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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923100/effects-of-air-pollution-exposure-on-glucose-metabolism-in-los-angeles-minority-children
#1
C M Toledo-Corral, T L Alderete, R Habre, K Berhane, F W Lurmann, M J Weigensberg, M I Goran, F D Gilliland
OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence indicates that ambient (AAP: NO2 , PM2.5 and O3 ) and traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) contribute to metabolic disease risk in adults; however, few studies have examined these relationships in children. METHODS: Metabolic profiling was performed in 429 overweight and obese African-American and Latino youth living in urban Los Angeles, California. This cross-sectional study estimated individual residential air pollution exposure and used linear regression to examine relationships between air pollution and metabolic outcomes...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922536/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-attention-in-primary-school-children-short-term-association
#2
Jordi Sunyer, Elisabet Suades-González, Raquel García-Esteban, Ioar Rivas, Jesús Pujol, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Xavier Querol, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Although air pollution's short-term effects are well understood to be marked and preventable, its acute neuropsychological effects have, to our knowledge, not yet been studied. We aim to examine the association between daily variation in traffic-related air pollution and attention. METHODS: We conducted a follow-up study from January 2012 to March 2013 in 2,687 school children from 265 classrooms in 39 schools in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed four domains of children's attention processes every 3 months over four repeated visits providing a total of 10,002 computerized tests on 177 different days using the child Attention Network test (ANT)...
November 29, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919584/assessment-of-population-exposure-to-pm2-5-for-mortality-in-china-and-its-public-health-benefit-based-on-benmap
#3
Li Chen, Mengshuang Shi, Shuang Gao, Suhuan Li, Jian Mao, Hui Zhang, Yanling Sun, Zhipeng Bai, Zhongliang Wang
Along with the rapid socioeconomic development, air pollution in China has become a severe problem. One component of air pollution, in particular, PM2.5 has aroused wide public concern because of its high concentration. In this study, data were collected from over 900 monitoring sites of the newly constructed PM2.5 monitoring network in China. The interpolation methods were used to simulate the PM2.5 exposure level of China especially in rural areas, thus reflecting the spatial variation of PM2.5 pollution...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919185/modeling-the-effect-of-succimer-dmsa-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-chelation-therapy-in-patients-poisoned-by-lead
#4
Jan C H van Eijkeren, J Daniël N Olie, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale, Irma de Vries, Harvey J Clewell, Jan Meulenbelt, Claudine C Hunault
CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918982/traffic-derived-particulate-matter-exposure-and-histone-h3-modification-a-repeated-measures-study
#5
Yinan Zheng, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Zhou Zhang, Brian T Joyce, Jia Zhong, Jacob K Kresovich, Lei Liu, Wei Zhang, Tao Gao, Dou Chang, Citlalli Osorio-Yanez, Juan Jose Carmona, Sheng Wang, John P McCracken, Xiao Zhang, Yana Chervona, Anaite Díaz, Pier A Bertazzi, Petros Koutrakis, Choong-Min Kang, Joel Schwartz, Andrea A Baccarelli, Lifang Hou
BACKGROUND: Airborne particulate matter (PM) may induce epigenetic changes that potentially lead to chronic diseases. Histone modifications regulate gene expression by influencing chromatin structure that can change gene expression status. We evaluated whether traffic-derived PM exposure is associated with four types of environmentally inducible global histone H3 modifications. METHODS: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined twice, 1-2 weeks apart, for ambient PM10 (both day-of and 14-day average exposures), personal PM2...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918457/air-quality-strategies-on-public-health-and-health-equity-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Li Wang, Buqing Zhong, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Fengying Zhang, Eva Pilot, Yonghua Li, Linsheng Yang, Wuyi Wang, Thomas Krafft
Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916264/the-use-of-conifer-needles-as-biomonitor-candidates-for-the-study-of-temporal-air-pollution-variation-in-the-strasbourg-region
#7
Josephine Al-Alam, Ziad Fajloun, Asma Chbani, Maurice Millet
The continuous emission of polluting chemicals into the atmosphere requires the implementation of monitoring of ambient air quality. The use of vegetation for environmental monitoring can be considered as a simple monitoring technique by providing a cheap and accessible matrix. In this study, needles of two conifers (Pinus nigra and Cedrus atlantica), were used for the consecutive biomonitoring of multipollutants such as pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban area in Strasbourg (France)...
December 1, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914645/comparison-of-diverse-estimation-methods-for-personal-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-associations-with-allergic-symptoms-the-allergy-gene-environment-link-angel-study
#8
Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byung-Jae Lee, Dong-Chull Choi, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Inbo Oh, Gwi-Nam Bae, Jae Young Lee, Chang-Heok Kim, SungChul Seo, Su Ryeon Noh, Kangmo Ahn
We estimated the exposure to ambient air pollutants and analyzed the associations with allergic diseases. We enrolled 177 children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and 70 asthmatic adults living in Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and followed for 17months between August 2013 and December 2014. Parents or patients recorded symptom scores on a daily basis. Exposure to particulate matter with a diameter <10μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated in four different ways in each individual, using the AQ1 (measurements from the nearest air quality monitoring station to residential houses), AQ2 (measurements modified from AQ1 with the indoor level of air pollutants and time activity of each individual), AQ1-DI, and AQ2-DI (measurements modified from AQ1 and AQ2, respectively, with daily inhalation intakes of air pollutants)...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913015/the-association-between-ambient-air-pollution-and-selected-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-china-a-systematic-review
#9
Milena Jacobs, Guicheng Zhang, Shu Chen, Ben Mullins, Michelle Bell, Lan Jin, Yuming Guo, Rachel Huxley, Gavin Pereira
The association between exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory or cardiovascular endpoints is well-established. An increasing number of studies have shown that this exposure is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the majority of research has been undertaken in high-income western countries, with relatively lower levels of exposure. There is now a sufficient number of studies to warrant an assessment of effects in China, a relatively higher exposure setting. We conducted a systematic review of 25 studies examining the association between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes (lower birth weight, preterm birth, mortality, and congenital anomaly) in China, published between 1980 and 2015...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913014/characterizations-of-atmospheric-particulate-bound-mercury-in-the-kathmandu-valley-of-nepal-south-asia
#10
Junming Guo, Shichang Kang, Jie Huang, Qianggong Zhang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shiwei Sun, Lekhendra Tripathee, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K Panday, Mika Sillanpää, Rukumesh Paudyal
The Kathmandu Valley, located in the Himalayan foothills in Nepal, is heavily polluted. In order to investigate ambient particulate-bound mercury (Hg) in the Kathmandu Valley, a total 64 total suspended particulates (TSP) samples were collected from a sub-urban site in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital region of Nepal during a sampling period of an entire year (April 2013-April 2014). They were analyzed for ambient particulate-bound Hg (PBM) using thermal desorption combined with cold vapor atomic spectroscopy...
November 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908628/biomarkers-of-the-health-outcomes-associated-with-ambient-particulate-matter-exposure
#11
Lixin Yang, Xiang-Yu Hou, Yongjie Wei, Phong Thai, Fahe Chai
Epidemiologic evidence supports the positive association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and lung cancer risk with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to be the major causal factors involved in mediating PM effects on both cardiovascular and pulmonary health outcomes. However, the mechanism whereby PM causes the health effects is not fully elucidated. To evaluate and investigate human exposure to PM, it is essential to have a specific, sensitive and robust characterization of individual exposure to PM...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903268/long-term-outdoor-air-pollution-and-dna-methylation-in-circulating-monocytes-results-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis-mesa
#12
Gloria C Chi, Yongmei Liu, James W MacDonald, R Graham Barr, Kathleen M Donohue, Mark D Hensley, Lifang Hou, Charles E McCall, Lindsay M Reynolds, David S Siscovick, Joel D Kaufman
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may mediate effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease. The association between long-term air pollution exposure and DNA methylation in monocytes, which are central to atherosclerosis, has not been studied. We investigated the association between long-term ambient air pollution exposure and DNA methylation (candidate sites and global) in monocytes of adults (aged ≥55). METHODS: One-year average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892609/bad-air-gets-under-your-skin
#13
Roxanna Koohgoli, Laura Hudson, Khimara Naidoo, Simon Wilkinson, Bhaven Chavan, Mark A Birch-Machin
Air pollution is increasing beyond previous estimates and is viewed as the world's largest environmental health risk factor. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have highlighted the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on health. Although there is comparatively less research investigating the cutaneous effects of ambient pollution, there is growing recognition of the adverse effects on skin. In this article we provide an overview of the nature of environmental pollution and highlight the current evidence detailing the effects on cutaneous health...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890345/prenatal-exposure-to-outdoor-air-pollution-and-child-behavioral-problems-at-school-age-in-japan
#14
Takashi Yorifuji, Saori Kashima, Midory Higa Diez, Yoko Kado, Satoshi Sanada, Hiroyuki Doi
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest positive associations between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and neurodevelopment of children, but evidence on the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution on child neurobehavioral development remains limited. We thus examined associations between prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where participants were recruited in 2001 and are continuously followed...
November 24, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889850/chemical-fractionation-and-health-risk-assessment-of-particulate-matter-bound-metals-in-pune-india
#15
Rohi Jan, Ritwika Roy, Suman Yadav, P Gursumeeran Satsangi
The present study deals with the assessment of sequential extraction of particulate matter (PM)-bound metals and the potential health risks associated with them in a growing metropolitan city (Pune) of India. The average mass concentration of both PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Significant seasonal variation in mass concentration was found for both size fractions of PM with higher values in winter season and lower in monsoon. Chemical species of the studied trace metals in PM exhibited significant differences, due to difference in sources of pollution...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888746/maternal-exposure-to-ozone-and-pm2-5-and-the-prevalence-of-orofacial-clefts-in-four-u-s-states
#16
Ying Zhou, Suzanne M Gilboa, Michele L Herdt, Philip J Lupo, W Dana Flanders, Yang Liu, Mikyong Shin, Mark A Canfield, Russell S Kirby
BACKGROUND: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. METHODS: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states - Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887782/ambient-particulate-matter-landscape-fire-smoke-and-emergency-ambulance-dispatches-in-sydney-australia
#17
Farhad Salimi, Sarah B Henderson, Geoffrey G Morgan, Bin Jalaludin, Fay H Johnston
BACKGROUND: Emergency ambulance dispatches (EAD) are a novel outcome for evaluating the public health impacts of air pollution. We assessed the relationships between ambient particulate matter (PM) from all sources, PM from landscape fire smoke (LFS), and EADs likely to be associated with cardiorespiratory problems in the Sydney greater metropolitan region for an 11-year period from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: EAD codes are assigned at the time of the call to emergency services using standard computer assisted algorithms...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887621/pediatric-emergency-department-visits-and-ambient-air-pollution-in-the-u-s-state-of-georgia-a-case-crossover-study
#18
Qingyang Xiao, Yang Liu, James A Mulholland, Armistead G Russell, Lyndsey A Darrow, Paige E Tolbert, Matthew J Strickland
BACKGROUND: Estimating the health effects of ambient air pollutant mixtures is necessary to understand the risk of real-life air pollution exposures. METHODS: Pediatric Emergency Department (ED) visit records for asthma or wheeze (n = 148,256), bronchitis (n = 84,597), pneumonia (n = 90,063), otitis media (n = 422,268) and upper respiratory tract infection (URI) (n = 744,942) were obtained from Georgia hospitals during 2002-2008. Spatially-contiguous daily concentrations of 11 ambient air pollutants were estimated from CMAQ model simulations that were fused with ground-based measurements...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886791/environmental-exposures-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-challenge-for-health-and-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#19
REVIEW
Melissa S Burroughs Peña, Allman Rollins
Environmental exposures in low- and middle-income countries lie at the intersection of increased economic development and the rising public health burden of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests an association of exposure to ambient air pollution, household air pollution from biomass fuel, lead, arsenic, and cadmium with multiple cardiovascular disease outcomes, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Although populations in low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately exposed to environmental pollution, evidence linking these exposures to cardiovascular disease is derived from populations in high-income countries...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884187/a-simulation-study-to-quantify-the-impacts-of-exposure-measurement-error-on-air-pollution-health-risk-estimates-in-copollutant-time-series-models
#20
Kathie L Dionisio, Howard H Chang, Lisa K Baxter
BACKGROUND: Exposure measurement error in copollutant epidemiologic models has the potential to introduce bias in relative risk (RR) estimates. A simulation study was conducted using empirical data to quantify the impact of correlated measurement errors in time-series analyses of air pollution and health. METHODS: ZIP-code level estimates of exposure for six pollutants (CO, NOx, EC, PM2.5, SO4, O3) from 1999 to 2002 in the Atlanta metropolitan area were used to calculate spatial, population (i...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
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