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adipose browning

Andrzej M Woyda-Ploszczyca, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) belong to the mitochondrial anion carrier protein family and mediate regulated proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free fatty acids, aldehydes such as hydroxynonenal, and retinoids activate UCPs. However, there are some controversies about the effective action of retinoids and aldehydes alone; thus, only free fatty acids are commonly accepted positive effectors of UCPs. Conversely, purine nucleotides such as GTP inhibit UCP-mediated mitochondrial proton leak. In turn, membranous coenzyme Q may play a role as a redox state-dependent metabolic sensor that modulates the complete activation/inhibition of UCPs...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
I Louveau, M-H Perruchot, M Bonnet, F Gondret
Both white and brown adipose tissues are recognized to be differently involved in energy metabolism and are also able to secrete a variety of factors called adipokines that are involved in a wide range of physiological and metabolic functions. Brown adipose tissue is predominant around birth, except in pigs. Irrespective of species, white adipose tissue has a large capacity to expand postnatally and is able to adapt to a variety of factors. The aim of this review is to update the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with pre- and postnatal adipose tissue development with a special focus on pigs and ruminants...
November 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Leonor Rodríguez-Sánchez, Eduardo Rial
The uncoupling protein UCP1 from brown adipose tissue is a mitochondrial carrier which allows dissipation of metabolic energy as heat. We have characterized the human UCP1 (HsUCP1) recombinantly expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and we demonstrate that HsUCP1 is activated by fatty acids and retinoids in a nucleotide sensitive manner just as its rodent orthologs. However, in the absence of regulators, rodent UCP1 presents a high ohmic proton conductance that cannot be detected in HsUCP1. Since the human protein can be activated in a nucleotide sensitive manner, we conclude that it must have lost selectively the basal proton conductance...
October 14, 2016: Biochimie
Alina Gavrila, Per-Olof Hasselgren, Allison Glasgow, Ashley N Doyle, Alice Lee, Peter Fox, Gautam Shiva, James V Hennessey, Gerald M Kolodny, Aaron M Cypess
BACKGROUND: In addition to its role in adaptive thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue (BAT) may protect from weight gain, insulin resistance/diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the influence of thyroid hormone (TH) levels on BAT volume and activity. The aim of this pilot study was to gain further insight regarding the effect of TH treatment on BAT function in adult humans by evaluating the BAT mass and activity prospectively in six patients, first in the hypothyroid and then in the thyrotoxic phase...
October 17, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Milka Vrecl, Vlasta Jenčič
The aim of this preliminary research was to establish if there are intersex occurrences in wild freshwater fish in Slovenian rivers and streams. In the first study we evaluated all fish species of both sexes obtained from the river Ljubljanica from its source to mouth. In the second study we focused on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario) males from 30 rivers and streams in different parts of Slovenia. The male gonads were histologically assessed for the presence of oocytes to determine the frequency and degree of intersex...
September 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
D Löffler, K Landgraf, D Rockstroh, J T Schwartze, H Dunzendorfer, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND: Meteorin-like (METRNL) is a recently described circulating protein shown to be highly expressed in white adipose tissue and to beneficially affect energy metabolism in mice. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the role of METRNL for human adipogenesis and its association with obesity, browning and hyperinsulinemia in children. In addition, we assessed the functional relevance of METRNL for human adipogenesis. RESULTS: METRNL expression decreased during human adipocyte differentiation in vitro...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
L Dollet, J Magré, M Joubert, C Le May, A Ayer, L Arnaud, C Pecqueur, V Blouin, B Cariou, X Prieur
Loss-of-function mutations in BSCL2 are responsible for Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy, a rare disorder characterized by near absence of adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance. Seipin-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice display an almost total loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) with residual brown adipose tissue (BAT). Previous cellular studies have shown that seipin deficiency alters white adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we aimed to decipher the consequences of seipin deficiency in BAT...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chelsea Hepler, Rana K Gupta
The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Yong Chen, Ruping Pan, Alexander Pfeifer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules consisting of approximately 20 to 22 nucleotides. They play a very important role in the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs can be found in different species and a variety of organs and tissues including adipose tissue. There are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: White adipose tissue (WAT) is the largest energy storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy to maintain body temperature. BAT was first identified in hibernating animals and newborns as a defense against cold...
October 11, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Justin Darcy, Samuel McFadden, Yimin Fang, Joshua A Huber, Chi Zhang, Liou Y Sun, Andrzej Bartke
Ames dwarf mice (Prop1(df/df)) are long-lived due to a loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Along with a marked extension of longevity, Ames dwarf mice have improved energy metabolism as measured by an increase in their oxygen consumption (VO2) and heat production, as well as a decrease in their respiratory quotient (RQ). Along with alterations in energy metabolism, Ames dwarf mice have a lower core body temperature (Tco). Moreover, Ames dwarf mice have functionally altered epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) that improves, rather than impairs, their insulin sensitivity due to a shift from pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion...
October 14, 2016: Endocrinology
Xu Zhang, Qianni Cheng, Yixiang Wang, Po Sing Leung, Kinglun Kingston Mak
Bone plays a role in energy metabolism, but the interplay between bone and other organs in this process is not completely understood. Here, we show that upregulated Hh signaling in bones results in increased whole-body energy expenditure, white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, hypoglycemia and skeletal muscle atrophy. We found that Hh signaling induces PTHrP secretion from bones and causes WAT browning. Injection of PTHrP-neutralizing antibody attenuates WAT browning and improves the circulating blood glucose level while high-fat diet treatment only rescues hypoglycemia...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
M Chondronikola, L L S Harris, S Klein
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major worldwide public health concern. Despite a large armamentarium of T2D medications, a large proportion of patients fail to achieve recommended treatment goals for glycemic control. Weight loss has profound beneficial effects on the metabolic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of T2D. Accordingly, bariatric surgery, which is the most effective available weight loss therapy, is also the most effective therapy for treating patients with T2D. Surgical procedures that bypass the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract are particularly effective in achieving partial and even complete remission of T2D, suggesting that UGI bypass has weight loss-independent effects on glycemic control...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Jonathan C Jun, Ronald Devera, Dileep Unnikrishnan, Mi-Kyung Shin, Shannon Bevans-Fonti, Qiaoling Yao, Aman Rathore, Haris Younas, Nils Halberg, Philipp E Scherer, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipose tissue is known to promote obesity. We hypothesized that HIF-1α interferes with brown fat thermogenesis, thus decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we compared transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF-1α in adipose tissues (HIF-1α++) at usual temperature (22 °C), where brown fat is somewhat active, or at thermoneutrality (30 °C), where brown fat is minimally active. HIF-1α++ mice or control litter mates were separated into room temperature (22 °C) or thermoneutrality (30 °C) groups...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Suriyan Ponnusamy, Quynh T Tran, Innocence Harvey, Heather S Smallwood, Thirumagal Thiyagarajan, Souvik Banerjee, Daniel L Johnson, James T Dalton, Ryan D Sullivan, Duane D Miller, Dave Bridges, Ramesh Narayanan
Most satiety-inducing obesity therapeutics, despite modest efficacy, have safety concerns that underscore the need for effective peripherally acting drugs. An attractive therapeutic approach for obesity is to optimize/maximize energy expenditure by increasing energy-utilizing thermogenic brown adipose tissue. We used in vivo and in vitro models to determine the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) and its ligands on adipose biology. RNA sequencing and metabolomics were used to determine the mechanism of action of ER-β and its ligands...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ziye Xu, Jiaqi Liu, Tizhong Shan
Adipose tissues regulate energy metabolism and reproduction. There are three types of adipocytes (brown, white and beige adipocytes) in mammals. White adipocytes store energy and are closely associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases. The beige and brown adipocytes have numerous mitochondria and high levels of UCP1 that dissipates lipid to generate heat and defend against obesity. The global epidemic of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases urge an imperative need for understating the regulation of adipogenesis...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Richard T Jaspers, M Carola Zillikens, Edith C H Friesema, Giuseppe Delli Paoli, Wilhelm Bloch, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni, Pieter de Lange
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities...
October 11, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Pasquina Marzola, Federico Boschi, Francesco Moneta, Andrea Sbarbati, Carlo Zancanaro
Localization, differentiation, and quantitative assessment of fat tissues have always collected the interest of researchers. Nowadays, these topics are even more relevant as obesity (the excess of fat tissue) is considered a real pathology requiring in some cases pharmacological and surgical approaches. Several weight loss medications, acting either on the metabolism or on the central nervous system, are currently under preclinical or clinical investigation. Animal models of obesity have been developed and are widely used in pharmaceutical research...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yasuhiro Kamata, Kazutaka Kikuta, Michiro Susa, Kazumasa Nishimoto, Aya Sasaki, Kaori Kameyama, Koji Murakami, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Hibernoma is a rare, benign, soft tissue tumor arising from brown fat that cannot be distinguished from other lipogenic tumors on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. On the other hand, the image of hibernoma on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET) is different from that of other lipogenic tumors. However, fewer studies have investigated the typical features of hibernoma on PET scans. We present the case of a hibernoma that was incidentally detected on (18)F-FDG-PET...
May 2016: Case Reports in Oncology
Jennifer J Chia, Tong Zhu, Susan Chyou, Dragos C Dasoveanu, Camila Carballo, Sha Tian, Cynthia M Magro, Scott Rodeo, Robert F Spiera, Nancy H Ruddle, Timothy E McGraw, Jeffrey L Browning, Robert Lafyatis, Jessica K Gordon, Theresa T Lu
Scleroderma is a group of skin-fibrosing diseases for which there are no effective treatments. A feature of the skin fibrosis typical of scleroderma is atrophy of the dermal white adipose tissue (DWAT). Adipose tissue contains adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs) that have regenerative and reparative functions; however, whether DWAT atrophy in fibrosis is accompanied by ADSC loss is poorly understood, as are the mechanisms that might maintain ADSC survival in fibrotic skin. Here, we have shown that DWAT ADSC numbers were reduced, likely because of cell death, in 2 murine models of scleroderma skin fibrosis...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Carlos R P Dechandt, Carlos A Couto-Lima, Luciane C Alberici
The research on mitochondrial functions in adipocytes has increasingly evidenced that mitochondria plays an important role in the onset and/or progression of obesity and related pathologies. Mitochondrial function in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been classically assessed by measuring either the levels/activity of mitochondrial enzymes, or the respiration in isolated mitochondria. Isolation of mitochondria is not advantageous because it demands significant time and amount of tissue and, as tissue homogenates, disrupts biochemical and physical connections of mitochondria within the cell...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
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