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communicable disease

Karishma S Furtado, Elizabeth L Budd, Xiangji Ying, Anna J deRuyter, Rebecca L Armstrong, Tahna L Pettman, Rodrigo S Reis, Pauline Sung-Chan, Zhaoxin Wang, Tahnee Saunders, Leonardo A Becker, Jianwei Shi, Long Sum Tabitha Mui, Ross C Brownson
Implementation of evidence-based practices can improve efficiency and effectiveness of public health efforts. Few studies have explored the political contextual factors that impact implementation of evidence-based non-communicable disease prevention (EBNCDP). This study aimed to do so in Australia, Brazil, China and the United States. Investigators conducted 10-13 qualitative, semi-structured interviews of public health practitioners working in functionally similar public health organizations in each country (total N = 50)...
March 14, 2018: Health Education Research
Jessica H Hill, Claudia Solt, Michelle T Foster
Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
L B Amsden, P T Davidson, H B Fevrier, R Goldfien, L J Herrinton
Purpose To better understand diagnostic delay and doctor-patient communication during the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematous in patients without malar rash, we conducted a qualitative study of primary care providers' perceptions. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of eight primary care physicians in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed, reviewed, and coded for domains and themes. Results We identified five domains related to diagnosis: initial assessment and tests, initial diagnosis and empiric treatment, timeliness of diagnosis, communicating with the patient, and opportunities for improvement...
January 1, 2018: Lupus
Cristian De Gregorio, Paula Díaz, Rodrigo López-Leal, Patricio Manque, Felipe A Court
Exosomes are small (30-150 nm) vesicles of endosomal origin secreted by most cell types. Exosomes contain proteins, lipids, and RNA species including microRNA, mRNA, rRNA, and long noncoding RNAs. The mechanisms associated with exosome synthesis and cargo loading are still poorly understood. A role for exosomes in intercellular communication has been reported in physiological and pathological conditions both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have suggested that Schwann cell-derived exosomes regulate neuronal functions, but the mechanisms are still unclear...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kyle I Mentkowski, Jonathan D Snitzer, Sarah Rusnak, Jennifer K Lang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to target cells within their local milieu and systemically. They have been proposed as a means of "cell-free, cell therapy" for cancer, immune disorders, and more recently cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2018: AAPS Journal
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Carla Cristina Zeppenfeld, Sharine Descovi, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
The phosphotransfer network system, through the enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), contributes to efficient intracellular energetic communication between cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption and production in tissues with high energetic demand, such as cerebral tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) intoxication in diet negatively affects the cerebral phosphotransfer network related to impairment of cerebral ATP levels in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
March 15, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
A Schrag, S Modi, S Hotham, R Merritt, K Khan, L Graham
OBJECTIVE: To report patients' own experiences of receiving a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to identify factors influencing this experience. METHODS: A survey by the European Parkinson's Disease Association in 11 European countries. RESULTS: 1775 patients with an average age of 69.7 years participated of whom 54% were male. Those living in rural areas reported having waited longer to seek medical help (p < 0.05). A possible diagnosis of PD was made at the first appointment in a third of respondents...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Shadi Saleh, Mohamad Alameddine, Angie Farah, Nour El Arnaout, Hani Dimassi, Carles Muntaner, Christo El Morr
OBJECTIVES: Assess the effect of selected low-cost eHealth tools on diabetes/hypertension detection and referrals rates in rural settings and refugee camps in Lebanon and explore the barriers to showing-up to scheduled appointments at Primary Healthcare Centers (PHC). METHODS: Community-based screening for diabetes and hypertension was conducted in five rural and three refugee camp PHCs using an eHealth netbook application. Remote referrals were generated based on pre-set criteria...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Masato Uchiyama, Akiko Nagai, Kaori Muto
Genome editing of human embryos could become a fundamental treatment approach for genetic diseases; however, a few technical and ethical issues need to be resolved before its application in clinical settings. Presently, the Japanese government has issued a statement prohibiting human germline editing and emphasizing the need for discussions that include a wide range of perspectives. However, current discussions tend to exclude the general public. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 10,881 general adults and 1044 patients in Japan who indicated that their disease conditions are related to their genetic makeup, and clarified their attitude toward this technology...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Ebele M Umeukeje, Marcus G Wild, Saugar Maripuri, Teresa Davidson, Margaret Rutherford, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Julia Lewis, Consuelo H Wilkins, Kerri Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Fei Huang, Hongyu Li
To evaluate wellbeing and its determinants among older Chinese outpatients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), outpatients (aged ≥60 years) with NCDs between September 2012 and September 2014 were enrolled in the study by convenience sampling. Each subject completed an integrated wellbeing questionnaire for subjective, psychological and social dimensions of wellbeing. Statistical analyses were performed using t-test, ANOVA, Spearman rank correlation and multivariate regression analysis to identify correlates of wellbeing status...
March 16, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Loai Albarqouni, Khamis Elessi, Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh
BACKGROUND: Research conducted on conditions responsible for the greatest disease burden should be given the highest priority, particularly in resource-limited settings. The present study aimed to assess the research output in relation to disease burden in Palestine and to identify the conditions which are under- or over-investigated, if any. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and December 2015...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Yi-Lei Fan, Xiao-Hong Jin, Zhong-Ping Huang, Hai-Feng Yu, Zhi-Gang Zeng, Tao Gao, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis still remains one of the most common, communicable, and leading deadliest diseases known to mankind throughout the world. Drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which threatens to worsen the global tuberculosis epidemic has caused great concern in recent years. To overcome the resistance, the development of new drugs with novel mechanisms of actions is of great importance. Imidazole-containing derivatives endow with various biological properties, and some of them demonstrated excellent anti-tubercular activity...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Julie Rivière, Yann Le Strat, Pascal Hendrikx, Barbara Dufour
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example...
2018: PloS One
Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Nina Zupanič, Maša Hribar, Urška Pivk Kupirovič, Anita Kušar, Katja Žmitek, Igor Pravst
Consumption of industrially produced trans -fatty acids (TFAs) is a well-established health risk factor that correlates with the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The recommended TFA intake is as low as possible, within the context of a nutritionally adequate diet. Different countries have introduced different measures to minimize the exposure of their population to TFAs. Previous data have shown that TFA content has significantly decreased in Western European countries, while this was not the case in many Central-Eastern European countries, including Slovenia...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lisa K Gouwens, Mudar S Ismail, Victoria A Rogers, Nathan T Zeller, Evan C Garrad, Fatima S Amtashar, Nyasha J Makoni, David C Osborn, Michael R Nichols
Microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes comprise a class of cell-secreted particles termed extracellular vesicles (EVs). These cargo-holding vesicles mediate cell-to-cell communication and have recently been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two types of EVs are distinguished by the mechanism of cell release and their size, with the smaller exosomes and the larger MVs ranging from 30 to 100 nm and 100 nm to 1 μm in diameter, respectively. MV numbers are increased in AD and appear to interact with amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), the primary protein component of the neuritic plaques in the AD brain...
March 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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