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Enzyme pkc delta 2

Binh Thanh Nguyen, Min Park, Jae-Chul Pyun, Young Sook Yoo, Min-Jung Kang
An assay for protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) activity based on the quantification of a synthetic substrate using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection was developed. The peptides labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate F-ERK (where ERK is extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and the phosphorylated form, P-F-ERK, were utilized for the method development and validation. The migration time of F-ERK and P-F-ERK were 6.3 ± 0.1 and 8.7 ± 0.2 min, respectively. LOD and LOQ values of F-ERK were 2 and 6 ng/mL and those of P-F-ERK were 4 and 12 ng/mL...
December 2016: Electrophoresis
Patcharapong Thangsunan, Suriya Tateing, Supa Hannongbua, Nuttee Suree
Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are important regulatory enzymes that have been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and in the eradication of HIV/AIDS. Given their potential clinical ramifications, PKC modulators, e.g. phorbol esters and bryostatin, are also of great interest in the drug development. However, structural details on the binding between PKC and its modulators, especially bryostatin - the highly potent and non-tumor promoting activator for PKCs, are still lacking...
July 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Ruhul Amin, Sapna Sharma, Sireesha Ratakonda, Hatim A Hassan
Nephrolithiasis remains a major health problem in Western countries. Seventy to 80% of kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and small changes in urinary oxalate affect risk of kidney stone formation. Intestinal oxalate secretion mediated by the anion exchanger SLC26A6 plays an essential role in preventing hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, indicating that understanding the mechanisms regulating intestinal oxalate transport is critical for management of hyperoxaluria. Purinergic signaling modulates several intestinal processes through pathways including PKC activation, which we previously found to inhibit Slc26a6 activity in mouse duodenal tissue...
July 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Bradley R Webster, Jessica M Osmond, Daniel A Paredes, Xavier A DeLeon, Olan Jackson-Weaver, Benjimen R Walker, Nancy L Kanagy
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular complications including hypertension. Previous findings from our laboratory indicate that exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), to mimic sleep apnea, increases blood pressure in rats. IH also increases endothelin-1 (ET-1) constrictor sensitivity in a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent manner in mesenteric arteries. Because phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) regulates PKCδ activity, we hypothesized that PDK-1 contributes to the augmented ET-1 constrictor sensitivity and elevated blood pressure following IH...
January 2013: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ehsan Oskoueian, Norhani Abdullah, Syahida Ahmad
Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128...
2012: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Seung Eun Lee, Hana Yang, Seong Il Jeong, Young-Ho Jin, Cheung-Seog Park, Yong Seek Park
BACKGROUND: Crotonaldehyde, an alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde present in cigarette smoke, is an environmental pollutant and a product of lipid peroxidation. It also produces adverse effects to humans and is considered as a risk factor for various diseases. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays important roles in protecting cells against oxidative stress as a prime cellular defense mechanism. However, HO-1 may be associated with cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells...
2012: PloS One
Pin Lv, Sui-Bing Miao, Ya-Nan Shu, Li-Hua Dong, George Liu, Xiao-Li Xie, Min Gao, Yu-Can Wang, Ya-Juan Yin, Xiao-Juan Wang, Mei Han
RATIONALE: We have demonstrated that smooth muscle (SM) 22α inhibits cell proliferation via blocking Ras-ERK1/2 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and in injured arteries. The recent study indicates that SM22α disruption can independently promote arterial inflammation through activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated NF-κB pathways. However, the mechanisms by which SM22α controls ROS production have not been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how SM22α disruption promotes ROS production and to characterize the underlying mechanisms...
August 31, 2012: Circulation Research
Xiaoqing Gan, Jiyong Wang, Chen Wang, Eeva Sommer, Tohru Kozasa, Srinivasa Srinivasula, Dario Alessi, Stefan Offermanns, Melvin I Simon, Dianqing Wu
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) phosphorylates AGC protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC) and regulates cellular functions such as cell migration. However, its regulation remains poorly understood. Here we show that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces two phases of PKC-δ hydrophobic motif phosphorylation. The late phase is mediated by Gα(12), which specifically activates ARAF, leading to upregulation of the RFFL E3 ubiquitin ligase and subsequent ubiquitylation and degradation of the PRR5L subunit of mTORC2...
May 20, 2012: Nature Cell Biology
Tihomir Miralem, Nicole Lerner-Marmarosh, Peter E M Gibbs, Cicerone Tudor, Fred K Hagen, Mahin D Maines
PKCδ, a Ser/Thr kinase, promotes cell growth, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase, inhibits apoptosis by reducing biliverdin-IX to antioxidant bilirubin. The enzymes are activated by similar stimuli. Reportedly, hBVR is a kinase-independent activator of PKCδ and is transactivated by the PKC (Gibbs, P. E., Miralem, T., Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Tudor, C., and Maines, M. D. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 1066-1079). Presently, we examined interactions between the two proteins in the context of regulation of their activities and defining targets of hBVR phosphorylation by PKCδ...
July 13, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Y C Muñoz, G I Gomez, M Moreno, C L Solis, L E Valladares, V Velarde
The steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), suggested to be a cardioprotector, prevents platelet aggregation in healthy humans. This hormone is reduced in postmenopausal women by 60% of its normal value. Platelets in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are more sensitive to aggregation, which has been attributed to a reduced ability to produce nitric oxide (NO). In light of these precedents and considering that DHEA is able to increase the production of NO in cultured endothelial cells, we suggest that DHEA prevents the aggregation of platelet from postmenopausal women with T2D through the activation of PKC/eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway...
July 2012: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
JingHe Xia, Sachiko Matsuhashi, Hiroshi Hamajima, Shinji Iwane, Hirokazu Takahashi, Yuichiro Eguchi, Toshihiko Mizuta, Kazuma Fujimoto, Shun'ichi Kuroda, Iwata Ozaki
Vitamin K (VK) has diverse protective effects against osteoporosis, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. We recently reported that menatetrenone, a VK2 analogue, suppressed nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in human hepatoma cells. Although NF-κB is regulated by isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), the involvement of PKCs in VK2-mediated NF-κB inhibition remains unknown. Therefore, the effects of VK2 on the activation and the kinase activity of each PKC isoform were investigated. The human hepatoma Huh7 cells were treated with PKC isoform-specific inhibitors and/or siRNAs against each PKC isoform with or without 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)...
December 2012: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Michael B Ellman, Jae-Sung Kim, Howard S An, Jeffrey S Kroin, Xin Li, Di Chen, Dongyao Yan, Doug D Buechter, Keiichi Nakayama, Bo Liu, Stephanie Morgan, Hee-Jeong Im
OBJECTIVE: Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) activation has been shown to be a principal rate-limiting step in matrix-degrading enzyme production in human articular chondrocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the PKC pathways, specifically PKCδ, in intervertebral disc tissue homeostasis. METHODS: Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we evaluated the pathophysiologic role of the PKCδ pathway by examining 1) proteoglycan deposition, 2) matrix-degrading enzyme production and activity, 3) downstream signaling pathways regulated by PKCδ, and 4) the effect on in vivo models of disc degeneration in genetically engineered PKCδ-knockout mice...
June 2012: Arthritis and Rheumatism
Peter E M Gibbs, Tihomir Miralem, Nicole Lerner-Marmarosh, Cicerone Tudor, Mahin D Maines
Growth factors, insulin, oxidative stress, and cytokines activate ERK1/2 by PKCδ and MEK1/2. Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase and intracellular scaffold/bridge/anchor, is a nuclear transporter of MEK1/2-stimulated ERK1/2 (Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Miralem, T., Gibbs, P. E., and Maines, M. D. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 6870-6875). hBVR, PKCδ, and MEK1/2 overlap in their tissue expression profile and type of activators. Presently, we report on formation of an hBVR-PKCδ-ERK2 ternary complex that is essential for ERK2 signal transduction and activation of genes linked to cell proliferation and cancer...
January 6, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Eun Jung Park, Taeg Kyu Kwon
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important enzyme in inflammation. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of the synergistic effect of rottlerin on interleukin1β (IL-1β)-induced COX-2 expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Treatment with rottlerin enhanced IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Combined treatment with rottlerin and IL-1β significantly induced COX-2 expression, at least in part, through the enhancement of COX-2 mRNA stability...
December 31, 2011: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Nicolas Duquesnes, Frank Lezoualc'h, Bertrand Crozatier
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of 10 serine/threonine kinases divided into 3 subfamilies, classical, novel and atypical classes. Two PKC isozymes of the novel group, PKCε and PKCδ, have different and sometimes opposite effects. PKCε stimulates cell growth and differentiation while PKCδ is apoptotic. In the heart, they are among the most expressed PKC isozymes and they are opposed in the preconditioning process with a positive role of PKCε and an inhibiting role of PKCδ. The goal of this review is to analyze the structural differences of these 2 enzymes that may explain their different behaviors and properties...
November 2011: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Kunjan R Dave, Sanjoy K Bhattacharya, Isabel Saul, R Anthony DeFazio, Cameron Dezfulian, Hung Wen Lin, Ami P Raval, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon
BACKGROUND: The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria following cerebral ischemia is a key event leading to cell death. The goal of the present study was to determine the mechanisms involved in post-ischemic activation of protein kinase c delta (δPKC) that lead to cytochrome c release. METHODS/FINDINGS: We used a rat model of cardiac arrest as an in vivo model, and an in vitro analog, oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat hippocampal synaptosomes. Cardiac arrest triggered translocation of δPKC to the mitochondrial fraction at 1 h reperfusion...
2011: PloS One
Akeem O Lawal, Elizabeth M Ellis
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal, and exposure to Cd causes a range of changes within the cell. At high concentrations, Cd causes damage to cells via a range of mechanisms. At low concentrations, Cd can stimulate expression of genes that are part of an adaptive response. In this study, we have used the astrocytoma cell line 1321N1 as a model to investigate the induction of protective enzymes in response to Cd. We have shown that expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and haem oxygenase enzymes are induced as the protein level by -fold and -fold, and in response to 5 and 10 μM Cd...
July 2011: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jae Ho Choi, Yong Pil Hwang, Eun Hee Han, Hyung Gyun Kim, Bong Hwan Park, Hyun Sun Lee, Byung Keun Park, Young Chun Lee, Young Chul Chung, Hye Gwang Jeong
Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of acrolein-induced expression of mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) by Changkil saponin (CKS) in A549 cells. Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases the expression of airway MUC5AC, a major component of airway mucus. CKS, a Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity, through the suppression of NF-κB activation...
September 2011: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Takeshi Kanno, Tomoyuki Nishizaki
The present study examined sphingosine-induced apoptosis in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. Sphingosine induced apoptosis in a concentration (1-100 µM)-dependent manner, that is inhibited by the PKC-δ inhibitor rottlerin, and a similar effect was obtained with the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, to raise intracellular sphingosine concentrations. Sphingosine increased presence of sphingosine-dependent protein kinase (SDK), and the effect was suppressed by rottlerin. Sphingosine increased phosphorylated 14-3-3 protein, thereby transforming the protein from a dimeric structure into a monomeric structure...
September 2011: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Alexandre Rouette, Sophie Parent, Julie Girouard, Valérie Leblanc, Eric Asselin
Human carcinomas often show resistance to cisplatin and Bcl-2 is associated with resistance to cisplatin. However, Bcl-2 regulation on cisplatin treatment in human cancers is unknown. Here, we show a novel mechanism by which cisplatin treatment promotes resistance by increasing the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA. Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression was increased in cisplatin-resistant endometrial cancer cell lines (KLE and HEC-1-A), but not in cisplatin-sensitive cell line (Ishikawa). Cisplatin-mediated increase in Bcl-2 expression was blocked by combination with either actinomycin D or cycloheximide...
April 15, 2012: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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