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Ambient air pollution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526659/framework-for-assessing-causality-of-air-pollution-related-health-effects-for-reviews-of-the-national-ambient-air-quality-standards
#1
Elizabeth Oesterling Owens, Molini M Patel, Ellen Kirrane, Thomas C Long, James Brown, Ila Cote, Mary A Ross, Steven J Dutton
To inform regulatory decisions on the risk due to exposure to ambient air pollution, consistent and transparent communication of the scientific evidence is essential. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) develops the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA), which contains evaluations of the policy-relevant science on the effects of criteria air pollutants and conveys critical science judgments to inform decisions on the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This article discusses the approach and causal framework used in the ISAs to evaluate and integrate various lines of scientific evidence and draw conclusions about the causal nature of air pollution-induced health effects...
May 16, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525857/industrial-air-emissions-and-proximity-to-major-industrial-emitters-are-associated-with-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibodies
#2
Sasha Bernatsky, Audrey Smargiassi, Lawrence Joseph, Phillip Awadalla, Ines Colmegna, Marie Hudson, Marvin J Fritzler
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA) with the ambient air pollutants fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). METHODS: The CARTaGENE first-wave cohort includes 20,000 general population subjects from Quebec (Canada). On a sample of unselected 1586 subjects, we determined serum, ACPA and performed multivariable logistic regression, for the outcome of positive ACPA, assessing for independent effects of our air pollution variables, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and French Canadian origin...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520744/indoor-simulations-reveal-differences-among-plant-species-in-capturing-particulate-matter
#3
Jungang Chen, Xinxiao Yu, Huaxing Bi, Yanlin Fu
A number of studies have focused on the capacity of urban trees and shrubs to serve as efficient biological filters to mitigate air pollution. In this study, five different tree species were assessed for this function. Kerria japonica, Sophora japonica, Philadelphus pekinensis, Gleditsia sinensis, and Prunus persica 'Atropurpurea' were tested in a deposition chamber using (NH4)2SO4 particles. We quantified and compared the capability of all tested trees to remove particles by assessing deposition velocity, a measure of the ability to remove particles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520197/integrated-uncertainty-analysis-for-ambient-pollutant-health-risk-assessment-a-case-study-of-ozone-mortality-risk
#4
Anne E Smith, Garrett Glasgow
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses health risk assessment to help inform its decisions in setting national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). EPA's standard approach is to make epidemiologically-based risk estimates based on a single statistical model selected from the scientific literature, called the "core" model. The uncertainty presented for "core" risk estimates reflects only the statistical uncertainty associated with that one model's concentration-response function parameter estimate(s)...
May 18, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516352/air-pollution-and-respiratory-health-among-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-subjects-in-pune-india-results-from-the-wellcome-trust-genetic-study
#5
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Sundeep Santosh Salvi, Chittaranjan Sakerlal Yajnik, Ajay Ojha, Behzad Khafaie, Sharad Damodar Gore
Diabetics may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants than healthy individuals. But, the risk factors that lead to susceptibility to air pollution in diabetics have not yet been identified. We examined the effect of exposure to ambient PM10 on chronic symptoms and the pulmonary function tests (PFT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Also, to investigate possible determinants of susceptibility, we recruited 400 type 2 diabetic and 465 healthy subjects who were investigated for chronic respiratory symptoms (CRSs) and then underwent measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1) according to standard protocol...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516280/optimization-of-an-ultrasound-assisted-derivatization-for-gc-ms-analysis-of-oxygenated-organic-species-in-atmospheric-aerosol
#6
Maria Chiara Pietrogrande, Francesco Manarini, José Benito Quintana, Rosario Rodil, Eugenia Villaverde-de-Sáa, Marco Visentin
A novel ultrasound-assisted derivatization followed by GC/MS analysis was developed for the quantification of oxygenated organic species in ambient aerosol. Derivatization parameters mostly influencing the analytical response were investigated, i.e., solvent type, reagent concentration, and reaction duration. Response surface methodology was used to design experiments and a quadratic model was utilized to predict the variables and establish the optimal conditions. The study was performed on standard solutions of 30 compounds representing the major classes of oxygenated compounds typically found in ambient aerosol, i...
May 18, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511038/attributable-risks-of-emergency-hospital-visits-due-to-air-pollutants-in-china-a-multi-city-study
#7
Gongbo Chen, Yongming Zhang, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Gail Williams, Guy B Marks, Bin Jalaludin, Michael J Abramson, Fengming Luo, Dong Yang, Xin Su, Qichang Lin, Laiyu Liu, Jiangtao Lin, Yuming Guo
Air pollution is associated with risks of mortality in China, but the evidence is still limited for morbidity. This study aims to examine overall effects of ambient air pollutants on emergency hospital visits (EHVs) at the national level in China and calculate corresponding attributable risks. We collected daily data for EHVs from 33 largest hospitals in China between Oct 2013 and Dec 2014, as well as daily measurements of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5: particles with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm and 2...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510489/urban-heat-island-uhi-influence-on-secondary-pollutant-formation-at-a-tropical-humid-environment
#8
Gsnvksn Swamy, S M Shiva Nagendra, Uwe Shlink
The combined action of urbanization (change in land use) and increase in vehicular emissions intensify the urban heat island (UHI) effect in many cities in the developed countries. The urban warming (UHI) enhances heat stress related diseases and ozone (O3) levels due to a photochemical reaction. Even though UHI intensity depends on wind speed, wind direction and solar flux, the thermodynamic properties of surface materials can accelerate the temperature profiles at the local scale. This mechanism modifies the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) structure and mixing height in urban regions...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501677/modeling-variability-in-air-pollution-related-health-damages-from-individual-airport-emissions
#9
Stefani L Penn, Scott T Boone, Brian C Harvey, Wendy Heiger-Bernays, Yorghos Tripodis, Sarav Arunachalam, Jonathan I Levy
In this study, we modeled concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) attributable to precursor emissions from individual airports in the United States, developing airport-specific health damage functions (deaths per 1000t of precursor emissions) and physically-interpretable regression models to explain variability in these functions. We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality model using the Decoupled Direct Method to isolate PM2.5- or O3-related contributions from precursor pollutants emitted by 66 individual airports...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499161/determination-of-the-henry-s-law-constants-of-low-volatility-compounds-via-the-measured-air-phase-transfer-coefficients
#10
Huan-Ping Chao, Jiunn-Fwu Lee, Cary T Chiou
Accurate Henry's law constants (H) are unavailable for the majority of organic pollutants, especially those having a low volatility. A novel kinetics-based experimental method is introduced to determine H for a wide range of low-H compounds. The method consists of measuring independently the water-to-air transfer coefficient (KL) and the associated air-phase transfer coefficient (kG) of a low-H chemical (solute) in water when KL ≅ kGH prevails according to the two-film theory. The kG for a solute is obtained via a developed gas-dynamic equation that relates kG to the solute molecular weight and the solute-vapor escaping efficiency (β) through a boundary air layer...
May 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498787/spatial-and-temporal-variability-of-atmospheric-mercury-concentrations-emitted-from-a-coal-fired-power-plant-in-mexico
#11
Gilberto Fuentes, Bravo A Humberto, Sosa E Rodolfo, Rosas A Sergio, Magaña R Víctor, Caetano D Ernesto, Vázquez C Gustavo
Atmospheric mercury in the environment as a result of the consumption of fossil fuels, such as coal used in electricity generation, has gained increased attention worldwide because of its toxicity, atmospheric persistence, and bioaccumulation. Determining or predicting the concentration of this pollutant in ambient air is essential for determining sensitive areas requiring health protection. This study investigated the spatiotemporal variability of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations and its dry deposition surrounding the Presidente Plutarco Elías Calles, (CETEPEC) coal-fired power plant, located on Mexico's Pacific coast...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494199/fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-enhances-allergic-sensitization-in-balb-c-mice
#12
Alejandro R Castañeda, Keith J Bein, Suzette Smiley-Jewell, Kent E Pinkerton
Ambient particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution, exacerbates airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Studies showed that PM possesses adjuvant-like properties that enhance the allergic inflammatory response; however, the mechanism (or mechanisms) by which PM enhances the allergic response remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to assess how exposure to fine PM collected from Sacramento, CA, shapes the allergic airway immune response in BALB/c mice undergoing sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493694/community-vulnerability-to-health-impacts-of-wildland-fire-smoke-exposure
#13
Ana G Rappold, Jeanette M Reyes, George Pouliot, Wayne E Cascio, David Diaz-Sanchez
Identifying communities vulnerable to adverse health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke may help prepare responses, increase the resilience to smoke and improve public health outcomes during smoke days. We developed a Community Health-Vulnerability Index (CHVI) based on factors known to increase the risks of health effects from air pollution and wildfire smoke exposures. These factors included county prevalence rates for asthma in children and adults, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, percent of population 65 years of age and older, and indicators of socioeconomic status including poverty, education, income and unemployment...
May 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489427/air-pollution-from-livestock-farms-is-associated-with-airway-obstruction-in-neighboring-residents
#14
Floor Borlée, C Joris Yzermans, Bernadette Aalders, Jos Rooijackers, Esmeralda Krop, Catharina B M Maassen, François Schellevis, Bert Brunekreef, Dick Heederik, Lidwien A M Smit
RATIONALE: Livestock farm emissions may not only affect respiratory health of farmers but also of neighboring residents. OBJECTIVES: To explore associations between both spatial and temporal variation in pollutant emissions from livestock farms and lung function in a general, non-farming, rural population in the Netherlands. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2,308 adults (age 20-72 years). A pulmonary function test was performed measuring pre- and post-bronchodilator FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and MMEF...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489042/spatial-analysis-of-ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-bladder-cancer-mortality-in-taiwan
#15
Hsin-Ling Yeh, Shang-Wei Hsu, Yu-Chia Chang, Ta-Chien Chan, Hui-Chen Tsou, Yen-Chen Chang, Po-Huang Chiang
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that is receiving intense regulatory attention in Taiwan. In previous studies, the effect of air pollution on bladder cancer has been explored. This study was conducted to elucidate the effect of atmospheric PM2.5 and other local risk factors on bladder cancer mortality based on available 13-year mortality data. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to estimate and interpret the spatial variability of the relationships between bladder cancer mortality and ambient PM2...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486341/traffic-related-air-pollution-and-telomere-length-in-children-and-adolescents-living-in-fresno-ca-a-pilot-study
#16
Eunice Y Lee, Jue Lin, Elizabeth M Noth, S Katharine Hammond, Kari C Nadeau, Ellen A Eisen, John R Balmes
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this pilot study was to gather preliminary information about how telomere length (TL) varies in relation to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in children living in a highly polluted city. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children living in Fresno, California (n = 14). Subjects with and without asthma were selected based on their annual average PAH level in the 12-months prior to their blood draw...
May 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482318/differential-responses-of-peach-prunus-persica-seedlings-to-elevated-ozone-are-related-with-leaf-mass-per-area-antioxidant-enzymes-activity-rather-than-stomatal-conductance
#17
Lulu Dai, Pin Li, Bo Shang, Shuo Liu, Aizhen Yang, Younian Wang, Zhaozhong Feng
To evaluate the ozone (O3) sensitivity among peach tree (Prunus persica) cultivars widely planted in Beijing region and explore the possible eco-physiological response mechanisms, thirteen cultivars of peach seedlings were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 (E-O3, non-filtered ambient air plus 60 ppb) for one growing season in open-top chambers. Leaf structure, stomatal structure, gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation were measured in three replicated chambers...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482313/air-pollution-in-china-status-and-spatiotemporal-variations
#18
Congbo Song, Lin Wu, Yaochen Xie, Jianjun He, Xi Chen, Ting Wang, Yingchao Lin, Taosheng Jin, Anxu Wang, Yan Liu, Qili Dai, Baoshuang Liu, Ya-Nan Wang, Hongjun Mao
In recent years, China has experienced severe and persistent air pollution associated with rapid urbanization and climate change. Three years' time series (January 2014 to December 2016) concentrations data of air pollutants including particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) from over 1300 national air quality monitoring sites were studied to understand the severity of China's air pollution. In 2014 (2015, 2016), annual population-weighted-average (PWA) values in China were 65...
May 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472694/association-between-fine-ambient-particulate-matter-and-daily-total-mortality-an-analysis-from-160-communities-of-china
#19
Guoxing Li, Ming Xue, Qiang Zeng, Yue Cai, Xiaochuan Pan, Qun Meng
Short-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter air pollution is associated with adverse health effects. However, existing literature have been limited in size and scope in countries with high air pollution level, especially in China. The study aims to examine the association of fine particulate matter with daily total mortality in 160 Chinese communities between 2013 and 2014. Two-stage analyses were used to assess the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality. Firstly, Poisson regression model was used to estimate the community-specific PM2...
May 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472208/ambient-air-pollution-and-risk-of-gestational-hypertension
#20
Yeyi Zhu, Cuilin Zhang, Danping Liu, Sandie Ha, Sung Soo Kim, Anna Pollack, Pauline Mendola
Air pollution has been linked to hypertension in the general population, but data on gestational hypertension (GH) are limited. We investigated air pollutants and toxics during preconception and early gestation in relation to GH risk in the Consortium on Safe Labor/Air Quality and Reproductive Health Study (2002-2008). Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models estimated air pollution exposures among 6,074 singleton pregnancies with GH and 199,980 normotensives. Generalized estimating equations estimated relative risks per interquartile-range increment for pollutants and high exposure (≥75th percentile) for toxics, after adjustment for major risk factors...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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