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Spinal Clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018285/the-ultrastructure-of-spinal-cord-perivascular-spaces-implications-for-the-circulation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid
#1
Magdalena A Lam, Sarah J Hemley, Elmira Najafi, Nicole G F Vella, Lynne E Bilston, Marcus A Stoodley
Perivascular spaces play a pivotal role in the exchange between cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids, and in the clearance of waste in the CNS, yet their precise anatomical components are not well described. The aim of this study was to characterise the ultrastructure of perivascular spaces and their role in the transport of fluid, in the spinal cord of healthy rats, using transmission electron microscopy. The distribution of cerebrospinal fluid tracers injected into the subarachnoid space was studied using light, confocal and electron microscopy...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983582/effects-of-tripterygium-glycoside-treatment-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
Jianmin Qiu, Xuelian You, Gang Wu
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ T cells. It is characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration around the small blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS). Previous investigations have found that apoptosis is associated with the occurrence and development of autoimmune disease, and that mononuclear cell apoptosis and clearance from the CNS is one of the repair mechanisms of EAE. Tripterygium wilfordii glycoside (TWP) is an organic matter isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, which has anti‑inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980850/rilmenidine-promotes-mtor-independent-autophagy-in-the-mutant-sod1-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-without-slowing-disease-progression
#3
Nirma D Perera, Rebecca K Sheean, Chew L Lau, Yea Seul Shin, Philip M Beart, Malcolm K Horne, Bradley J Turner
Macroautophagy/autophagy is the main intracellular catabolic pathway in neurons that eliminates misfolded proteins, aggregates and damaged organelles associated with ageing and neurodegeneration. Autophagy is regulated by both MTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. There is increasing evidence that autophagy is compromised in neurodegenerative disorders, which may contribute to cytoplasmic sequestration of aggregation-prone and toxic proteins in neurons. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of autophagy to promote clearance of misfolded proteins may be a promising therapeutic avenue for these disorders...
October 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928548/a-prospective-comparative-observational-study-of-clinical-efficacy-of-isobaric-ropivacaine-0-75-with-of-isobaric-bupivacaine-0-5-intrathecally-in-elective-inguinal-hernia-repair-surgeries
#4
Shivam Bipin Parekh, Suchita Shailesh Parikh, Harsha Patel, Malini Mehta
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal isobaric Ropivacaine and its comparison with intrathecal isobaric Bupivacaine in elective inguinal hernia repair surgeries. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomized study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital with 80 patients of ASA grade I-III undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Ethical committee clearance and written consent taken. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups to the Ropivicaine group (Group R) and to theBupivicaine group (Group B)...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922945/aav-gene-therapy-in-a-sheep-model-of-tay-sachs-disease
#5
Heather Gray-Edwards, Ashley N Randle, Stacy Maitland, Hector Benatti, Spencer Hubbard, Peter Canning, Matthew Vogel, Brandon Brunson, Misako Hwang, Lauren Ellis, Allison M Bradbury, Atoska Gentry, Amanda Taylor, Anne Wooldridge, Dewey Wilhite, Randoplh Winter, Brain Whitlock, Jacob A Johnson, Merrilee Holland, Nouha Salibi, Ronald Beyers, James Sartin, Thomas Denney, Nancy R Cox, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Douglas R Martin
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (HexA). Tay-Sachs disease also occurs in sheep, the only experimental model of TSD that has clinical signs of disease. The natural history of sheep TSD was characterized using serial neurological evaluations, 7 tesla MRI, echocardiograms, electrodiagnostics and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Intracranial gene therapy was also tested using AAVrh8 monocistronic vectors encoding the α subunit of Hex (TSD α) or a mixture of two vectors encoding both the α and β subunits separately (TSD α+β) injected at high (1...
September 19, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818672/glutathione-monoethyl-ester-prevents-tdp-43-pathology-in-motor-neuronal-nsc-34%C3%A2-cells
#6
Tong Chen, Bradley J Turner, Philip M Beart, Lucy Sheehan-Hennessy, Chinasom Elekwachi, Hakan Muyderman
Oxidative stress is recognised as central in a range of neurological diseases including Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterised by fast progressing death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Cellular pathology includes cytosolic protein aggregates in motor neurons and glia of which potentially cytotoxic hyper-phosphorylated fragments of the Transactive response DNA Binding Protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) constitute a major component. This is closely associated with an additional loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression indicating a "loss of function" mechanism, accelerating motor neuron (MN) loss...
August 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776122/mechanisms-involved-in-the-remyelinating-effect-of-sildenafil
#7
Daniela Díaz-Lucena, María Gutierrez-Mecinas, Beatriz Moreno, José Lupicinio Martínez-Sánchez, Paula Pifarré, Agustina García
Remyelination occurs in demyelinated lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and pharmacological treatments that enhance this process will critically impact the long term functional outcome in the disease. Sildenafil, a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5-I), is an oral vasodilator drug extensively used in humans for treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PDE5 is expressed in central nervous system (CNS) neuronal and glial populations and in endothelial cells and numerous studies in rodent models of neurological disease have evidenced the neuroprotective potential of PDE5-Is...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769787/a-combination-of-ex-vivo-diffusion-mri-and-multiphoton-to-study-microglia-monocytes-alterations-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Harun N Noristani, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Guillaume Saint-Martin, Pauline Auzer, Rahima Sidiboulenouar, Nicolas Lonjon, Eric Alibert, Nicolas Tricaud, Christophe Goze-Bac, Christophe Coillot, Florence E Perrin
Central nervous system (CNS) injury has been observed to lead to microglia activation and monocytes infiltration at the lesion site. Ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI or DWI) allows detailed examination of CNS tissues, and recent advances in clearing procedures allow detailed imaging of fluorescent-labeled cells at high resolution. No study has yet combined ex vivo diffusion MRI and clearing procedures to establish a possible link between microglia/monocytes response and diffusion coefficient in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764270/feasibility-and-complications-of-spinal-anaesthesia-in-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-our-experience
#9
Manoj Kamal, Pradeep Sharma, Geeta Singariya, Rajesh Jain
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the treatment modality used for the extraction of large renal stones, or multiple calculi or stones resistant to shock wave lithotripsy. The General Anaesthesia (GA) is the standard modality for PCNL. However, few studies conclude that Spinal Anaesthesia (SA) can be an alternative method of anaesthesia with similar incidence of complications. AIM: In our study we evaluated the feasibility of spinal anaesthesia in terms of intraoperative and postoperative results in patients undergoing PCNL...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723387/sigma-1-receptor-activation-modifies-intracellular-calcium-exchange-in-the-g93a-hsod1-als-model
#10
Vedrana Tadić, Ayse Malci, Nadine Goldhammer, Beatrice Stubendorff, Saikata Sengupta, Tino Prell, Silke Keiner, Jingyu Liu, Madlen Guenther, Christiane Frahm, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Aberrations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) have been well established within amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a severe motor neuron disease. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is controlled in part through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria Ca(2+) cycle (ERMCC). The ER supplies Ca(2+) to the mitochondria at close contacts between the two organelles, i.e. the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). The Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is enriched at MAMs, where it acts as an inter-organelle signaling modulator...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696010/myelin-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-myelin-interactions-with-complement-macrophages-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers chronic intraspinal inflammation consisting of activated resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages). The environmental factors contributing to this protracted inflammation are not well understood; however, myelin lipid debris is a hallmark of SCI. Myelin is also a potent macrophage stimulus and target of complement-mediated clearance and inflammation. The downstream effects of these neuroimmune interactions have the potential to contribute to ongoing pathology or facilitate repair...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687604/calpain-inhibition-is-protective-in-machado-joseph-disease-zebrafish-due-to-induction-of-autophagy
#12
Maxinne Watchon, Kristy C Yuan, Nick Mackovski, Adam J Svahn, Nicholas J Cole, Claire Goldsbury, Silke Rinkwitz, Thomas S Becker, Garth A Nicholson, Angela S Laird
The neurodegenerative disease Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxin-3, affects neurons of the brain and spinal cord, disrupting control of the movement of muscles. We have successfully established the first transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of MJD by expressing human ataxin-3 protein containing either 23 glutamines (23Q, wild-type) or 84Q (MJD-causing) within neurons. Phenotypic characterization of the zebrafish (male and female) revealed that the ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish have decreased survival compared with ataxin-3-23Q and develop ataxin-3 neuropathology, ataxin-3 cleavage fragments and motor impairment...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682148/pharmacokinetics-of-an-intracerebroventricularly-administered-antibody-in-rats
#13
Yuki Noguchi, Motohiro Kato, Kazuhisa Ozeki, Masaki Ishigai
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of an antibody in the brain and the spinal cord is insufficiently understood, which is an obstacle to the discovery of antibody drugs that target diseases in the central nervous system. In this study, we focused on the elimination of IgG from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulating in the brain and the spinal cord in rats, and, to evaluate the influence of CSF bulk flow on the clearance of IgG, also examined the PK of inulin in CSF. To monitor their concentrations in CSF, IgG and inulin were co-administered into the lateral ventricle via a catheter, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna via another catheter time-sequentially...
October 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663645/prophylactic-use-of-intravenous-clonidine-compared-to-tramadol-in-prevention-of-intraoperative-shivering-under-regional-anesthesia
#14
Sarmila Guha Banerjee, Pallab Kumar Nath, Rita Halder, Ujjwal Bandyopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the relative efficacy of prophylactic intravenous (IV) clonidine and tramadol for control of intraoperative shivering following spinal anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After institutional ethical clearance, 142 patients were chosen from either gender, aged 20-60 years, physical status American Society of Anesthesiology Class I and II scheduled for elective infraumbilical surgery under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomized into two groups: Group C (n = 71) received injection clonidine 50 μg) IV in 100 ml normal saline (NS) over 10 min and Group T (n = 71) received injection tramadol 50 mg IV...
April 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623098/acquired-inhibition-of-microrna-124-protects-against-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-partially-through-a-mitophagy-dependent-pathway
#15
Kun Liu, Lihui Yan, Xiaojing Jiang, Yang Yu, Hongbo Liu, Tianxiang Gu, Enyi Shi
OBJECTIVE: Mitophagy results in selective clearance of damaged mitochondria. We investigated whether mitophagy was involved in the neuroprotection by inhibiting microRNA (miRNA)-124 on ischemic spinal cords. METHODS: Inhibition of miRNA-124 was conducted by intrathecal injection of lentivirus vectors containing antagomiR-124. Spinal cord ischemia was induced in rats by crossclamping the descending aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery for 14 minutes. Hind-limb motor function was assessed with the motor deficit index (MDI)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616823/population-pharmacokinetics-of-combined-intravenous-and-local-intrathecal-administration-of-meropenem-in-aneurysm-patients-with-suspected-intracranial-infections-after-craniotomy
#16
Xingang Li, Shusen Sun, Qiang Wang, Zhigang Zhao
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: For patients with intracranial infection, local intrathecal administration of meropenem may be a useful method to obtain a sufficient drug concentration in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). However, a large inter-individual variability may pose treatment efficacy at risk. This study aimed to identify factors affecting drug concentration in the CSF using population pharmacokinetics method. METHODS: After craniotomy, aneurysm patients with an indwelling lumbar cistern drainage tube who received a combined intravenous and intrathecal administration of meropenem for the treatment of suspected intracranial infection were enrolled...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585080/visuo-locomotor-control-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-manual-or-power-wheelchair-for-direction-change-and-obstacle-circumvention
#17
Caroline Charette, François Routhier, Bradford J McFadyen
Many individuals, such as persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), rely on wheeled locomotion involving manual (MWC) or power (PWC) wheelchairs to navigate their environments. Yet, visuo-locomotor control underlying WC navigation in experienced users is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the visuo-locomotor control between MWC and PWC in individuals with SCI while changing direction and circumventing an obstacle. Participants with SCI using a MWC (n = 12, 38.5 ± 10.7 years) or a PWC (n = 10, 47...
June 5, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565753/clinical-and-genomic-responses-to-ultra-short-course-chemotherapy-in-spinal-tuberculosis
#18
Ningkui Niu, Qian Wang, Jiandang Shi, Xu Zhang, Guangqi Geng, Shufeng Zhou, Chia Thach, Feng Cheng, Zili Wang
Traditional treatments for spinal tuberculosis (TB) involve chemotherapy and surgery. In the present study, it has been identified that chemotherapy lasting <6 months [ultra-short course chemotherapy (UCCT)], rather than the 6-18 months of the traditional regimen, is effective in sustaining TB clearance following complete surgical debridement. This current study aims to compare the changes in peripheral blood gene expression prior to and following UCCT, subsequent to complete debridement of spinal TB lesions...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502688/evaluating-outcomes-of-stand-alone-anterior-lumbar-interbody-fusion-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Gloria Giang, Ralph Mobbs, Steven Phan, Tommy Manh Tran, Kevin Phan
BACKGROUND: Stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is an effective surgical approach for selected spinal pathologies. It avoids the morbidity and complications associated with instrumented ALIF, such as plate fixation and the traditionally used posterior approach. Despite improved disc space visualization and clearance, the associated posterior instability and increased risk of nonfusion present major challenges to this approach. The integral cage design aims to address these challenges by providing the necessary stabilization through intracorporeal screws...
August 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501121/validation-of-a-field-spinal-motion-restriction-protocol-in-a-level-i-trauma-center
#20
James M Tatum, Nicolas Melo, Ara Ko, Navpreet K Dhillon, Eric J T Smith, Dorothy A Yim, Galinos Barmparas, Eric J Ley
BACKGROUND: Spinal motion restriction (SMR) after traumatic injury has been a mainstay of prehospital trauma care for more than 3 decades. Recent guidelines recommend a selective approach with cervical spine clearance in the field when criteria are met. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In January 2014, the Department of Health Services of the City of Los Angeles, California, implemented revised guidelines for cervical SMR after blunt mechanism trauma. Adult patients (aged ≥18 y) with an initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of ≥13 presented to a single level I trauma center after blunt mechanism trauma over the following 1-y period were retrospectively reviewed...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
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