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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222333/immunoprofiling-as-a-predictor-of-patient-s-response-to-cancer-therapy-promises-and-challenges
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Bethmann, Zipei Feng, Bernard A Fox
Immune cell infiltration is common to many tumors and has been recognized by pathologists for more than 100 years. The application of digital imaging and objective assessment software allowed a concise determination of the type and quantity of immune cells and their location relative to the tumor and, in the case of colon cancer, characterized overall survival better than AJCC TNM staging. Subsequently, expression of PD-L1, by 50% or more tumor cells, identified NSCLC patients with double the response rate to anti-PD-1...
February 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222179/seed-and-peel-essential-oils-obtained-from-campomanesia-adamantium-fruit-inhibit-inflammatory-and-pain-parameters-in-rodents
#2
Danieli Zuntini Viscardi, Jucicléia da Silva Arrigo, Camila de Azevedo Chaves Correia, Cândida Aparecida Leite Kassuya, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Iriani Rodrigues Maldonade, Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña
Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is popularly known as "gabiroba" and has been used in folk medicine as antirheumatic, antidiarrheal, hypocholesterolemic and anti-inflammatory. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and toxicology of essential oils from peel (EOP) and seed (EOS) of C. adamantium fruits in animal models. Different groups were treated with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg and the inflammatory parameters were evaluated in carrageenan induced paw oedema and leukocyte migration in pleurisy model, while antinociceptive activity was evaluated using formalin method in rodents...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222014/verification-of-examination-procedures-in-clinical-laboratory-for-imprecision-trueness-and-diagnostic-accuracy-according-to-iso-15189-2012-a-pragmatic-approach
#3
Giorgia Antonelli, Andrea Padoan, Ada Aita, Laura Sciacovelli, Mario Plebani
Background The International Standard ISO 15189 is recognized as a valuable guide in ensuring high quality clinical laboratory services and promoting the harmonization of accreditation programmes in laboratory medicine. Examination procedures must be verified in order to guarantee that their performance characteristics are congruent with the intended scope of the test. The aim of the present study was to propose a practice model for implementing procedures employed for the verification of validated examination procedures already used for at least 2 years in our laboratory, in agreement with the ISO 15189 requirement at the Section 5...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221991/detecting-clinically-meaningful-shape-clusters-in-medical-image-data-metrics-analysis-for-hierarchical-clustering-applied-to-healthy-and-pathological-aortic-arches
#4
Jan L Bruse, Maria A Zuluaga, Abbas Khushnood, Kristin McLeod, Hopewell N Ntsinjana, Tain-Yen Hsia, Maxime Sermesant, Xavier Pennec, Andrew M Taylor, Silvia Schievano
OBJECTIVE: Today's growing medical image databases call for novel processing tools to structure the bulk of data and extract clinically relevant information. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering may reveal clusters within anatomical shape data of patient populations as required for modern Precision Medicine strategies. Few studies have applied hierarchical clustering techniques to three-dimensional patient shape data and results depend heavily on the chosen clustering distance metrics and linkage functions...
February 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221896/accuracy-and-thoroughness-of-treatment-summaries-provided-as-part-of-survivorship-care-plans-prepared-by-two-cancer-centers
#5
Amye J Tevaarwerk, William G Hocking, Jamie L Zeal, Mindy Gribble, Lori Seaborne, Kevin A Buhr, Kari B Wisinski, Mark E Burkard, Douglas A Wiegmann, Mary E Sesto
PURPOSE: Treatment summaries prepared as part of survivorship care planning should correctly and thoroughly report diagnosis and treatment information. METHODS: As part of a clinical trial, summaries were prepared for patients with stage 0 to III breast cancer at two cancer centers. Summaries were prepared per the standard of care at each center via two methods: using the electronic health record (EHR) to create and facilitate autopopulation of content or using manual data entry into an external software program to create the summary...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221724/novel-pieces-for-the-emerging-picture-of-sulfoximines-in-drug-discovery-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-sulfoximine-analogues-of-marketed-drugs-and-advanced-clinical-candidates
#6
Ulrich Lücking, Juan Alberto Sirvent
Sulfoximines have gained considerable recognition as an important structural motif in drug discovery of late. In particular, the clinical kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer, roniciclib (pan-CDK inhibitor), BAY 1143572 (PTEFb inhibitor), and AZD 6738 (ATR inhibitor), have recently drawn considerable attention. Whilst the interest in this underrepresented functional group in drug discovery is clearly on the rise, there remains an incomplete understanding of the medicinal chemistry relevant properties of sulfoximines...
February 21, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221058/concurrent-and-prognostic-utility-of-subtyping-anorexia-nervosa-along-dietary-and-negative-affect-dimensions
#7
Kelsie T Forbush, Kelsey E Hagan, Rachel H Salk, Jennifer E Wildes
: Bulimia nervosa can be reliably classified into subtypes based on dimensions of dietary restraint and negative affect. Community and clinical studies have shown that dietary-negative affect subtypes have greater test-retest reliability and concurrent and predictive validity compared to subtypes based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Although dietary-negative affect subtypes have shown utility for characterizing eating disorders that involve binge eating, this framework may have broader implications for understanding restrictive eating disorders...
March 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220985/the-head-and-neck-cancer-patient-concern-inventory-%C3%A2-patient-concerns-prevalence-dental-concerns-impact-and-relationships-of-concerns-with-quality-of-life-measures
#8
Maria L Aguilar, Pamela Sandow, John W Werning, Lia Brenneman, Walter J Psoter
PURPOSE: The Patient Concern Inventory(©) (PCI) is a clinical tool of self-reported patient concerns to be used by the clinician to structure the patient-oncologist visit. It was developed in the United Kingdom to address the issues of quality of life (QOL) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of PCI(©) items, the associations between PCI(©) items and QOL, and to explore the importance of oral/dental issues in the patient's well-being...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220762/drug-detection-in-breath-non-invasive-assessment-of-illicit-or-pharmaceutical-drugs
#9
Phillip Trefz, Svend Kamysek, Patricia Fuchs, Pritam Sukul, Jochen Schubert, Wolfram Miekisch
Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath - similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests - would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The noninvasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the U...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220518/describing-student-performance-a-comparison-among-clinical-preceptors-across-cultural-contexts
#10
Kerry Wilbur, Noha Hassaballa, Omaima S Mahmood, Emily K Black
CONTEXT: Health professional student evaluation during experiential training is notably subjective and assessor judgements may be affected by socio-cultural influences. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore how clinical preceptors in pharmacy conceptualise varying levels of student performance and to identify any contextual differences that may exist across different countries. METHODS: The qualitative research design employed semi-structured interviews...
February 20, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220367/routine-placement-of-subdural-drain-after-burr-hole-evacuation-of-chronic-and-subacute-subdural-hematoma-a-contrarian-evidence-based-approach
#11
Laxminadh Sivaraju, Ranjith K Moorthy, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Vedantam Rajshekhar
The objective of this paper was to evaluate whether available evidence supporting placement of subdural drain placement after evacuation of chronic subdural haematoma (CSDH) is applicable to a cohort of patients managed by us. In this observational cohort study, clinical follow-up was obtained in 166 patients who underwent burr hole evacuation of CSDH without placement of subdural drain followed by 3 days of bed rest. The primary outcome studied was recurrence requiring reoperation. Factors predicting recurrence were also analysed...
February 20, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220199/-novel-pharmaceutical-treatment-approaches-for-gastric-cancer
#12
F Lordick
This review article delineates novel approaches for the pharmaceutical treatment of gastric cancer. A newly developed molecular classification of gastric cancer based on histology, genetic, epigenetic and proteomic characteristics has evolved. It provides a road map for development of new drugs and combinations as well as for patient stratification in clinical research and it is expected to be introduced into clinical practice in the near future. Anti-HER2 targeted treatment is a validated strategy for treatment of metastatic gastric cancer and is now also being studied in the perioperative setting to increase response rates and ultimately survival in patients undergoing curative surgery; however, the resistance mechanisms of HER2-targeted treatment are poorly understood and optimal patient selection remains challenging...
February 20, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220090/adaptation-and-validation-of-a-chinese-version-of-patient-health-engagement-scale-for-patients-with-chronic-disease
#13
Yaying Zhang, Guendalina Graffigna, Andrea Bonanomi, Kai-Chow Choi, Serena Barello, Pan Mao, Hui Feng
The Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-s) was designed to assess the emotional and psychological attitudes of patients' engagement along their healthcare management journey. The aim of this study was to validate a culturally adapted Chinese version of the PHE-s (CPHE-s). Three hundred and seventy-seven participants were recruited from eight community health centers in a sample of patients with chronic disease in Hunan Province, China. The original Italian PHE-s was translated into Mandarin Chinese using a standardized forward-backward translation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#14
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220022/using-metaphors-to-explain-molecular-testing-to-cancer-patients
#15
Ana P M Pinheiro, Rachel H Pocock, Margie D Dixon, Walid L Shaib, Suresh S Ramalingam, Rebecca D Pentz
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing to identify targetable molecular alterations is routine practice for several types of cancer. Explaining the underlying molecular concepts can be difficult, and metaphors historically have been used in medicine to provide a common language between physicians and patients. Although previous studies have highlighted the use and effectiveness of metaphors to help explain germline genetic concepts to the general public, this study is the first to describe the use of metaphors to explain molecular testing to cancer patients in the clinical setting...
February 20, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219727/economic-botany-collections-a-source-of-material-evidence-for-exploring-historical-changes-in-chinese-medicinal-materials
#16
Eric Brand, Christine Leon, Mark Nesbitt, Ping Guo, Ran Huang, Hubiao Chen, Li Liang, Zhongzhen Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219419/emotional-intelligence-perceived-stress-and-academic-performance-of-sri-lankan-medical-undergraduates
#17
P Ranasinghe, W S Wathurapatha, Y Mathangasinghe, G Ponnamperuma
BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with better academic and work performance. The present study intended to explore the relationship between EI, perceived stress and academic performance and associated factors among medical undergraduates. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted among 471 medical undergraduates of 2nd, 4th and final years of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka...
February 20, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219395/efficient-precise-knockin-with-a-double-cut-hdr-donor-after-crispr-cas9-mediated-double-stranded-dna-cleavage
#18
Jian-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Lan Li, Guo-Hua Li, Wanqiu Chen, Cameron Arakaki, Gary D Botimer, David Baylink, Lu Zhang, Wei Wen, Ya-Wen Fu, Jing Xu, Noah Chun, Weiping Yuan, Tao Cheng, Xiao-Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Precise genome editing via homology-directed repair (HDR) after double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage facilitates functional genomic research and holds promise for gene therapy. However, HDR efficiency remains low in some cell types, including some of great research and clinical interest, such as human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). RESULTS: Here, we show that a double cut HDR donor, which is flanked by single guide RNA (sgRNA)-PAM sequences and is released after CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage, increases HDR efficiency by twofold to fivefold relative to circular plasmid donors at one genomic locus in 293 T cells and two distinct genomic loci in iPSCs...
February 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219392/meaning-and-barriers-to-quality-care-service-provision-in-child-and-adolescent-mental-health-services-qualitative-study-of-stakeholder-perspectives
#19
Nadzeya Svirydzenka, Pablo Ronzoni, Nisha Dogra
BACKGROUND: Defining quality in health presents many challenges. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defined quality clinical care as care that is equitable, timely, safe, efficient, effective and patient centred. However, it is not clear how different stakeholders within a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) understand and/or apply this framework. This project aims to identify key stakeholders" understanding of the meaning of quality in the context of CAMHS. METHOD: The study sample comprised of three groups: (i) patients and carers, (ii) CAMHS clinical staff, and (iii) commissioners (Total N = 24)...
February 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219385/language-support-for-linguistic-minority-chronic-hepatitis-b-c-patients-an-exploratory-study-of-availability-and-clinicians-perceptions-of-language-barriers-in-six-european-countries
#20
Abby M Falla, Irene K Veldhuijzen, Amena A Ahmad, Miriam Levi, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Language support for linguistic minorities can improve patient safety, clinical outcomes and the quality of health care. Most chronic hepatitis B/C infections in Europe are detected among people born in endemic countries mostly in Africa, Asia and Central/Eastern Europe, groups that may experience language barriers when accessing health care services in their host countries. We investigated availability of interpreters and translated materials for linguistic minority hepatitis B/C patients...
February 20, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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