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Neuronal group selection theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560432/otoprotective-effects-of-ethosuximide-in-nod-ltj-mice-with-age-related-hearing-loss
#1
Lu Sang, Tihua Zheng, Lingqian Min, Xiaolin Zhang, Xiufang Ma, Shami Entenman, Yipeng Su, Qingyin Zheng
Despite long-term efforts to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for age-related hearing loss (AHL), there is currently no available treatment strategy able to provide a cure. Apoptotic cell death, including that of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the cochlea has been proposed to be the classic theory behind the development of AHL. As calcium signaling plays key roles in signal transduction in apoptosis, in this study, we selected ethosuximide, which is able to block T-type calcium (Ca2+ion) channels, suppressing Ca2+...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242794/spatial-tuning-shifts-increase-the-discriminability-and-fidelity-of-population-codes-in-visual-cortex
#2
Vy A Vo, Thomas C Sprague, John T Serences
Selective visual attention enables organisms to enhance the representation of behaviorally relevant stimuli by altering the encoding properties of single receptive fields (RFs). Yet we know little about how the attentional modulations of single RFs contribute to the encoding of an entire visual scene. Addressing this issue requires (1) measuring a group of RFs that tile a continuous portion of visual space, (2) constructing a population-level measurement of spatial representations based on these RFs, and (3) linking how different types of RF attentional modulations change the population-level representation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103235/real-time-multiplicative-memory-amplification-mediated-by-whole-cell-scaling-of-synaptic-response-in-key-neurons
#3
Iris Reuveni, Sourav Ghosh, Edi Barkai
Intense spiking response of a memory-pattern is believed to play a crucial role both in normal learning and pathology, where it can create biased behavior. We recently proposed a novel model for memory amplification where the simultaneous two-fold increase of all excitatory (AMPAR-mediated) and inhibitory (GABAAR-mediated) synapses in a sub-group of cells that constitutes a memory-pattern selectively amplifies this memory. Here we confirm the cellular basis of this model by validating its major predictions in four sets of experiments, and demonstrate its induction via a whole-cell transduction mechanism...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932969/variability-of-neuronal-responses-types-and-functional-significance-in-neuroplasticity-and-neural-darwinism
#4
Alexander V Chervyakov, Dmitry O Sinitsyn, Michael A Piradov
HIGHLIGHTS We suggest classifying variability of neuronal responses as follows: false (associated with a lack of knowledge about the influential factors), "genuine harmful" (noise), "genuine neutral" (synonyms, repeats), and "genuine useful" (the basis of neuroplasticity and learning).The genuine neutral variability is considered in terms of the phenomenon of degeneracy.Of particular importance is the genuine useful variability that is considered as a potential basis for neuroplasticity and learning. This type of variability is considered in terms of the neural Darwinism theory...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158591/a-complex-of-brain-metabolites-distinguish-altered-chemistry-in-the-cingulate-cortex-of-episodic-migraine-patients
#5
L Becerra, R Veggeberg, A Prescot, J E Jensen, P Renshaw, S Scrivani, E L H Spierings, R Burstein, D Borsook
Despite the prevalence of migraine, the pathophysiology of the disease remains unclear. Current understanding of migraine has alluded to the possibility of a hyperexcitable brain. The aim of the current study is to investigate human brain metabolite differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the interictal phase in migraine patients. We hypothesized that there may be differences in levels of excitatory neurotransmitters and/or their derivatives in the migraine cohort in support of the theory of hyperexcitability in migraine...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26326810/parametric-responses-to-rotation-symmetry-in-mid-level-visual-cortex
#6
Peter Kohler, Alexandra Yakovleva, Alasdair Clarke, Yanxi Liu, Anthony Norcia
Symmetry is a fundamental principle of perceptual organization that contributes to multiple aspects of vision, running the gamut from judgments of aesthetics and mate selection, to shape processing and surface orientation. Crystallographic group theory categorizes all possible two-dimensional repetitive patterns into 17 wallpaper groups, as unique combinations of the four fundamental symmetries: mirror reflection, translation, rotation and glide reflection (Liu et al., 2010). We have developed an algorithm that can generate a near-infinite number of well-controlled exemplars belonging to each of the 17 wallpaper groups...
2015: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25926461/spike-synchrony-reveals-emergence-of-proto-objects-in-visual-cortex
#7
Anne B Martin, Rüdiger von der Heydt
Neurons at early stages of the visual cortex signal elemental features, such as pieces of contour, but how these signals are organized into perceptual objects is unclear. Theories have proposed that spiking synchrony between these neurons encodes how features are grouped (binding-by-synchrony), but recent studies did not find the predicted increase in synchrony with binding. Here we propose that features are grouped to "proto-objects" by intrinsic feedback circuits that enhance the responses of the participating feature neurons...
April 29, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25698950/traumatic-brain-injury-detection-using-electrophysiological-methods
#8
REVIEW
Paul E Rapp, David O Keyser, Alfonso Albano, Rene Hernandez, Douglas B Gibson, Robert A Zambon, W David Hairston, John D Hughes, Andrew Krystal, Andrew S Nichols
Measuring neuronal activity with electrophysiological methods may be useful in detecting neurological dysfunctions, such as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This approach may be particularly valuable for rapid detection in at-risk populations including military service members and athletes. Electrophysiological methods, such as quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) and recording event-related potentials (ERPs) may be promising; however, the field is nascent and significant controversy exists on the efficacy and accuracy of the approaches as diagnostic tools...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25620927/an-alternating-renewal-process-describes-the-buildup-of-perceptual-segregation
#9
Sara A Steele, Daniel Tranchina, John Rinzel
For some ambiguous scenes perceptual conflict arises between integration and segregation. Initially, all stimulus features seem integrated. Then abruptly, perhaps after a few seconds, a segregated percept emerges. For example, segregation of acoustic features into streams may require several seconds. In behavioral experiments, when a subject's reports of stream segregation are averaged over repeated trials, one obtains a buildup function, a smooth time course for segregation probability. The buildup function has been said to reflect an underlying mechanism of evidence accumulation or adaptation...
2014: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24565923/supramodal-processing-optimizes-visual-perceptual-learning-and-plasticity
#10
Nicolas Zilber, Philippe Ciuciu, Alexandre Gramfort, Leila Azizi, Virginie van Wassenhove
Multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in cortex and it has been suggested that sensory cortices may be supramodal i.e. capable of functional selectivity irrespective of the sensory modality of inputs (Pascual-Leone and Hamilton, 2001; Renier et al., 2013; Ricciardi and Pietrini, 2011; Voss and Zatorre, 2012). Here, we asked whether learning to discriminate visual coherence could benefit from supramodal processing. To this end, three groups of participants were briefly trained to discriminate which of a red or green intermixed population of random-dot-kinematograms (RDKs) was most coherent in a visual display while being recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
June 2014: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24123647/7-th-international-symposium-on-enabling-technologies-for-life-sciences-etp
#11
(no author information available yet)
The seventh in the series of ETP Symposia (see Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 2012, 26, 1515-1518 for a description and report on the 6(th) Symposium) was held at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto, Canada, on 30 April to 1 May, 2013, and was chaired by Professor Daniel Figeys, Ottawa Institute for Systems Biology, University of Ottawa. The purpose of these symposia is to convene meetings of scientists and engineers from universities, government laboratories, industry and manufacturers of scientific instrumentation, to discuss novel technologies and methodologies applicable to research in molecular biology...
November 30, 2013: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23961987/the-role-of-neuronal-synchronization-in-response-selection-a-biologically-plausible-theory-of-structured-representations-in-the-visual-cortex
#12
P R Roelfsema, A K Engel, P König, W Singer
Abstract Recent experimental results in the visual cortex of cats and monkeys have suggested an important role for synchronization of neuronal activity on a millisecond time scale. Synchronization has been found to occur selectively between neuronal responses to related image components. This suggests that not only the firing rates of neurons but also the relative timing of their action potentials is used as a coding dimension. Thus, a powerful relational code would be available, in addition to the rate code, for the representation of perceptual objects...
November 1996: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23842505/evaluation-of-the-acoustic-coordinated-reset-cr%C3%A2-neuromodulation-therapy-for-tinnitus-study-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Derek J Hoare, Robert H Pierzycki, Holly Thomas, David McAlpine, Deborah A Hall
BACKGROUND: Current theories of tinnitus assume that the phantom sound is generated either through increased spontaneous activity of neurons in the auditory brain, or through pathological temporal firing patterns of the spontaneous neuronal discharge, or a combination of both factors. With this in mind, Tass and colleagues recently tested a number of temporally patterned acoustic stimulation strategies in a proof of concept study. Potential therapeutic sound regimes were derived according to a paradigm assumed to disrupt hypersynchronous neuronal activity, and promote plasticity mechanisms that stabilize a state of asynchronous spontaneous activity...
July 10, 2013: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23790313/ventral-striatum-lesions-enhance-stimulus-and-response-encoding-in-dorsal-striatum
#14
Amanda C Burton, Gregory B Bissonette, Nina T Lichtenberg, Vadim Kashtelyan, Matthew R Roesch
BACKGROUND: The development of addiction is thought to reflect a transition from goal-directed to stimulus-response driven behavior, functions attributed to ventral (VS) and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. In line with this theory, neuroadaptations that occur during prolonged drug use progress from VS to DS. Here we ask if VS dysfunction alone, independent of drug use, can affect neural selectivity in DS. METHODS: To address this issue, we recorded from single neurons in DS while rats performed an odor-guided choice task for differently valued rewards in rats with and without unilateral VS lesions...
January 15, 2014: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23641193/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-reduces-memory-interference-in-humans-opposing-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-and-depression
#15
Nicolas Déry, Malcolm Pilgrim, Martin Gibala, Jenna Gillen, J Martin Wojtowicz, Glenda Macqueen, Suzanna Becker
Since the remarkable discovery of adult neurogenesis in the mammalian hippocampus, considerable effort has been devoted to unraveling the functional significance of these new neurons. Our group has proposed that a continual turnover of neurons in the DG could contribute to the development of event-unique memory traces that act to reduce interference between highly similar inputs. To test this theory, we implemented a recognition task containing some objects that were repeated across trials as well as some objects that were highly similar, but not identical, to ones previously observed...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23614040/metastability-and-inter-band-frequency-modulation-in-networks-of-oscillating-spiking-neuron-populations
#16
David Bhowmik, Murray Shanahan
Groups of neurons firing synchronously are hypothesized to underlie many cognitive functions such as attention, associative learning, memory, and sensory selection. Recent theories suggest that transient periods of synchronization and desynchronization provide a mechanism for dynamically integrating and forming coalitions of functionally related neural areas, and that at these times conditions are optimal for information transfer. Oscillating neural populations display a great amount of spectral complexity, with several rhythms temporally coexisting in different structures and interacting with each other...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22846678/depressive-like-states-heighten-the-aversion-to-painful-stimuli-in-a-rat-model-of-comorbid-chronic-pain-and-depression
#17
Lidia Bravo, Juan Antonio Mico, Raquel Rey-Brea, Beatriz Pérez-Nievas, Juan Carlos Leza, Esther Berrocoso
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and depression are two complex states with sensory/somatic and emotional components, and they may mutually exacerbate one another in conditions of comorbidity, leading to a poorer prognosis. METHODS: The authors have evaluated the sensory and emotional components in a rat model combining chronic constriction injury (CCI, a model of chronic neuropathic pain) with unpredictable chronic mild stress (CMS, an experimental model of depression)...
September 2012: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22785404/synaptotoxic-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-a-molecular-basis-for-the-cause-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
William L Klein
The oligomer hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease (AD)was introduced in 1998. It was based on evidence that oligomers could exist free of amyloid fibrils, that fibril-free oligomer solutions rapidly inhibited long term potentiation, and that oligomers ultimately caused a highly selective nerve cell death. Fibrils no longer were the only toxins made by amyloid-β (Aβ), and likely not the most important ones. Oligomers provided a new basis for instigating AD. Since introduction of the hypothesis, more than 1,500 articles on oligomers have been published...
2013: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22617853/action-and-outcome-activity-state-patterns-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#19
James M Hyman, Jennifer Whitman, Eldon Emberly, Todd S Woodward, Jeremy K Seamans
Although there are numerous theories regarding anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function, most suggest that it is involved in some form of action or outcome processing. The present study characterized the dominant patterns of ACC activity on a task in which actions and outcomes could vary independently. Patterns of activity were detected using a modified form of principal component analysis (PCA), termed constrained PCA in which a regression procedure was applied prior to PCA to eliminate the contribution of nontask-related activity...
June 2013: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22557963/selectionist-and-evolutionary-approaches-to-brain-function-a-critical-appraisal
#20
Chrisantha Fernando, Eörs Szathmáry, Phil Husbands
We consider approaches to brain dynamics and function that have been claimed to be Darwinian. These include Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection, Changeux's theory of synaptic selection and selective stabilization of pre-representations, Seung's Darwinian synapse, Loewenstein's synaptic melioration, Adam's selfish synapse, and Calvin's replicating activity patterns. Except for the last two, the proposed mechanisms are selectionist but not truly Darwinian, because no replicators with information transfer to copies and hereditary variation can be identified in them...
2012: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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