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Spinal Clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623098/acquired-inhibition-of-microrna-124-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partially-through-a-mitophagy-dependent-pathway
#1
Kun Liu, Lihui Yan, Xiaojing Jiang, Yang Yu, Hongbo Liu, Tianxiang Gu, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitophagy results in selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. We investigated whether mitophagy was involved in the neuroprotection by inhibiting microRNA (miRNA)-124 on ischemic spinal cords. METHODS: Inhibition of miRNA-124 was conducted by intrathecal injection of lentivirus vectors containing antagomiR-124. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rats by crossclamping the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery for 14 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed with the motor deficit index (MDI)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616823/population-pharmacokinetics-of-combined-intravenous-and-local-intrathecal-administration-of-meropenem-in-aneurysm-patients-with-suspected-intracranial-infections-after-craniotomy
#2
Xingang Li, Shusen Sun, Qiang Wang, Zhigang Zhao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: For patients with intracranial infection, local intrathecal administration of meropenem may be a useful method to obtain a sufficient drug concentration in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). However, a large inter-individual variability may pose treatment efficacy at risk. This study aimed to identify factors affecting drug concentration in the CSF using population pharmacokinetics method. METHODS: After craniotomy, aneurysm patients with an indwelling lumbar cistern drainage tube who received a combined intravenous and intrathecal administration of meropenem for the treatment of suspected intracranial infection were enrolled...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585080/visuo-locomotor-control-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-manual-or-power-wheelchair-for-direction-change-and-obstacle-circumvention
#3
Caroline Charette, François Routhier, Bradford J McFadyen
Many individuals, such as persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), rely on wheeled locomotion involving manual (MWC) or power (PWC) wheelchairs to navigate their environments. Yet, visuo-locomotor control underlying WC navigation in experienced users is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the visuo-locomotor control between MWC and PWC in individuals with SCI while changing direction and circumventing an obstacle. Participants with SCI using a MWC (n = 12, 38.5 ± 10.7 years) or a PWC (n = 10, 47...
June 5, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565753/clinical-and-genomic-responses-to-ultra-short-course-chemotherapy-in-spinal-tuberculosis
#4
Ningkui Niu, Qian Wang, Jiandang Shi, Xu Zhang, Guangqi Geng, Shufeng Zhou, Chia Thach, Feng Cheng, Zili Wang
Traditional treatments for spinal tuberculosis (TB) involve chemotherapy and surgery. In the present study, it has been identified that chemotherapy lasting <6 months [ultra-short course chemotherapy (UCCT)], rather than the 6-18 months of the traditional regimen, is effective in sustaining TB clearance following complete surgical debridement. This current study aims to compare the changes in peripheral blood gene expression prior to and following UCCT, subsequent to complete debridement of spinal TB lesions...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502688/evaluating-outcomes-of-stand-alone-anterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-systematic-review
#5
Gloria Giang, Ralph Mobbs, Steven Phan, Tommy Manh Tran, Kevin Phan
BACKGROUND: Stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is an effective surgical approach for selected spinal pathologies. It avoids the morbidity and complications associated with instrumented ALIF such as plate fixation and the traditionally used posterior approach. Despite improved disc space visualisation and clearance, the associated posterior instability and increased risk of non-fusion present major challenges to this approach. The integral cage design aims to address these challenges by providing the necessary stabilisation through intracorporeal screws...
May 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501121/validation-of-a-field-spinal-motion-restriction-protocol-in-a-level-i-trauma-center
#6
James M Tatum, Nicolas Melo, Ara Ko, Navpreet K Dhillon, Eric J T Smith, Dorothy A Yim, Galinos Barmparas, Eric J Ley
BACKGROUND: Spinal motion restriction (SMR) after traumatic injury has been a mainstay of prehospital trauma care for more than 3 decades. Recent guidelines recommend a selective approach with cervical spine clearance in the field when criteria are met. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In January 2014, the Department of Health Services of the City of Los Angeles, California, implemented revised guidelines for cervical SMR after blunt mechanism trauma. Adult patients (aged ≥18 y) with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≥13 presented to a single level I trauma center after blunt mechanism trauma over the following 1-y period were retrospectively reviewed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455466/dislocation-of-a-primary-total-hip-arthroplasty-is-more-common-in-patients-with-a-lumbar-spinal-fusion
#7
A J Buckland, V Puvanesarajah, J Vigdorchik, R Schwarzkopf, A Jain, E O Klineberg, R A Hart, J J Callaghan, H Hassanzadeh
AIMS: Lumbar fusion is known to reduce the variation in pelvic tilt between standing and sitting. A flexible lumbo-pelvic unit increases the stability of total hip arthroplasty (THA) when seated by increasing anterior clearance and acetabular anteversion, thereby preventing impingement of the prosthesis. Lumbar fusion may eliminate this protective pelvic movement. The effect of lumbar fusion on the stability of total hip arthroplasty has not previously been investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Medicare database was searched for patients who had undergone THA and spinal fusion between 2005 and 2012...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450545/decreased-motor-neuron-support-by-sma-astrocytes-due-to-diminished-mcp1-secretion
#8
Jasmin E Martin, TrangKimberly T Nguyen, Christopher Grunseich, Jonathan H Nofziger, Philip R Lee, Douglas Fields, Kenneth H Fischbeck, Emily Foran
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by severe, often fatal muscle weakness due to loss of motor neurons. SMA patients have deletions and other mutations of the survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in decreased SMN protein. Astrocytes are the primary support cells of the CNS and are responsible for glutamate clearance, metabolic support, response to injury, and regulation of signal transmission. Astrocytes have been implicated in SMA as in in other neurodegenerative disorders...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402699/inhibition-of-retrograde-transport-modulates-misfolded-protein-accumulation-and-clearance-in-motoneuron-diseases
#9
Riccardo Cristofani, Valeria Crippa, Paola Rusmini, Maria Elena Cicardi, Marco Meroni, Nausicaa V Licata, Gessica Sala, Elisa Giorgetti, Christopher Grunseich, Mariarita Galbiati, Margherita Piccolella, Elio Messi, Carlo Ferrarese, Serena Carra, Angelo Poletti
Motoneuron diseases, like spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are associated with proteins that because of gene mutation or peculiar structures, acquire aberrant (misfolded) conformations toxic to cells. To prevent misfolded protein toxicity, cells activate a protein quality control (PQC) system composed of chaperones and degradative pathways (proteasome and autophagy). Inefficient activation of the PQC system results in misfolded protein accumulation that ultimately leads to neuronal cell death, while efficient macroautophagy/autophagy-mediated degradation of aggregating proteins is beneficial...
April 12, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355144/the-effect-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-with-antiseptic-instillation-on-biofilm-formation-in-a-porcine-model-of-infected-spinal-instrumentation
#10
Devinder P Singh, Arvind U Gowda, Karan Chopra, Michael Tholen, Sarah Chang, Vasilios Mavrophilipos, Nina Semsarzadeh, Yvonne Rasko, Luther Holton Iii
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effect of negative pressure wound therapy with antiseptic instillation (NPWTi) in the clearance of infection and biofilm formation in an in vivo model of infected spinal implants compared to traditional treatment modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five pigs underwent titanium rod implantation of their spinous processes followed by injection of 1 x 106 CFUs/100μL of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus through the fascia at each site...
March 24, 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343307/modular-organization-of-muscle-activity-patterns-in-the-leading-and-trailing-limbs-during-obstacle-clearance-in-healthy-adults
#11
Michael J MacLellan
Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338488/respiratory-complications-management-and-treatments-for-neuromuscular-disease-in-children
#12
MyMy C Buu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current literature describing the respiratory complications of neuromuscular disease (NMD) and the effect of respiratory interventions and to explore new gene therapies for patients with NMD. RECENT FINDINGS: Measurements of respiratory function focus on vital capacity and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure and show decline over time. Management of respiratory complications includes lung volume recruitment, mechanical insufflation-exsufflation, chest physiotherapy and assisted ventilation...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298760/the-effectiveness-of-intravenous-dexmedetomidine-on-perioperative-hemodynamics-analgesic-requirement-and-side-effects-profile-in-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-surgery-under-general-anesthesia
#13
Vinayak Panchgar, Akshaya N Shetti, H B Sunitha, Vithal K Dhulkhed, A V Nadkarni
BACKGROUND: There is an upward surge in the use of laparoscopic surgeries due to various advantages when compared to open surgeries. Major advantages are, due to small incisions which are cosmetically acceptable and most of them are now daycare procedures. Problem of economic burden and hospital bed occupancy has been overcome with laparoscopic surgeries. All these advantages are not free from disadvantages, as hemodynamic changes such as hypertension; tachycardia and other surgical-related complications are commonly observed intraoperatively...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251686/e6020-a-synthetic-tlr4-agonist-accelerates-myelin-debris-clearance-schwann-cell-infiltration-and-remyelination-in-the-rat-spinal-cord
#14
Jamie S Church, Lindsay M Milich, Jessica K Lerch, Phillip G Popovich, Dana M McTigue
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are present throughout the adult brain and spinal cord and can replace oligodendrocytes lost to injury, aging, or disease. Their differentiation, however, is inhibited by myelin debris, making clearance of this debris an important step for cellular repair following demyelination. In models of peripheral nerve injury, TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promotes macrophage phagocytosis of debris. Here we tested whether the novel synthetic TLR4 agonist E6020, a Lipid A mimetic, promotes myelin debris clearance and remyelination in spinal cord white matter following lysolecithin-induced demyelination...
June 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241718/-causal-analysis-and-management-strategies-of-30-day-unplanned-revision-surgery-following-single-stage-posterior-vertebral-column-resection-for-severe-spinal-deformity
#15
Y P Tao, J G Wu, H S Ma, S L Shao, L L Zhang, B Gao, H X Li
Objective: To investigate the causes of 30-day unplanned revision surgery following one-stage posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) for severe spinal deformity and the methods of prevention and management. Methods: A total of 112 severe deformity patients underwent one-stage PVCR for surgical treatment in the 306(th) Hospital of People's Liberation Army from May 2010 to December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Six patients required reoperation within 30 days after PVCR, including 2 males and 4 females with average age of 21 years (ranging from 12 to 38 years)...
March 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237315/loss-of-spatacsin-function-alters-lysosomal-lipid-clearance-leading-to-upper-and-lower-motor-neuron-degeneration
#16
Julien Branchu, Maxime Boutry, Laura Sourd, Marine Depp, Céline Leone, Alexandrine Corriger, Maeva Vallucci, Typhaine Esteves, Raphaël Matusiak, Magali Dumont, Marie-Paule Muriel, Filippo M Santorelli, Alexis Brice, Khalid Hamid El Hachimi, Giovanni Stevanin, Frédéric Darios
Mutations in SPG11 account for the most common form of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), characterized by a gait disorder associated with various brain alterations. Mutations in the same gene are also responsible for rare forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and progressive juvenile-onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To elucidate the physiopathological mechanisms underlying these human pathologies, we disrupted the Spg11 gene in mice by inserting stop codons in exon 32, mimicking the most frequent mutations found in patients...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216705/comparison-of-fractionated-dose-versus-bolus-dose-injection-in-spinal-anaesthesia-for-patients-undergoing-elective-caesarean-section-a-randomised-double-blind-study
#17
Jigisha Prahaladray Badheka, Vrinda Pravinbhai Oza, Ashutosh Vyas, Deepika Baria, Poonam Nehra, Thomas Babu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Spinal anaesthesia (SA) with bolus dose has rapid onset but may precipitate hypotension. When we inject local anaesthetic in fractions with a time gap, it provides a dense block with haemodynamic stability and also prolongs the duration of analgesia. We aimed to compare fractionated dose with bolus dose in SA for haemodynamic stability and duration of analgesia in patients undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). METHODS: After clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee, the study was carried out in sixty patients undergoing elective LSCS...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169354/three-dimensional-aligned-nanofibers-hydrogel-scaffold-for-controlled-non-viral-drug-gene-delivery-to-direct-axon-regeneration-in-spinal-cord-injury-treatment
#18
Lan Huong Nguyen, Mingyong Gao, Junquan Lin, Wutian Wu, Jun Wang, Sing Yian Chew
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) often lead to persistent neurological dysfunction due to failure in axon regeneration. Unfortunately, currently established treatments, such as direct drug administration, do not effectively treat SCI due to rapid drug clearance from our bodies. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional aligned nanofibers-hydrogel scaffold as a bio-functionalized platform to provide sustained non-viral delivery of proteins and nucleic acid therapeutics (small non-coding RNAs), along with synergistic contact guidance for nerve injury treatment...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160245/lipoprotein-a-hyperlipoproteinemia-as-cause-of-chronic-spinal-cord-ischemia-resulting-in-progressive-myelopathy-successful-treatment-with-lipoprotein-apheresis
#19
Franz Heigl, Reinhard Hettich, Erich Mauch, Reinhard Klingel, Cordula Fassbender
High concentrations of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) represent an important independent and causal risk factor associated with adverse outcome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Effective Lp(a) lowering drug treatment is not available. Lipoprotein apheresis (LA) has been proven to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with Lp(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) and progressive CVD. Here we present the course of a male patient with established peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) at the early age of 41 and coronary artery disease (CAD), who during follow-up developed over 2 years a progressive syndrome of cerebellar and spinal cord deficits against the background of multifactorial cardiovascular risk including positive family history of CVD...
March 2017: Clinical Research in Cardiology Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099187/a-comparative-study-of-anterior-decompression-with-fusion-and-posterior-decompression-with-laminoplasty-for-the-treatment-of-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-patients-with-large-anterior-compression-of-the-spinal-cord
#20
Takashi Hirai, Toshitaka Yoshii, Yoshiyasu Arai, Kenichiro Sakai, Ichiro Torigoe, Hidetsugu Maehara, Masaki Tomori, Takashi Taniyama, Hirokazu Sato, Atsushi Okawa
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational single-center study. OBJECTIVES: To compare anterior decompression and fusion (ADF) and laminoplasty (LAMP) for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients with large anterior compression in terms of clinical and radiologic outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: We have reported that insufficient posterior decompression could be often seen after laminoplasty for CSM patients with preoperative anterior clearance of the spinal cord, defined as an interval <4 mm between the preoperative the modified K-line and anterior structure of the spinal canal at most compressive segment on sagittal T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
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