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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806676/occurrence-and-air-soil-exchange-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-at-a-cawnet-background-site-in-central-china-implications-for-influencing-factors-and-fate
#1
Lingxi Zhan, Tian Lin, Zuwu Wang, Zhineng Cheng, Gan Zhang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng
Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m(3) in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805054/a-scalable-field-study-protocol-and-rationale-for-passive-ambient-air-sampling-a-spatial-phytosampling-for-leaf-data-collection
#2
Tonny J Oyana, Slawomir M Lomnicki, Chuqi Guo, Stephania A Cormier
Stable, bioreactive, radicals known as environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been found to exist on the surface of airborne PM2.5. These EPFRs have been found to form during many combustion processes, are present in vehicular exhaust, and persist in the environment for weeks and biological systems for up to 12 hours. To measure EPFRs in PM samples, high volume samplers are required and measurements are less representative of community exposure; therefore, we developed a novel spatial phytosampling methodology to study the spatial patterns of EPFR concentrations using plants...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803437/geographic-variation-in-chinese-children-forced-vital-capacity-and-its-association-with-long-term-exposure-to-local-pm10-a-national-cross-sectional-study
#3
Hai-Jun Wang, Qin Li, Yuming Guo, Jie-Yun Song, Zhiqiang Wang, Jun Ma
The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between Chinese children's forced vital capacity (FVC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10). The FVC data of 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 was collected from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CNSSCH). The local annual average concentration of PM10, relative humidity, ambient temperature, and other air pollutant data of 30 cities was collected from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802694/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-is-associated-with-accelerated-functional-decline-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
Christopher J Winterbottom, Rupal J Shah, Karen C Patterson, Maryl E Kreider, Reynold A Panettieri, Belinda Rivera-Lebron, Wallace T Miller, Leslie A Litzky, Trevor M Penning, Krista Heinlen, Tara Jackson, A Russell Localio, Jason D Christie
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive disease with unknown pathogenesis, may in part be due to an abnormal response to injurious stimuli by alveolar epithelial cells. Air pollution and particulate matter inhalation evoke a wide variety of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory diseases. We therefore hypothesized that increased average ambient particulate matter (PM) concentrations would be associated with an accelerated rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in IPF...
August 9, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802208/acute-effects-of-visits-to-urban-green-environments-on-cardiovascular-physiology-in-women-a-field-experiment
#5
Timo Lanki, Taina Siponen, Ann Ojala, Kalevi Korpela, Arto Pennanen, Pekka Tiittanen, Yuko Tsunetsugu, Takahide Kagawa, Liisa Tyrväinen
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between the amount of green space in the living environment and mental and cardiovascular human health. In a search for effect mechanisms, field studies have found short-term visits to green environments to be associated with psychological stress relief. Less evidence is available on the effect of visits on cardiovascular physiology. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether visits to urban green environments, in comparison to visits to a built-up environment, lead to beneficial short-term changes in indicators of cardiovascular health...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801196/prenatal-fine-particulate-exposure-and-early-childhood-asthma-effect-of-maternal-stress-and-fetal-gender
#6
Alison Lee, Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Sonali Bose, Maria José Rosa, Itai Kloog, Ander Wilson, Joel Schwartz, Sheldon Cohen, Brent A Coull, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
BACKGROUND: The impact of prenatal ambient air pollution on child asthma may be modified by maternal stress, child sex and exposure dose and timing. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined associations between co-exposure to prenatal particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and maternal stress on childhood asthma (n=736). METHODS: Daily PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporally resolved prediction model...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800484/characteristics-of-elemental-and-pb-isotopic-compositions-in-aerosols-pm10-2-5-at-the-ieodo-ocean-research-station-in-the-east-china-sea
#7
Sanghee Lee, Changhee Han, Daechol Shin, Soon Do Hur, Seong Joon Jun, Young-Taeg Kim, Do-Seong Byun, Sungmin Hong
A total of 82 aerosol samples (PM10-2.5) were collected from June 18, 2015 to October 1, 2016 at the remote sea site, the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), in the East China Sea. Samples were analyzed for 10 elements (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl, and Pb) as well as Pb isotopic composition to characterize temporal variations in elemental concentration levels, and to identify the potential source regions of atmospheric pollutants transported over the remote East China Sea. The results showed that the annual average element concentrations were lowest compared to those at different sites in East Asia, suggesting a very clean background area of IORS, with values ranging from 114 ng m(-3) for Al to 0...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798061/exposure-to-air-pollution-and-tobacco-smoking-and-their-combined-effects-on-depression-in-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#8
Hualiang Lin, Yanfei Guo, Paul Kowal, Collins O Airhihenbuwa, Qian Di, Yang Zheng, Xing Zhao, Michael G Vaughn, Steven Howard, Mario Schootman, Aaron Salinas-Rodriguez, Alfred E Yawson, Perianayagam Arokiasamy, Betty Soledad Manrique-Espinoza, Richard B Biritwum, Stephen P Rule, Nadia Minicuci, Nirmala Naidoo, Somnath Chatterji, Zhengmin Min Qian, Wenjun Ma, Fan Wu
BackgroundLittle is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.AimsTo investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.MethodMultilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=4l785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire...
August 10, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776246/burden-of-lower-respiratory-infections-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-between-1990-and-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#9
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: We used data from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study (GBD) to calculate the burden of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a systematic analysis of mortality and morbidity data for LRI and its specific etiologic factors, including pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. We used modeling methods to estimate incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770505/periodic-characterization-of-alkyl-naphthalenes-in-stack-gas-and-ambient-air-around-a-medical-waste-incinerator
#10
Olusola Adedayo Adesina, Jacob Ademola Sonibare, Paul N Diagboya, Adesuji Adejuwon, Temitope Famubode, Josiah O Bello
Due to the subtle occurrence of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollution from incinerators, it is seldom considered a significant source of PAH pollution. However, considering the recent build-up of toxics in urban air, this may be a serious concern around the incinerator vicinity due to the potential consequences of PAHs on human health. Hence, this study determined 11 alkyl-naphthalene contributions from a hospital waste incinerator (HWI_0) into ambient air receptor points (HWI_1 to HWI_5) for a 1-year period: June 2014-May 2015...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768298/estimating-the-causal-effect-of-low-levels-of-fine-particulate-matter-on-hospitalization
#11
Maggie Makar, Joseph Antonelli, Qian Di, David Cutler, Joel Schwartz, Francesca Dominici
BACKGROUND: In 2012, the EPA enacted more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Few studies have characterized the health effects of air pollution levels lower than the most recent NAAQS for long-term exposure to PM2.5 (now 12 μg/m). METHODS: We constructed a cohort of 32,119 Medicare beneficiaries residing in 5138 US ZIP codes who were interviewed as part of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) between 2002 and 2010 and had 1 year of follow-up...
September 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768214/estimation-of-disease-burdens-on-preterm-births-and-low-birth-weights-attributable-to-maternal-fine-particulate-matter-exposure-in-shanghai-china
#12
Anni Liu, Naisi Qian, Huiting Yu, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that maternal exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) was associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). However, the burdens of PTB and LBW attributable to PM2.5 were rarely evaluated, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the burdens of PTBs and LBWs attributable to outdoor PM2.5 in Shanghai, China. METHODS: We collected annual-average PM2...
July 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767514/interrelationships-between-walkability-air-pollution-greenness-and-body-mass-index
#13
Peter James, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Rachel F Banay, Itai Kloog, Francine Laden
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have linked urban environmental factors and body mass index (BMI); however, such factors are often examined in isolation, ignoring correlations across exposures. METHODS: Using data on Nurses' Health Study participants living in the Northeastern United States in 2006, we estimated associations between neighborhood walkability (a composite of population density, street connectivity, and business access), greenness (from satellite imagery), and ambient air pollution (from satellite-based spatiotemporally resolved PM2...
July 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766124/human-lung-injury-following-exposure-to-humic-substances-and-humic-like-substances
#14
REVIEW
Andrew J Ghio, Michael C Madden
Among the myriad particles the human respiratory tract is exposed to, a significant number are distinctive in that they include humic substances (HS) and humic-like substances (HULIS) as organic components. HS are heterogeneous, amorphous, organic materials which are ubiquitous occurring in all terrestrial and aqueous environments. HULIS are a complex class of organic, macromolecular compounds initially extracted from atmospheric aerosol particles which share some features with HS including an aromatic, polyacidic nature...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765821/increased-antioxidant-activity-after-exposure-of-ozone-in-murine-asthma-model
#15
Yang Ki Kim, So My Koo, Kiup Kim, Soo-Taek Uh, Ahnsoo Jang, Choon-Sik Park
BACKGROUND: Ozone is well known as an important component of ambient air pollutants. Ozone can aggravate respiratory symptoms in patients with bronchial asthma, but, not in healthy person. We hypothesized asthma itself may show different response to ozone compared to nonasthma. OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the differences of response to ozone between normal and asthmatic mice model in terms of status of oxidant injury and antioxidant activity...
July 2017: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764123/burden-of-mortality-and-years-of-life-lost-due-to-ambient-pm10-pollution-in-wuhan-china
#16
Yunquan Zhang, Minjin Peng, Chuanhua Yu, Lan Zhang
Ambient particulate matter (PM) has been mainly linked with mortality and morbidity when assessing PM-associated health effects. Up-to-date epidemiologic evidence is very sparse regarding the relation between PM and years of life lost (YLL). The present study aimed to estimate the burden of YLL and mortality due to ambient PM pollution. Individual records of all registered deaths and daily data on PM10 and meteorology during 2009-2012 were obtained in Wuhan, central China. Using a time-series study design, we applied generalized additive model to assess the short-term association of 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM10 with daily YLL and mortality, adjusting for long-term trend and seasonality, mean temperature, relative humidity, public holiday, and day of the week...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763933/short-term-association-between-ambient-air-pollution-and-pneumonia-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-time-series-and-case-crossover-studies
#17
REVIEW
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Heresh Amini, Christian Schindler, Meltem Kutlar Joss, Tran Minh Dien, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino Künzli
Ambient air pollution has been associated with respiratory diseases in children. However, its effects on pediatric pneumonia have not been meta-analyzed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short-term association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed for indexed publications up to January 2017. Pollutant-specific excess risk percentage (ER%) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effect models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 10 (PM10) and ≤2...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763732/exposure-to-air-pollution-and-noise-from-road-traffic-and-risk-of-congenital-anomalies-in-the-danish-national-birth-cohort
#18
Marie Pedersen, Ester Garne, Nete Hansen-Nord, Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Matthias Ketzel, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution has been associated with certain congenital anomalies, but few studies rely on assessment of fine-scale variation in air quality and associations with noise from road traffic are unexplored. METHODS: Among 84,218 liveborn singletons (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until birth, we identified major congenital anomalies in 4018 children. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and noise from road traffic (Lden) burden during fetal life was modeled...
July 29, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763386/estimating-the-public-health-impact-of-air-pollution-for-informing-policy-in-the-twin-cities-a-minnesota-tracking-collaboration
#19
Jean E Johnson, David L Bael, Jeannette M Sample, Paula G Lindgren, Dorian L Kvale
OBJECTIVE: The Minnesota Department of Health and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency used local air pollution and public health data to estimate the impacts of particulate matter and ozone on population health, to identify disparities, and to inform decisions that will improve health. SETTING: While air quality in Minnesota currently meets federal standards, urban communities are concerned about the impact of air pollution on their health. The Twin Cities (Minneapolis-St Paul) metropolitan area includes 7 counties where fine particulate levels and rates of asthma exacerbations are elevated in some communities...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760525/using-daily-excessive-concentration-hours-to-explore-the-short-term-mortality-effects-of-ambient-pm2-5-in-hong-kong
#20
Hualiang Lin, Wenjun Ma, Hong Qiu, Xiaojie Wang, Edwin Trevathan, Zhenjiang Yao, Guang-Hui Dong, Michael G Vaughn, Zhengmin Qian, Linwei Tian
We developed a novel indicator, daily excessive concentration hours (DECH), to explore the acute mortality impacts of ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) in Hong Kong. The DECH of PM2.5 was calculated as daily concentration-hours >25 μg/m(3). We applied a generalized additive models to quantify the association between DECH and mortality with adjustment for potential confounders. The results showed that the DECH was significantly associated with mortality. The excess mortality risk for an interquartile range (565 μg/m(3)*hours) increase in DECH of PM2...
July 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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