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Spinal Clearance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203049/the-use-of-clinical-cervical-spine-clearance-in-trauma-patients-a-literature-review
#1
Sandra Larson, Andrew U Delnat, Jill Moore
INTRODUCTION: Five million patients in America are placed in spinal immobilization annually, with only 1% to 2% of these patients suffering from an unstable cervical spine injury. Prehospital agencies are employing selective and limited immobilization practices, but there is concern that this practice misses cervical spine injuries and therefore possibly predisposes patients to worsening injuries. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted that examined literature from the last 5 years that reviewed cervical spine immobilization application and/or clearance in alert trauma patients...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194406/whole-body-and-cns-biodistribution-of-rhhns-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-after-intrathecal-lumbar-administration-treatment-implications-for-patients-with-mps-iiia
#2
Jou-Ku Chung, Luying Pan, Kathleen Palmieri, Amir S Youssef, Thomas G McCauley
Mucopolysaccharidosis III type A (MPS IIIA; Sanfilippo syndrome), a genetic lysosomal disorder causing a deficiency of heparan N-sulfatase (HNS), leads to progressive cognitive decline from an early age. An effective enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for MPS IIIA requires central nervous system (CNS) biodistribution. Recombinant human heparan N-sulfatase (rhHNS), an investigatory ERT for MPS IIIA, has been formulated for intrathecal (IT) administration since intravenous (IV) administration cannot cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) in sufficient amounts to have a therapeutic effect...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179752/characteristics-and-determinants-of-clinical-symptoms-in-radiographic-lumbar-spinal-stenosis-in-a-tertiary-health-care-centre-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
Marie Doualla-Bija, Mbeng Ashu Takang, Emmanuella Mankaa, Jude Moutchia, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo, Henry Luma-Namme
BACKGROUND: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) refers to narrowing of the lumbar central spinal canal, lateral recess, and/or neuro-foramina. Radiographic LSS plays an important role in clinical LSS but is not solely accountable for the presence of symptoms. We sought to characterise clinical LSS and to determine factors associated with presence of symptoms of LSS in patients with radiographic LSS in a sub Saharan Africa setting. METHODS: After prior ethical clearance, a case control study was done in a tertiary hospital in Douala-Cameroon, including 105 patients with radiographic LSS: 57 with symptoms of LSS (cases) and 58 with no symptoms (controls)...
November 28, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109234/maresin-1-promotes-inflammatory-resolution-neuroprotection-and-functional-neurological-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Isaac Francos Quijorna, Eva Santos-Nogueira, Karsten Gronert, Aaron B Sullivan, Marcel A Kopp, Benedikt Brommer, Samuel David, Jan M Schwab, Ruben Lopez Vales
Resolution of inflammation is defective after spinal cord injury (SCI), which impairs tissue integrity and remodelling, and leads to functional deficits. Effective treatments for SCI are not currently available. Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a highly conserved specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM) hosting potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties with potent tissue regenerative actions. Here, we provide evidence that the inappropriate biosynthesis of SPM in the lesioned spinal cord hampers the resolution of inflammation and leads to deleterious consequences on neurological outcome in adult female mice...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095924/distinct-ng2-proteoglycan-dependent-roles-of-resident-microglia-and-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-during-myelin-damage-and-repair
#5
Karolina Kucharova, William B Stallcup
We used a bone marrow transplantation approach to distinguish the activities of bone marrow-derived macrophages from the activities of central nervous system-resident microglia in phenomena associated with axon demyelination and remyelination. We transplanted wild type or germline NG2 null beta-actin-EGFP expressing bone marrow into irradiated wild type or NG2 null recipient mice, followed by analysis of lysolecithin-induced spinal cord demyelination and remyelination and quantification of Iba-1+/ F4/80+/ EGFP+ macrophages and Iba-1+/ F4/80+/ EGFP- microglia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081932/free-aspire-a-new-device-for-the-management-of-airways-clearance-in-patient-with-ineffective-cough
#6
Luca Bertelli, Giovanni Di Nardo, Salvatore Cazzato, Giampaolo Ricci, Andrea Pession
A 3-year-old girl with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I presented with a right pneumonia. On physical examination pulmonary auscultation revealed an asymmetry of breath sounds between the 2 hemithoraces, owing to decreased breath sounds in the right hemithorax. Blood tests were normal. The initial working diagnosis was a suspected area of mucus accumulation. A treatment with Free Aspire was started. Within a few days, the girl was discharged with a normal physical examination and X-ray study result. Spinal Muscular Atrophy is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle wasting...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038673/thiazides-and-osteoporotic-spinal-fractures-a-suspected-linkage-investigated-by-means-of-a-two-center-case-control-study
#7
Renato De Vecchis, Carmelina Ariano, Giuseppina Di Biase, Michel Noutsias
BACKGROUND: An alleged association of chronic use of thiazide diuretics with an increased risk of bone fragility fractures has been highlighted by a relatively recent prospective cohort study. However, the concept that thiazides exert a beneficial effect on osteoporosis is still a predominant view. This effect would be mediated by the decrease in renal clearance of calcium ions, a pharmacological feature recognized for a long time now to this class of drugs, as opposed to the increase in calcium urinary excretion attributed instead to loop diuretics, i...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018285/the-ultrastructure-of-spinal-cord-perivascular-spaces-implications-for-the-circulation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid
#8
Magdalena A Lam, Sarah J Hemley, Elmira Najafi, Nicole G F Vella, Lynne E Bilston, Marcus A Stoodley
Perivascular spaces play a pivotal role in the exchange between cerebrospinal and interstitial fluids, and in the clearance of waste in the CNS, yet their precise anatomical components are not well described. The aim of this study was to characterise the ultrastructure of perivascular spaces and their role in the transport of fluid, in the spinal cord of healthy rats, using transmission electron microscopy. The distribution of cerebrospinal fluid tracers injected into the subarachnoid space was studied using light, confocal and electron microscopy...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983582/effects-of-tripterygium-glycoside-treatment-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#9
Jianmin Qiu, Xuelian You, Gang Wu
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease mediated by CD4+ T cells. It is characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration around the small blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS). Previous investigations have found that apoptosis is associated with the occurrence and development of autoimmune disease, and that mononuclear cell apoptosis and clearance from the CNS is one of the repair mechanisms of EAE. Tripterygium wilfordii glycoside (TWP) is an organic matter isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii, which has anti‑inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980850/rilmenidine-promotes-mtor-independent-autophagy-in-the-mutant-sod1-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-without-slowing-disease-progression
#10
Nirma D Perera, Rebecca K Sheean, Chew L Lau, Yea Seul Shin, Philip M Beart, Malcolm K Horne, Bradley J Turner
Macroautophagy/autophagy is the main intracellular catabolic pathway in neurons that eliminates misfolded proteins, aggregates and damaged organelles associated with ageing and neurodegeneration. Autophagy is regulated by both MTOR-dependent and -independent pathways. There is increasing evidence that autophagy is compromised in neurodegenerative disorders, which may contribute to cytoplasmic sequestration of aggregation-prone and toxic proteins in neurons. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of autophagy to promote clearance of misfolded proteins may be a promising therapeutic avenue for these disorders...
October 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928548/a-prospective-comparative-observational-study-of-clinical-efficacy-of-isobaric-ropivacaine-0-75-with-of-isobaric-bupivacaine-0-5-intrathecally-in-elective-inguinal-hernia-repair-surgeries
#11
Shivam Bipin Parekh, Suchita Shailesh Parikh, Harsha Patel, Malini Mehta
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of intrathecal isobaric Ropivacaine and its comparison with intrathecal isobaric Bupivacaine in elective inguinal hernia repair surgeries. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomized study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital with 80 patients of ASA grade I-III undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Ethical committee clearance and written consent taken. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups to the Ropivicaine group (Group R) and to theBupivicaine group (Group B)...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922945/adeno-associated-virus-gene-therapy-in-a-sheep-model-of-tay-sachs-disease
#12
Heather L Gray-Edwards, Ashley N Randle, Stacy A Maitland, Hector R Benatti, Spencer M Hubbard, Peter F Canning, Matthew B Vogel, Brandon L Brunson, Misako Hwang, Lauren E Ellis, Allison M Bradbury, Atoska S Gentry, Amanda R Taylor, Anne A Wooldridge, Dewey R Wilhite, Randolph L Winter, Brian K Whitlock, Jacob A Johnson, Merilee Holland, Nouha Salibi, Ronald J Beyers, James L Sartin, Thomas S Denney, Nancy R Cox, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Douglas R Martin
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (HexA). TSD also occurs in sheep, the only experimental model of TSD that has clinical signs of disease. The natural history of sheep TSD was characterized using serial neurological evaluations, 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiograms, electrodiagnostics, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. Intracranial gene therapy was also tested using AAVrh8 monocistronic vectors encoding the α-subunit of Hex (TSD α) or a mixture of two vectors encoding both the α and β subunits separately (TSD α + β) injected at high (1...
September 18, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818672/glutathione-monoethyl-ester-prevents-tdp-43-pathology-in-motor-neuronal-nsc-34%C3%A2-cells
#13
Tong Chen, Bradley J Turner, Philip M Beart, Lucy Sheehan-Hennessy, Chinasom Elekwachi, Hakan Muyderman
Oxidative stress is recognised as central in a range of neurological diseases including Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterised by fast progressing death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Cellular pathology includes cytosolic protein aggregates in motor neurons and glia of which potentially cytotoxic hyper-phosphorylated fragments of the Transactive response DNA Binding Protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) constitute a major component. This is closely associated with an additional loss of nuclear TDP-43 expression indicating a "loss of function" mechanism, accelerating motor neuron (MN) loss...
August 14, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776122/mechanisms-involved-in-the-remyelinating-effect-of-sildenafil
#14
Daniela Díaz-Lucena, María Gutierrez-Mecinas, Beatriz Moreno, José Lupicinio Martínez-Sánchez, Paula Pifarré, Agustina García
Remyelination occurs in demyelinated lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and pharmacological treatments that enhance this process will critically impact the long term functional outcome in the disease. Sildenafil, a cyclic GMP (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5-I), is an oral vasodilator drug extensively used in humans for treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PDE5 is expressed in central nervous system (CNS) neuronal and glial populations and in endothelial cells and numerous studies in rodent models of neurological disease have evidenced the neuroprotective potential of PDE5-Is...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769787/a-combination-of-ex-vivo-diffusion-mri-and-multiphoton-to-study-microglia-monocytes-alterations-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Harun N Noristani, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Guillaume Saint-Martin, Pauline Auzer, Rahima Sidiboulenouar, Nicolas Lonjon, Eric Alibert, Nicolas Tricaud, Christophe Goze-Bac, Christophe Coillot, Florence E Perrin
Central nervous system (CNS) injury has been observed to lead to microglia activation and monocytes infiltration at the lesion site. Ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (diffusion MRI or DWI) allows detailed examination of CNS tissues, and recent advances in clearing procedures allow detailed imaging of fluorescent-labeled cells at high resolution. No study has yet combined ex vivo diffusion MRI and clearing procedures to establish a possible link between microglia/monocytes response and diffusion coefficient in the context of spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764270/feasibility-and-complications-of-spinal-anaesthesia-in-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-our-experience
#16
Manoj Kamal, Pradeep Sharma, Geeta Singariya, Rajesh Jain
INTRODUCTION: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the treatment modality used for the extraction of large renal stones, or multiple calculi or stones resistant to shock wave lithotripsy. The General Anaesthesia (GA) is the standard modality for PCNL. However, few studies conclude that Spinal Anaesthesia (SA) can be an alternative method of anaesthesia with similar incidence of complications. AIM: In our study we evaluated the feasibility of spinal anaesthesia in terms of intraoperative and postoperative results in patients undergoing PCNL...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723387/sigma-1-receptor-activation-modifies-intracellular-calcium-exchange-in-the-g93a-hsod1-als-model
#17
Vedrana Tadić, Ayse Malci, Nadine Goldhammer, Beatrice Stubendorff, Saikata Sengupta, Tino Prell, Silke Keiner, Jingyu Liu, Madlen Guenther, Christiane Frahm, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Aberrations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) have been well established within amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a severe motor neuron disease. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is controlled in part through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria Ca(2+) cycle (ERMCC). The ER supplies Ca(2+) to the mitochondria at close contacts between the two organelles, i.e. the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). The Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is enriched at MAMs, where it acts as an inter-organelle signaling modulator...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696010/myelin-as-an-inflammatory-mediator-myelin-interactions-with-complement-macrophages-and-microglia-in-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Timothy J Kopper, John C Gensel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers chronic intraspinal inflammation consisting of activated resident and infiltrating immune cells (especially microglia/macrophages). The environmental factors contributing to this protracted inflammation are not well understood; however, myelin lipid debris is a hallmark of SCI. Myelin is also a potent macrophage stimulus and target of complement-mediated clearance and inflammation. The downstream effects of these neuroimmune interactions have the potential to contribute to ongoing pathology or facilitate repair...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687604/calpain-inhibition-is-protective-in-machado-joseph-disease-zebrafish-due-to-induction-of-autophagy
#19
Maxinne Watchon, Kristy C Yuan, Nick Mackovski, Adam J Svahn, Nicholas J Cole, Claire Goldsbury, Silke Rinkwitz, Thomas S Becker, Garth A Nicholson, Angela S Laird
The neurodegenerative disease Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxin-3, affects neurons of the brain and spinal cord, disrupting control of the movement of muscles. We have successfully established the first transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of MJD by expressing human ataxin-3 protein containing either 23 glutamines (23Q, wild-type) or 84Q (MJD-causing) within neurons. Phenotypic characterization of the zebrafish (male and female) revealed that the ataxin-3-84Q zebrafish have decreased survival compared with ataxin-3-23Q and develop ataxin-3 neuropathology, ataxin-3 cleavage fragments and motor impairment...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682148/pharmacokinetics-of-an-intracerebroventricularly-administered-antibody-in-rats
#20
Yuki Noguchi, Motohiro Kato, Kazuhisa Ozeki, Masaki Ishigai
The pharmacokinetics (PK) of an antibody in the brain and the spinal cord is insufficiently understood, which is an obstacle to the discovery of antibody drugs that target diseases in the central nervous system. In this study, we focused on the elimination of IgG from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulating in the brain and the spinal cord in rats, and, to evaluate the influence of CSF bulk flow on the clearance of IgG, also examined the PK of inulin in CSF. To monitor their concentrations in CSF, IgG and inulin were co-administered into the lateral ventricle via a catheter, and CSF was collected from the cisterna magna via another catheter time-sequentially...
October 2017: MAbs
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