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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915477/treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-function-depending-on-circadian-rhythm-changes-in-mice
#1
Dong Sup Hwang, Hyo Bum Kwak, Il Gyu Ko, Sung Eun Kim, Jun Jang Jin, Eun Sang Ji, Hyun Hee Choi, Oh Young Kwon
PURPOSE: Exercise enhances memory function by increasing neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and circadian rhythms modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. The circadian rhythm-dependent effects of treadmill exercise on memory function in relation with neurogenesis were investigated using mice. METHODS: The step-down avoidance test was used to evaluate short-term memory, the 8-arm maze test was used to test spatial learning ability, and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine immunofluorescence was used to assess neurogenesis...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915043/involvement-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-in-the-effect-of-diphenyl-diselenide-on-motor-function-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#2
Tuane Bazanella Sampaio, Simone Pinton, Juliana Trevisan da Rocha, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] is a compound with pharmacological proprieties, such as antidepressant and neuroprotective. Therefore, this study investigated whether (PhSe)2 reverses motor impairment and neurochemical alterations in a model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. For this, male Wistar rats received 20μg/3μl of 6-OHDA or vehicle into the right striatum...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914953/both-secreted-and-the-cellular-levels-of-bdnf-attenuated-due-to-tau-hyperphosphorylation-in-primary-cultures-of-cortical-neurons
#3
İrem Lütfiye Atasoy, Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen Ak, Derya Metin Armağan, Melek Öztürk, Selma Yılmazer
Intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a major neuropathological hallmark of taupathies such as Alzheimer's disease. Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of PP2A, leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is selectively downregulated in AD. In this study, we investigated the effects of OKA induced tau hyperphosphorylation on secreted and cellular levels of BDNF in primary cortical neurons that were treated with 25nM OKA...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913877/oxidative-stress-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-major-depression-effects-of-disease-acuity-and-potential-confounders
#4
Wolfgang Jordan, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Bahn, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Tanja Brigadski, Thomas Frodl, Berend Isermann, Volkmar Lessmann, Jürgen Pilz, Andrea Rodenbeck, Kolja Schiltz, Edzard Schwedhelm, Hayrettin Tumani, Jens Wiltfang, Paul C Guest, Johann Steiner
Oxidative stress and immune dysregulation have been linked to schizophrenia and depression. However, it is unknown whether these factors are related to the pathophysiology or whether they are an epiphenomenon. Inconsistent oxidative stress-related findings in previous studies may have resulted from the use of different biomarkers which show disparate aspects of oxidative stress. Additionally, disease severity, medication, smoking, endocrine stress axis activation and obesity are potential confounders. In order to address some of these shortcomings, we have analyzed a broader set of oxidative stress biomarkers in our exploratory study, including urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), 8-OH-2-deoyxguanosine (8-OH-2-dG), and blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in acutely ill drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia (n = 22), major depression (n = 18), and controls (n = 43)...
December 2, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913431/pro-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-probdnf-mediated-p75ntr-activation-promotes-depolarizing-actions-of-gaba-and-increases-susceptibility-to-epileptic-seizures
#5
Baptiste Riffault, Nazim Kourdougli, Camille Dumon, Nadine Ferrand, Emmanuelle Buhler, Fabienne Schaller, Caroline Chambon, Claudio Rivera, Jean-Luc Gaiarsa, Christophe Porcher
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is synthesized as a precursor, namely proBDNF, which can be processed into mature BDNF (mBDNF). Evidences suggest that proBDNF signaling through p75(NTR) may account for the emergence of neurological disorders. These findings support the view that the relative availability of mBDNF and proBDNF forms is an important mechanism underlying brain circuit formation and cognitive functions. Here we describe novel insights into the proBDNF/p75(NTR) mechanisms and function in vivo in modulating neuronal circuit and synaptic plasticity during the first postnatal weeks in rats...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913184/tolerance-of-hyperammonemia-in-brain-of-heteropneustes-fossilis-is-supported-by-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#6
Suman Mishra, Rajnikant Mishra
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16hrs and 20hrs exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913110/downregulated-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induced-oxidative-stress-in-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin growth factor family, physiologically mediates induction of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation, promotes neuronal growth and survival and maintains synaptic plasticity and neuronal interconnections. Unlike the central nervous system, its secretion in the peripheral nervous system occurs in an activity-dependent manner. BDNF improves neuronal mortality, growth, differentiation and maintenance. It also provides neuroprotection against several noxious stimuli, thereby preventing neuronal damage during pathologic conditions...
November 29, 2016: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#8
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909004/pea3-transcription-factors-etv4-and-etv5-are-required-for-proper-hippocampal-dendrite-development-and-plasticity
#9
Paula Aldana Fontanet, Antonella Soledad Ríos, Fernando Cruz Alsina, Gustavo Paratcha, Fernanda Ledda
The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is essential to the establishment of neuronal connectivity. We report that 2 members of the Pea3 family of transcription factors, Etv4 and Etv5, are expressed in hippocampal neurons during the main period of dendritogenesis, suggesting that they have a function in dendrite development. Here, we show that these transcription factors are physiological regulators of growth and arborization of pyramidal cell dendrites in the developing hippocampus. Gain and loss of function assays indicate that Etv4 and Etv5 are required for proper development of hippocampal dendritic arbors and spines...
November 30, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908981/neurotrophin-signalling-novel-insights-into-mechanisms-and-pathophysiology
#10
REVIEW
Mariela Mitre, Abigail Mariga, Moses V Chao
Neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are prominent regulators of neuronal survival, growth and differentiation during development. While trophic factors are viewed as well-understood but not innovative molecules, there are many lines of evidence indicating that BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative disorders, depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In particular, lower levels of BDNF are associated with the aetiology of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908839/the-transition-of-acute-postoperative-pain-to-chronic-pain-an-integrative-overview-of-research-on-mechanisms
#11
C Richard Chapman, Charles J Vierck
The nature of the transition from acute to chronic pain still eludes explanation, but chronic pain resulting from surgery provides a natural experiment that invites both clinical epidemiological investigation and basic scientific inquiry into the mechanisms of this transition. The primary purpose of this paper is to review current knowledge and hypotheses on the transition from acute to persistent postsurgical pain, summarizing literature on clinical epidemiological studies of persistent postsurgical pain development, as well as basic neurophysiological studies targeting mechanisms in the periphery, spinal cord, and brain...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#12
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907172/neuroendocrine-inflammatory-responses-in-overweight-obese-infants
#13
Ana Cristina Resende Camargos, Vanessa Amaral Mendonça, Camila Alves de Andrade, Katherine Simone Caires Oliveira, Rosalina Tossige-Gomes, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Camila Danielle Cunha Neves, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Hércules Ribeiro Leite, Murilo Xavier Oliveira, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira Júnior, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Ana Cristina Rodrigues Lacerda
Childhood obesity is related to a cascade of neuroendocrine inflammatory changes. However, there remains a gap in the current literature regarding the possible occurrence of these changes in overweight/obese infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate adipokines, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and redox status in overweight/obese infants versus normal-weight peers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 infants (25 in the overweight/obese group and 25 in the normal-weight group) between 6 and 24 months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906586/neural-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-scaffolds-for-nerve-tissue-engineering-applications
#14
Kerlin Quintiliano, Thayane Crestani, Davi Silveira, Virginia Etges Helfer, Annelise Rosa, Eduardo Balbueno, Daniela Steffens, Geraldo Pereira Jotz, Diogo André Pilger, Patricia Pranke
Scaffolds produced by electrospinning act as supports for cell proliferation and differentiation, improved through the release of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this study was to develop aligned and random nanofiber scaffolds with and without nerve growth factor to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for neural differentiation. Nanofiber morphology, diameter, degradability, cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, viability, cytotoxicity, and neural differentiation were performed to characterize the scaffolds...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906439/in-vitro-neural-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-induced-by-hepatocyte-growth-factor-and-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#15
Q Ma, M Cai, J-W Shang, J Yang, X-Y Gu, W-B Liu, Q Yang
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have great potential for cell-based transplantation therapy in treating neurological disease. However, the best combination of various trophic factors to produce full neural differentiation of BMSCs was still unclear. In our study, we aimed to investigate the neural differentiation capacity of rat BMSCs induced by growth factors including hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). MATERIALS AND METHODS:   Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, BrdU cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry were implemented to evaluate whether GDNF and HGF had positive effects on the proliferation of BMSCs...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905540/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-an-animal-model-of-tinnitus
#16
Wilhelmina H A M Mulders, Vanessa Vooys, Kalina Makowiecki, Alex D Tang, Jennifer Rodger
Tinnitus (phantom auditory perception associated with hearing loss) can seriously affect wellbeing. Its neural substrate is unknown however it has been linked with abnormal activity in auditory pathways. Though no cure currently exists, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to reduce tinnitus in some patients, possibly via induction of cortical plasticity involving brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alleviates signs of tinnitus in a guinea pig model and whether this involves changes in BDNF expression and hyperactivity in inferior colliculus...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905499/the-correlation-between-plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-cognitive-function-in-bipolar-disorder-is-modulated-by-the-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism
#17
Sheng-Yu Lee, Tzu-Yun Wang, Shiou-Lan Chen, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Po-See Chen, San-Yuan Huang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Liang-Jen Wang, I Hui Lee, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Yi-Hsin Yang, Ru-Band Lu, Cheng-Sheng Chen
We explored the effect of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) on correlation between changes in plasma BDNF levels with cognitive function and quality of life (QoL) after 12 weeks of treatment in bipolar disorder (BD). Symptom severity and plasma BDNF levels were assessed upon recruitment and during weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. QoL, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) were assessed at baseline and endpoint. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was genotyped...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#18
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904710/the-comt-rs165599-gene-polymorphism-contributes-to-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-breast-cancer-patients
#19
Huaidong Cheng, Wen Li, Chen Gan, Bo Zhang, Qianqian Jia, Kai Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), apolipoprotein E (APOE), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the modulation of the chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. Eighty triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 165 non-triple negative breast cancer (NTNBC) patients were selected, and subjected to a number of neuropsychological tests, including memory questionnaires, before and after chemotherapy...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904496/adipose-derived-stem-cells-enhance-myogenic-differentiation-in-the-mdx-mouse-model-of-muscular-dystrophy-via-paracrine-signaling
#20
Ji-Qing Cao, Ying-Yin Liang, Ya-Qin Li, Hui-Li Zhang, Yu-Ling Zhu, Jia Geng, Li-Qing Yang, Shan-Wei Feng, Juan Yang, Jie Kong, Cheng Zhang
Adipose-derived stem cells have been shown to promote peripheral nerve regeneration through the paracrine secretion of neurotrophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these cells can promote myogenic differentiation in muscular dystrophy. Adipose-derived stem cells (6 × 10(6)) were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice at various sites. Dystrophin expression was found in the muscle fibers. Phosphorylation levels of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), eIF-4E binding protein 1 and S6 kinase 1 were increased, and the Akt/mTOR pathway was activated...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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