopher J O'Donnell, Murray A Mittleman
OBJECTIVES: Traffic and ambient air pollution exposure are positively associated with cardiovascular disease, potentially through atherosclerosis promotion. Few studies have assessed associations of these exposures with thoracic aortic calcium Agatston score (TAC) or abdominal aortic calcium Agatston score (AAC), systemic atherosclerosis correlates. We assessed whether living close to a major road and residential fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure were associated with TAC and AAC in a Northeastern US cohort...
March 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295129/exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-in-canada
#9
Lauren Pinault, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with a greater risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Canada. Research based on Canadian cohorts suggests that exposure to PM2.5 varies by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Studies of NO₂, another pollutant, indicate that persons of lower socioeconomic status and some visible minority groups have greater exposure in urban centres. DATA AND METHODS: National residential PM2...
March 15, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291591/the-inma-infancia-y-medio-ambiente-environment-and-childhood-project-more-than-10-years-contributing-to-environmental-and-neuropsychological-research
#10
REVIEW
Mireia Gascon, Mònica Guxens, Martine Vrijheid, Maties Torrent, Jesús Ibarluzea, Eduardo Fano, Sabrina Llop, Ferran Ballester, Mariana F Fernández, Adonina Tardón, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: In 2003 the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project, a Spanish national network of birth cohorts including more than 3500 participants, was set up with the aim to assess the health impacts of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on children. The project has published more than 60 papers on maternal and environmental factors related to neuropsychological development in children, one of the main research interests within the project. With the present review, we evaluate the evidence provided by the INMA project on this topic and discuss how the data can contribute to cover the challenges that children's environmental health research will face in the coming years...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291535/the-health-burden-and-economic-costs-averted-by-ambient-pm2-5-pollution-reductions-in-nagpur-india
#11
Tunde O Etchie, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Gregory O Adewuyi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Padma S Rao, Ayotunde T Etchie, Ajay Pillarisetti, Narendra K Arora, Kirk R Smith
National estimates of the health and economic burdens of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in India reveal substantial impacts. This information, often lacking at the local level, can justify and drive mitigation interventions. Here, we assess the health and economic gains resulting from attainment of WHO guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations - including interim target 2 (IT-2), interim target 3 (IT-3), and the WHO air quality guideline (AQG) - in Nagpur district to inform policy decision making for mitigation...
March 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289048/health-risk-of-inhalation-exposure-to-sub-10%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-particulate-matter-and-gaseous-pollutants-in-an-urban-industrial-area-in-south-africa-an-ecological-study
#12
Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo, Ayo Stephen Adebowale, Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu, Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola
OBJECTIVE: To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). DESIGN: The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. SETTING: The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288421/evaluating-the-impact-of-ambient-benzene-vapor-concentrations-on-product-water-from-condensation-water-from-air-technology
#13
Katherine M Kinder, Christopher A Gellasch, James S Dusenbury, Thomas C Timmes, Thomas M Hughes
Globally, drinking water resources are diminishing in both quantity and quality. This situation has renewed interest in Condensation Water From Air (CWFA) technology, which utilizes water vapor in the air to produce water for both potable and non-potable purposes. However, there are currently insufficient data available to determine the relationship between air contaminants and the rate at which they are transferred from the air into CWFA untreated product water. This study implemented a novel experimental method utilizing an environmental test chamber to evaluate how air quality and temperature affects CWFA untreated product water quality in order to collect data that will inform the type of water treatment required to protect human health...
March 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285887/characteristics-and-source-distribution-of-air-pollution-in-winter-in-qingdao-eastern-china
#14
Lingyu Li, Dongyun Yan, Shaohui Xu, Mingli Huang, Xiaoxia Wang, Shaodong Xie
To characterize air pollution and determine its source distribution in Qingdao, Shandong Province, we analyzed hourly national air quality monitoring network data of normal pollutants at nine sites from 1 November 2015 to 31 January 2016. The average hourly concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10), SO2, NO2, 8-h O3, and CO in Qingdao were 83, 129, 39, 41, and 41 μg m(-3), and 1.243 mg m(-3), respectively. During the polluted period, 19-26 December 2015, 29 December 2015 to 4 January 2016, and 14-17 January 2016, the mean 24-h PM2...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284555/reduction-in-population-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-cancer-risk-due-to-pm2-5-bound-pahs-exposure-in-beijing-china-during-the-apec-meeting
#15
Yangyang Xie, Bin Zhao, Yuejing Zhao, Qinzi Luo, Shuxiao Wang, Bin Zhao, Shunhua Bai
Radical measures for controlling ambient air pollution sources were employed by the Chinese government during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in 2014, providing a unique case to evaluate the health effect benefits from such measures. To examine the cancer risk reduction from the source control measures during the APEC meeting, we estimated the reduction in population exposure to PM2.5 and PAHs and the reduction in PAHs-associated cancer risk if the control measures were sustained over time...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282284/increasing-the-use-of-earth-science-data-and-models-in-air-quality-management
#16
Jana B Milford, Daniel Knight
In 2010, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated the Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) as a 5-year, $17.5-million award with 19 principal investigators. AQAST aims to increase the use of Earth science products in air quality-related research and to help meet air quality managers' information needs. We conducted a Web-based survey and a limited number of follow-up interviews to investigate federal, state, tribal, and local air quality managers' perspectives on usefulness of Earth science data and models, and on the impact AQAST has had...
April 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278032/a-monte-carlo-method-for-summing-modeled-and-background-pollutant-concentrations
#17
Ranil Dhammapala, Clint Bowman, Jill Schulte
Air quality analyses for permitting new pollution sources often involve modeling dispersion of pollutants using models like AERMOD. Representative background pollutant concentrations must be added to modeled concentrations to determine compliance with air quality standards. Summing 98(th) (or 99(th)) percentiles of two independent distributions that are unpaired in time, overestimates air quality impacts and could needlessly burden sources with restrictive permit conditions. This problem is exacerbated when emissions and background concentrations peak during different seasons...
February 23, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277123/ambient-levels-of-concentrated-pm2-5-affects-cell-kinetics-in-adrenal-glands-an-experimental-study-in-mice
#18
Luiz Fernando Portugal Fuchs, Mariana Matera Veras, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Gisela Rodrigues da Silva Sasso, Kátia Cândido Carvalho, Manuel de Jesus Simões, José Maria Soares, Edmund Chada Baracat
We evaluated the effects of air pollution on the adrenal cortex using 30 female mice divided into two groups of fifteen animals each. One group was conditioned daily in a chamber with exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5 μm (GExp). Animals were exposed on daily basis in an ambient particles concentrator during the period of time enough to reach an accumulated dose of 600 μg/m(3), which corresponds to a 24-h exposure of 25 μg/m(3) that approximates to the annual mean of PM2.5 in São Paulo. The other group was allocated to another chamber with filtered air (GCrt)...
February 28, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274603/effects-of-ambient-temperature-on-daily-hospital-admissions-for-mental-disorders-in-shanghai-china-a-time-series-analysis
#19
Zhuoxin Peng, Qi Wang, Haidong Kan, Renjie Chen, Weibing Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence for extreme ambient temperature effects on the risk of mental disorders (MDs) is limited. In this study, we evaluated the short-term effects of daily mean temperature on hospital admissions of MDs in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We obtained daily hospital admission data for MDs, daily meteorological and ambient pollution data in Shanghai from January 2008 to December 2015. Adjusted for time trend, air pollution, relative humidity and other confounders, a quasi-Poisson generalized additive model (GAM) combined with a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to analyze the lag-exposure-response relationship between daily mean temperature and hospital admissions for MDs...
March 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273596/challenges-in-estimating-health-effects-of-indoor-exposures-to-outdoor-particles-considerations-for-regional-differences
#20
Otto Hänninen, Isabell Rumrich, Arja Asikainen
Ambient air pollution is a leading environmental risk factor causing substantial losses of life and significant morbidity. Concentration-response (CR) functions used globally to estimate such effects are largely based on ambient epidemiology, using centrally monitored outdoor air quality as an exposure indicator and various indices of population health as an outcome. Similar common understanding is mostly missing regarding indoor exposures. Less studied are health impact modifying factors such as particle size, infiltration, time-activity and population differences...
March 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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