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Myths and fallacies

Simon W Lam, Seth R Bauer, Wei Yang, Todd A Miano
Proficiency in research design and statistical analysis is crucial to the success of a clinical pharmacist. However, new pharmacy graduates and residents may not have received adequate training and education in these areas. During the authors' tenure as clinical pharmacists, several statistical "myths" were consistently maintained by residents and new clinical practitioners. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss and dispel several of these statistical fallacies. The myths discussed involve 3 common areas of consideration when evaluating any clinical study: assessing the risk of bias from confounding (propensity score analysis and multivariable modeling), interpretation of the main study findings ( P values and hypothesis testing), and secondary evaluations (subgroup analyses)...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
James C Johnston, Knut Wester, Thomas P Sartwelle
A young woman presents with an intracranial arachnoid cyst. Another is diagnosed with migraine headache. An elderly man awakens with a stroke. And a baby delivered vaginally after 2 hours of questionable electronic fetal monitoring patterns grows up to have cerebral palsy. These seemingly disparate cases share a common underlying theme: medical myths. Myths that may lead not only to misdiagnosis and treatment harms but to seemingly never-ending medical malpractice lawsuits, potentially culminating in a settlement or judgment against an unsuspecting neurologist...
August 2016: Neurologic Clinics
Lorenzo Azzalini, Minh Vo, Joseph Dens, Pierfrancesco Agostoni
A chronic total occlusion (CTO) is defined as an occlusive (100% stenosis) coronary lesion with anterograde Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction 0 flow for at least 3 months. CTOs are common in patients referred for coronary angiography (up to 33%) and are associated with angina, impaired quality of life, and reduced survival. Unfortunately, CTO percutaneous coronary intervention continues to be underperformed worldwide (10% to 15% at most institutions, ∼30% where expert operators are available). The aim of this study was to address common fallacies pertaining to CTOs among cardiologists by providing a concise review of pertinent previously published reports along with an update on safety and efficacy of state-of-the-art CTO percutaneous coronary intervention techniques...
December 1, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
Pradeep Kumar
Many prevalent practices and guidelines related to Gastrointestinal endoscopy and procedural sedation are at odds with the widely available scientific-physiological and clinical outcome data. In many institutions, strict policy of pre-procedural extended fasting is still rigorously enforced, despite no evidence of increased incidence of aspiration after recent oral intake prior to sedation. Supplemental oxygen administration in the setting of GI procedural sedation has been increasingly adopted as reported in the medical journals, despite clear evidence that supplemental oxygen blunts the usefulness of pulse oximetry in timely detection of sedation induced hypoventilation, leading to increased number of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes...
December 16, 2014: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Carol Kelly
This analysis examines the roots of clinical practice regarding oxygen therapy and finds that some aspects have changed very little over the past 200 years. Oxygen is commonly prescribed and administered as a therapy across all healthcare settings, particularly for the treatment and management of respiratory conditions, both acute and chronic. Yet despite its widespread use and recent advances in understanding and guidance, poor practice and controversies regarding its use persist. This historical analysis highlights origins in practice that may suggest where the roots of these fallacies lie, highlighting potential ambiguities and myths that have permeated clinical and social contexts...
December 2014: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Kam Lun Ellis Hon, Ting Fan Leung, Alexander K C Leung
Asthma is a common childhood atopic disease associated with chronicity and impaired quality of life. As there is no cure for this disease, treatment relies on avoidance of triggers such as food and aeroallergens, the use of inhaled bronchodilators/corticosteroids and antiallergic or immunomodulating therapies. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and bronchodilators have been the mainstay. However, in Asia, myths and fallacies regarding Western medicine and corticosteroids are prevalent and lead to nonadherence to treatment...
2014: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Robin J M Gray, Ziad Al-Ani
UNLABELLED: There are many myths and fallacies surrounding the conservative or non-surgical management of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD).This paper is not a treatise on splint design and does not champion any one particular treatment philosophy. It is, however, produced as the outcome of many years of lecturing and talking to fellow practitioners and represents the most frequently asked questions and common misconceptions encountered by the authors, who have addressed the topics raised with the intention of helping to avoid pitfalls...
November 2013: Dental Update
N Church
Lucy Bregman's approach to Schreber'sMemoirs is scrutinized and found to be based on a number of fallacious and contradictory assumptions that call her interpretation of the book as personal religious myth into question. A social constructionist approach to mythology maintained by Berger and Luckmann is advanced, suggesting that at best Schreber's work qualifies as a quasi-mythical attempt to explain the source of his personal sociopsychic suffering. The family and interpersonal dynamics of Schreber's quasi-myth are investigated...
October 1979: Journal of Religion and Health
William D Hopkins
Lack of independence of data points or the pooling fallacy has been suggested as a potential problem in the study of handedness in nonhuman primates, particularly as it relates to whether hand use responses should be recorded as individual events or bouts of activity. Here, I argue that there is no evidence that the concept of statistical independence of data points or the pooling fallacy is a problem in the evaluation of population-level handedness in previous studies in nonhuman primates. I further argue these statistical concepts have been misapplied to the characterization of individual hand preferences...
May 2013: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Noureen Aleem Nishtar, Neelofar Sami, Anum Faruqi, Shaneela Khowaja, Farid Ul-Hasnain
Pakistan presently has one of the largest cohorts of young people in its history, with around 36 million people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. One of the main reasons for high population growth in Pakistan is almost stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate of 30% nationally and 17.4% amongst youth. The study was conducted to explore the perceptions regarding myths and fallacies related to male contraceptive methods among married youth aged 18-24 year in Karachi, Pakistan. Qualitative exploratory study design was adopted and a total of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted...
March 2013: Global Journal of Health Science
Barry X Kuhle
I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9). Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy...
2012: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
M Anwar, J Green, P Norris
INTRODUCTION: This narrative review was carried out to collate the work of researchers on health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan, to discuss the methods used, highlight the emerging themes and identify areas that have yet to be studied. STUDY DESIGN: Review. METHODS: An overview of studies on health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan, found via searches on scholarly databases intended to locate material of medical and anthropological relevance. RESULTS: In total, 29 articles were reviewed with a range of different methodologies...
June 2012: Public Health
Rachel S Newson, Hasse Karlsson, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric epidemiology is an important cornerstone of research in psychiatry and integral for the treatment and care of people suffering from psychiatric disorders. However, psychiatric epidemiology is a difficult science, which is often beset with methodological problems. AIMS: In light of this, the current review sought to explore 13 of the common methodological issues in psychiatric epidemiology. METHODS: Many methodological problems result from misunderstandings...
September 2011: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Leslie Dreifus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2003: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
Robert L Tiel
This article explores the myths surrounding piriformis syndrome. It looks at the syndrome's history ranging from early hypothesis to acceptance; then from disfavor to resurrection as a diagnosis for patients with leg pain devoid of objective neurologic deficits, without disc herniations. It includes a critical review of the clinical literature and treatment strategies. It calls for a renaming of the syndrome to "nonlocalizing sciatica" and restriction of surgical resection of the piriformis to cases where all other treatment has failed...
October 2008: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Aaron G Filler
Highly reliable evidence for piriformis syndrome and other pelvic sciatic syndromes arises from three major categories of data: magnetic resonance neurography diagnostic imaging, open magnetic resonance-guided injection studies, and patient treatment outcome studies. This article reviews the evidence in each category. This is part of a Point-Counterpoint discussion with Dr. Robert Tiel's presentation of "Myth and Fallacy".
October 2008: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Majid Shafiq, Mansoor Tanwir, Asma Tariq, Ayesha Saleem, Monaa Zafar, Ali Khan Khuwaja
Misconceptions about epilepsy may explain the considerable stigma accompanying it. We aimed to identify such fallacies through questionnaire-based interviews of 487 adult residents of a slum area in Karachi, Pakistan. Of those interviewed, 25% believed that epilepsy was caused by evil spirits, black magic and envy by others - those without a school education were more likely to hold these views (P < 0.05). Perceived complications included impotence and cancer. Shoe-sniffing was considered a treatment modality by 13%...
January 2008: Tropical Doctor
V J Dalbo, M D Roberts, J R Stout, C M Kerksick
Creatine is one of the most popular athletic supplements with sales surpassing 400 million dollars in 2004. Due to the popularity and efficacy of creatine supplementation over 200 studies have examined the effects of creatine on athletic performance. Despite the abundance of research suggesting the effectiveness and safety of creatine, a fallacy appears to exist among the general public, driven by media claims and anecdotal reports, that creatine supplementation can result in muscle cramps and dehydration. Although a number of published studies have refuted these claims, a recent position statement by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) in 2000 advised individuals who are managing their weight and exercising intensely or in hot environments to avoid creatine supplementation...
July 2008: British Journal of Sports Medicine
S Santana Porbén, J Barreto Penié, C Martińez González, A Espinosa Borrás, L Morales Hernández
The results achieved by a Nutritional Support Group (NSG) operating within a tertiary-level hospital in the city of Havana (CUBA) for the last 8 years are presented in this work. Results relate to the performance of the Group in the three domains of medical care, on one hand, and the inception of a Metabolic, Nutritional and Feeding Intervention Program (PRINUMA) of institutional reach, on the other. Nutritional assistance has served the purpose of demonstrating the feasibility of intervention schemes conducted under the premise of the use of the enteral route as first choice, and the benefits observed in selected cases...
July 2007: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
E Jacquelyn Kirkis
Myths abound in the practice of health care, death, and disease. Akin to the old adage of swallowing camels and straining gnats, the myth that mass fatalities cause epidemics of disease following natural or other disasters is alive and well. Despite the findings of observers, microbiologists, epidemiologists, and other scientists, even medical doctors and public health professionals lend support to the ancient belief and rush into mass graves or mass cremations the bodies of those victims of trauma in a disaster...
August 2006: American Journal of Infection Control
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