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Douglas L Feinstein, Robert P Skoff
We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology...
March 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Tami H Skoff, Stacey W Martin
IMPORTANCE: There is accumulating literature on waning acellular pertussis vaccine-induced immunity, confirming the results of studies assessing the duration of protection of pertussis vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine's effect over time among those 11 to 18 years old, while accounting for the transition from whole-cell to acellular pertussis vaccines for the childhood primary series...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Pamela K Cassiday, Tami H Skoff, Selina Jawahir, M Lucia Tondella
To clarify the characteristics of circulating Bordetella pertussis isolates, we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to analyze 5,262 isolates collected in the United States during 2000-2012. We found 199 PFGE profiles; 5 profiles accounted for 72% of isolates. The most common profile, CDC013, accounted for 35%-46% of isolates tested from 2000-2009; however, the proportion of isolates of this profile rapidly decreased in 2010. Profile CDC237, first seen in 2009, increased rapidly and accounted for 29% of 2012 isolates...
March 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Santanu Roy, David Skoff, Dominic V Perroni, Jagannath Mondal, Arun Yethiraj, Mahesh K Mahanthappa, Martin T Zanni, James L Skinner
Water-mediated ion transport through functional nanoporous materials depends on the dynamics of water confined within a given nanostructured morphology. Here, we investigate H-bonding dynamics of interfacial water within a "normal" (Type I) lyotropic gyroid phase formed by a gemini dicarboxylate surfactant self-assembly using a combination of 2DIR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that water dynamics in the normal gyroid phase is 1 order of magnitude slower than that in bulk water, due to specific interactions between water, the ionic surfactant headgroups, and counterions...
March 2, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Walter W Williams, Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa O'Halloran, David K Kim, Lisa A Grohskopf, Tamara Pilishvili, Tami H Skoff, Noele P Nelson, Rafael Harpaz, Lauri E Markowitz, Alfonso Rodriguez-Lainz, Carolyn B Bridges
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U...
February 5, 2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Margaret M Williams, Kathryn Sen, Michael R Weigand, Tami H Skoff, Victoria A Cunningham, Tanya A Halse, M Lucia Tondella
A Bordetella pertussis strain lacking 2 acellular vaccine immunogens, pertussis toxin and pertactin, was isolated from an unvaccinated infant in New York State in 2013. Comparison with a French strain that was pertussis toxin-deficient, pertactin wild-type showed that the strains carry the same 28-kb deletion in similar genomes.
February 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Amanda E Faulkner, Tami H Skoff, M Lucia Tondella, Amanda Cohn, Thomas A Clark, Stacey W Martin
BACKGROUND: Reports of pertussis have been increasing in the US since the 1990s, and pertussis diagnostics have evolved during that time. Here, we describe temporal changes in pertussis diagnostic practices in the US during 1990 to 2012 and discuss potential implications. METHODS: Pertussis cases reported through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System during 1990 to 2012 were included in this analysis. Laboratory results were stratified by test type, case classification, age group and case-patient state of residence...
January 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Tami H Skoff, Cynthia Kenyon, Noelle Cocoros, Juventila Liko, Lisa Miller, Kathy Kudish, Joan Baumbach, Shelley Zansky, Amanda Faulkner, Stacey W Martin
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is poorly controlled, with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality among infants. Although the source of infant pertussis is often unknown, when identified, mothers have historically been the most common reservoir of transmission. Despite high vaccination coverage, disease incidence has been increasing. We examined whether infant source of infection (SOI) has changed in the United States in light of the changing epidemiology. METHODS: Cases <1 year old were identified at Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance sites between January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013...
October 2015: Pediatrics
Gayle Langley, William Schaffner, Monica M Farley, Ruth Lynfield, Nancy M Bennett, Arthur Reingold, Ann Thomas, Lee H Harrison, Megin Nichols, Susan Petit, Lisa Miller, Matthew R Moore, Stephanie J Schrag, Fernanda C Lessa, Tami H Skoff, Jessica R MacNeil, Elizabeth C Briere, Emily J Weston, Chris Van Beneden
Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) was established in 1995 as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) network to assess the extent of invasive bacterial infections of public health importance. ABCs is distinctive among surveillance systems because of its large, population-based, geographically diverse catchment area; active laboratory-based identification of cases to ensure complete case capture; detailed collection of epidemiologic information paired with laboratory isolates; infrastructure that allows for more in-depth investigations; and sustained commitment of public health, academic, and clinical partners to maintain the system...
September 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Gayle Langley, John Besser, Martha Iwamoto, Fernanda C Lessa, Alicia Cronquist, Tami H Skoff, Sandra Chaves, Dave Boxrud, Robert W Pinner, Lee H Harrison
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) network conducts population-based surveillance for pathogens of public health importance. Central to obtaining estimates of disease burden and tracking microbiological characteristics of these infections is accurate laboratory detection of pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) in clinical settings presents both opportunities and challenges to EIP surveillance. Because CIDTs offer better sensitivity than culture and are relatively easy to perform, their use could potentially improve estimates of disease burden...
September 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tami H Skoff, Joan Baumbach, Paul R Cieslak
Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates...
September 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Jia-Jung Ho, David R Skoff, Ayanjeet Ghosh, Martin T Zanni
DNA-covered materials are important in technological applications such as biosensors and microarrays, but obtaining structural information on surface-bound biomolecules is experimentally challenging. In this paper, we structurally characterize single-stranded DNA monolayers of poly(thymine) from 10 to 25 bases in length with an emerging surface technique called two-dimensional sum frequency generation (2D SFG) spectroscopy. These experiments are carried out by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a femtosecond broad-band SFG spectrometer...
August 20, 2015: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hillel D Skoff
Revision rotator cuff reconstruction for large tears with retraction results in a high rate of recurrent cuff tearing. To try to obtain more consistent results, I conducted a study of a technique that addresses the potential factors involved. Ten patients (7 men, 3 women) were enrolled. Mean age was 58 years. Mean follow-up was 24 months. Mean time between primary and revision cuff surgery was 36 months. The cardinal inclusion criterion was a symptomatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tear with at least 3 cm of retraction in a shoulder that previously underwent rotator cuff repair...
July 2015: American Journal of Orthopedics
Ayanjeet Ghosh, Jia-Jung Ho, Arnaldo L Serrano, David R Skoff, Tianqi Zhang, Martin T Zanni
By adding a mid-infrared pulse shaper to a sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectrometer, we have built a 2D SFG spectrometer capable of measuring spectra analogous to 2D IR spectra but with monolayer sensitivity and SFG selection rules. In this paper, we describe the experimental apparatus and provide an introduction to 2D SFG spectroscopy to help the reader interpret 2D SFG spectra. The main aim of this manuscript is to report 2D SFG spectra of the amyloid forming peptide FGAIL. FGAIL is a critical segment of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP or amylin) that aggregates in people with type 2 diabetes...
2015: Faraday Discussions
Stacey W Martin, Lucia Pawloski, Margaret Williams, Keeley Weening, Chas DeBolt, Xuan Qin, Laura Reynolds, Cynthia Kenyon, Gregory Giambrone, Kathy Kudish, Lisa Miller, David Selvage, Adria Lee, Tami H Skoff, Hajime Kamiya, Pamela K Cassiday, Maria L Tondella, Thomas A Clark
BACKGROUND: A recent increase in Bordetella pertussis without the pertactin protein, an acellular vaccine immunogen, has been reported in the United States. Determining whether pertactin-deficient (PRN(-)) B. pertussis is evading vaccine-induced immunity or altering the severity of illness is needed. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed for associations between pertactin production and both clinical presentation and vaccine history. Cases with isolates collected between May 2011 and February 2013 from 8 states were included...
January 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Richard W Simpson, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Joseph Proietto, Alana Sarah, Kerrie M Sanders, Gabrielle Phillips, Jo Chambers, Rob MacGinley, Neil Orford, Ken Walder, Guy Krippner, Kathy Skoff, Vincent J Wacher
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of methazolamide as a potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 76 patients to oral methazolamide (40 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy end point for methazolamide treatment was a placebo-corrected reduction in HbA1c from baseline after 24 weeks (ΔHbA1c). RESULTS: Mean ± SD baseline HbA1c was 7...
November 2014: Diabetes Care
Hillel Skoff
Rheumatoid wrist arthritis is common and affects about 1.5 million people in the United States. For advanced disease, arthrodesis and implant arthroplasty have been recommended as treatment options. In 1970, palmar shelf arthroplasty was introduced, and initial results were encouraging but not reproducible. In 1990, Dr. Skoff modified the original procedure with good results in patients followed for 2 to 7 years. This study reports the results of 13 patients (9 women, 4 men; average age, 43 years) who were followed up for an average of 13...
July 2014: American Journal of Orthopedics
David R Skoff, Jennifer E Laaser, Sudipta S Mukherjee, Chris T Middleton, Martin T Zanni
Over the last decade two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy has proven to be a very useful extension of infrared spectroscopy, yet the technique remains restricted to a small group of specialized researchers because of its experimental complexity and high equipment cost. We report on a spectrometer that is compact, mechanically robust, and is much less expensive than previous designs because it uses a single pixel MCT detector rather than an array detector. Moreover, each axis of the spectrum can be collected in either the time or frequency domain via computer programming...
August 30, 2013: Chemical Physics
Sunita Appikatla, Denise Bessert, Icksoo Lee, Maik Hüttemann, Chadwick Mullins, Mallika Somayajulu-Nitu, Fayi Yao, Robert P Skoff
Proteolipid protein (PLP) and DM20, the most abundant myelin proteins, are coded by the human PLP1 and non-human Plp1 PLP gene. Mutations in the PLP1 gene cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) with duplications of the native PLP1 gene accounting for 70% of PLP1 mutations. Humans with PLP1 duplications and mice with extra Plp1 copies have extensive neuronal degeneration. The mechanism that causes neuronal degeneration is unknown. We show that native PLP traffics to mitochondria when the gene is duplicated in mice and in humans...
March 2014: Glia
Jennifer E Laaser, David R Skoff, Jia-Jung Ho, Yongho Joo, Arnaldo L Serrano, Jay D Steinkruger, Padma Gopalan, Samuel H Gellman, Martin T Zanni
Surface-bound polypeptides and proteins are increasingly used to functionalize inorganic interfaces such as electrodes, but their structural characterization is exceedingly difficult with standard technologies. In this paper, we report the first two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra of a peptide monolayer, which are collected by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a standard femtosecond SFG spectrometer. On a gold surface, standard FTIR spectroscopy is inconclusive about the peptide structure because of solvation-induced frequency shifts, but the 2D line shapes, anharmonic shifts, and lifetimes obtained from 2D SFG reveal that the peptide is largely α-helical and upright...
January 22, 2014: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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