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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777200/a-map-of-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-nt-pgc-1%C3%AE-regulated-transcriptional-network-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#1
Ji Suk Chang, Sujoy Ghosh, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum
Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant NT-PGC-1α play crucial roles in regulating cold-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α are highly induced by cold in BAT and subsequently bind to and coactivate many transcription factors to regulate expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, respiration and thermogenesis. To identify the complete repertoire of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α target genes in BAT, we analyzed genome-wide DNA-binding and gene expression profiles...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775611/reduced-adiposity-by-compensatory-wat-browning-upon-ibat-removal-in-mice
#2
Zhengyu Piao, Baiqiang Zhai, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Meng Dong, Changguo Yan, Jun Lin, Wanzhu Jin
The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773653/inhibition-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-5-enhances-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#3
Lei Huang, Jehnan Liu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Katelyn Sibley, Sonia M Najjar, Mary M Lee, Joae Qiong Wu
Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionallyly by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8 and H2AR3, or at the post-translational level by methylation of non-histone target proteins. While emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. High fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver, but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771387/functional-brown-adipose-tissue-and-sympathetic-activity-after-cold-exposure-in-humans-with-type-1-narcolepsy
#4
Lotte Hahn Enevoldsen, Marie Tindborg, Nichlas Lindegaard Hovmand, Christina Christoffersen, Helga Ellingsgaard, Charlotte Suetta, Bente Merete Stallknecht, Poul Joergen Jennum, Andreas Kjær, Steen Gammeltoft
Study objectives: To investigate the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in type 1 narcolepsy patients during cold exposure using two separate scans of sympathetic and metabolic activity of BAT in order to evaluate whether orexin deficiency leads to altered non-shivering thermoregulation in narcolepsy. Methods: Seven patients with type 1 narcolepsy and seven healthy controls underwent two consecutive scans after 2 h cold exposure: 123I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (123I-MIBG) single photon emission computed tomography and 18F-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography to visualize sympathetic innervation and metabolic activity of BAT, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769150/adipose-tissue-uncoupling-protein-1-levels-and-function-are-increased-in-a-mouse-model-of-developmental-obesity-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet
#5
E Bytautiene Prewit, C Porter, M La Rosa, N Bhattarai, H Yin, P Gamble, T Kechichian, L S Sidossis
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764530/influence-of-maternal-adiposity-preterm-birth-and-birth-weight-centiles-on-early-childhood-obesity-in-an-indigenous-australian-pregnancy-through-to-early-childhood-cohort-study
#6
K G Pringle, Y Q Lee, L Weatherall, L Keogh, C Diehm, C T Roberts, S Eades, A Brown, R Smith, E R Lumbers, L J Brown, C E Collins, K M Rae
Childhood obesity rates are higher among Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous Australian children. It has been hypothesized that early-life influences beginning with the intrauterine environment predict the development of obesity in the offspring. The aim of this paper was to assess, in 227 mother-child dyads from the Gomeroi gaaynggal cohort, associations between prematurity, Gestation Related-Optimal Weight (GROW) centiles, maternal adiposity (percentage body fat, visceral fat area), maternal non-fasting plasma glucose levels (measured at mean gestational age of 23...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758934/adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-from-affected-and-unaffected-areas-in-patients-with-multiple-symmetric-lipomatosis-show-differential-regulation-of-mtor-pathway-genes
#7
Oliver Felthaus, Teresa Schön, Daniel Schiltz, Thiha Aung, Britta Kühlmann, Friedrich Jung, Alexandra Anker, Silvan Klein, Lukas Prantl
BACKGROUND: Multiple symmetric lipomatosis is a rare disease characterized by the excessive growth of uncapsulated masses of adipose tissue. Although the etiology has yet to be elucidated, a connection to brown adipose tissue has been proposed recently. The mTOR pathway which is found to be regulated in lipomatous tissue as well as associated with brown adipose tissue can be inhibited by a compound called rapamycin. METHODS: We isolated adipose tissue derived stem cells from both affected and unaffected tissue and treated these cells with different concentrations of rapamycin...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758288/micrornas-in-brown-and-beige-fat
#8
REVIEW
Deborah Goody, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning", i.e. the appearance of inducible brown adipocytes called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), is of great interest for developing novel therapies to combat obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT...
May 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757496/skin-temperature-may-not-yield-human-brown-adipose-tissue-activity-in-diverse-populations
#9
EDITORIAL
Jaana T Sarasniemi, Kalle Koskensalo, Juho Raiko, Pirjo Nuutila, Jani Saunavaara, Riitta Parkkola, Kirsi A Virtanen
In a recent review of Acta Physiologica, Rodriguez et al1 suggests that the metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) can be detected studied using 18 F-FDG-PET/CT. Although this method is commonly used in BAT research, it is very expensive and time-consuming and exposes the subjects to ionizing radiation. Therefore, more affordable and radiation-free methods have been developed, such as thermal infrared imaging (IR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) 2 . This article is protected by copyright...
May 14, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757434/hdac3-selective-inhibition-activates-brown-and-beige-fat-through-prdm16
#10
Jiling Liao, Juan Jiang, Heejin Jun, Xiaona Qiao, Margo P Emont, Dong-Il Kim, Jun Wu
It has been reported that class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition increases thermogenesis in fat, but adipocyte specific Hdac3 deletions have presented inconsistent results. In this study, we observed that HDAC3 protein levels were lower in brown fat compared to that of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and were decreased in both fat depots upon cold exposure. PRDM16 physically interacted with HDAC3, and treatment with HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 induced thermogenic gene expression in murine and human fat cultures...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757365/multifaceted-roles-of-beige-fat-in-energy-homeostasis-beyond-ucp1
#11
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipose cells that emerge within the white adipose tissue in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as chronic cold acclimation. Similar to brown adipocytes that reside in brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, beige adipocytes are also thermogenic; however beige adipocytes possess unique, distinguishing characteristics in their developmental regulation and biological function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of beige adipocytes, focusing on the diverse roles of beige fat in the regulation of energy homeostasis that are independent of the canonical thermogenic pathway via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755411/time-of-day-effects-on-metabolic-and-clock-related-adjustments-to-cold
#12
Frederico Sander Mansur Machado, Zhi Zhang, Yan Su, Paul de Goede, Remi Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Andries Kalsbeek
Background: Daily cyclic changes in environmental conditions are key signals for anticipatory and adaptive adjustments of most living species, including mammals. Lower ambient temperature stimulates the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. Given that the molecular components of the endogenous biological clock interact with thermal and metabolic mechanisms directly involved in the defense of body temperature, the present study evaluated the differential homeostatic responses to a cold stimulus at distinct time-windows of the light/dark-cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752759/metformin-targets-brown-adipose-tissue-in-vivo-and-reduces-oxygen-consumption-in-vitro
#13
Peter Breining, Jonas B Jensen, Elias I Sundelin, Lars C Gormsen, Steen Jakobsen, Morten Busk, Lars Rolighed, Peter Bross, Paula Fernandez-Guerra, Lasse K Markussen, Nanna E Rasmussen, Jacob B Hansen, Steen B Pedersen, Bjørn Richelsen, Niels Jessen
Metformin is the most widely prescribed oral antidiabetic drug worldwide. Despite well-documented beneficial effects on health outcomes in diabetic patients, the target organs that mediate the effects of metformin remain to be established. In adult humans, brown adipose tissue (BAT) can influence basic metabolic rate, making BAT an attractive target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Under the hypothesis that BAT is a metformin target tissue, we investigated in vivo uptake of [11 C]-metformin tracer in mice and studied in vitro effects of metformin on cultured human brown adipocytes...
May 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751292/dietary-protein-dilution-limits-dyslipidemia-in-obesity-through-fgf21-driven-fatty-acid-clearance
#14
Adriano Maida, Annika Zota, Alexandros Vegiopoulos, Sila Appak-Baskoy, Hellmut G Augustin, Mathias Heikenwalder, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
Recent studies have demonstrated that dietary protein dilution (PD) can promote metabolic inefficiency and improve glucose metabolism. However, whether PD can promote other aspects of metabolic health, such as improve systemic lipid metabolism, and mechanisms therein remains unknown. Mouse models of obesity, such as high-fat-diet-fed C57Bl/6 N mice, and New Zealand Obese mice were fed normal (i.e., 20%P) and protein-dilute (i.e., 5%EP) diets. FGF21-/- and Cd36-/- and corresponding littermate +/+ controls were also studied to examine gene-diet interactions...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750781/metabolic-benefits-of-inhibition-of-p38%C3%AE-in-white-adipose-tissue-in-obesity
#15
Shengjie Zhang, Hongchao Cao, Yan Li, Yanyan Jing, Shengnan Liu, Cheng Ye, Hui Wang, Shuxian Yu, Chengyuan Peng, Lijian Hui, Yu-Cheng Wang, Haibing Zhang, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai, Hui Wang, Ruimin Huang, Ling Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Wei Liu, Hao Ying
p38 has long been known as a central mediator of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in brown adipocytes, which positively regulate the transcription of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). However, the physiological role of p38 in adipose tissues, especially the white adipose tissue (WAT), is largely unknown. Here, we show that mice lacking p38α in adipose tissues display a lean phenotype, improved metabolism, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Surprisingly, ablation of p38α causes minimal effects on brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult mice, as evident from undetectable changes in UCP-1 expression, mitochondrial function, body temperature (BT), and energy expenditure...
May 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748882/evolution-of-ucp1
#16
Michael J Gaudry, Kevin L Campbell, Martin Jastroch
Brown adipose tissue (BAT), the specialized heat-producing organ found in many placental mammals including humans, may be accessible for clinical drug intervention to help combat metabolic diseases. Understanding the biology of BAT and its thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) will benefit from an assessment of its evolution, answering where UCP1 originated and how it has been modified and integrated into cellular energy metabolism. Here, we review topical insights regarding the molecular evolution of UCP1-also reconstructing the proximate and ultimate factors selecting for brown fat thermogenesis in placental mammals...
May 10, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748127/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-findings-in-a-patient-with-paraganglioma-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-due-to-adrenergic-stimulation
#17
E Özdemir, Z Kandemir, M Keskin, N Yildirim, D Özdemir, S Turkolmez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746591/brown-adipose-tissue-plays-a-central-role-in-systemic-inflammation-induced-sleep-responses
#18
Éva Szentirmai, Levente Kapás
We previously identified brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a source of sleep-inducing signals. Pharmacological activation of BAT enhances sleep while sleep loss leads to increased BAT thermogenesis. Recovery sleep after sleep loss is diminished in mice that lack uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), and also in wild-type (WT) mice after sensory denervation of the BAT. Systemic inflammation greatly affects metabolism and the function of adipose tissue, and also induces characteristic sleep responses. We hypothesized that sleep responses to acute inflammation are mediated by BAT-derived signals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743343/multiple-effects-of-cold-exposure-on-livers-of-male-mice
#19
Aldo Grefhorst, Johanna C van den Beukel, Wieneke Dijk, Jacobie Steenbergen, Gardi J Voortman, Selmar Leeuwenburgh, Theo J Visser, Sander Kersten, Edith Ch Friesema, Axel Pn Themmen, Jenny A Visser
Cold exposure of mice is a common method to stimulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and induce browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) that has beneficial effects on whole body lipid metabolism, including reduced plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The liver is a key regulatory organ in lipid metabolism as it can take up as well as oxidize fatty acids. The liver can also synthesize, store and secrete triglycerides (TGs) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles. The effects of cold exposure on murine hepatic lipid metabolism have not been addressed...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743341/involvement-of-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-dysfunction-in-virus-induced-type-1-diabetes
#20
James C Needell, Madalyn Brown, Danny Zipris
The etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains poorly understood. We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to better understand the role of the innate immune system in the mechanism of virus-induced disease. We observed that infection with KRV results in cell influx into visceral adipose tissue soon following infection prior to insulitis and hyperglycemia. In sharp contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue is free of cellular infiltration, whereas β-cell inflammation and diabetes are observed beginning on day 14 post-infection...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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