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What are canonical pathways

Nestor Gomez, Tatiana Erazo, Jose M Lizcano
ERK5, the last MAP kinase family member discovered, is activated by the upstream kinase MEK5 in response to growth factors and stress stimulation. MEK5-ERK5 pathway has been associated to different cellular processes, playing a crucial role in cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of its kinase activity. Thus, nuclear ERK5 activates transcription factors by either direct phosphorylation or acting as co-activator thanks to a unique transcriptional activation TAD domain located at its C-terminal tail...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Fanny Ng, Bor Luen Tang
All eukaryotic cells secrete a range of proteins in a constitutive or regulated manner through the conventional or canonical exocytic/secretory pathway characterized by vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi apparatus, and towards the plasma membrane. However, a number of proteins are secreted in an unconventional manner, which are insensitive to inhibitors of conventional exocytosis and use a route that bypasses the Golgi apparatus. These include cytosolic proteins such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and membrane proteins that are known to also traverse to the plasma membrane by a conventional process of exocytosis, such as α integrin and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor (CFTR)...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nils Knie, Felix Grewe, Simon Fischer, Volker Knoop
BACKGROUND: RNA editing by C-to-U conversions is nearly omnipresent in land plant chloroplasts and mitochondria, where it mainly serves to reconstitute conserved codon identities in the organelle mRNAs. Reverse U-to-C RNA editing in contrast appears to be restricted to hornworts, some lycophytes, and ferns (monilophytes). A well-resolved monilophyte phylogeny has recently emerged and now allows to trace the side-by-side evolution of both types of pyrimidine exchange editing in the two endosymbiotic organelles...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Valentin Roustan, Arpit Jain, Markus Teige, Ingo Ebersberger, Wolfram Weckwerth
AMPK and TOR protein kinases are the major control points of energy signaling in eukaryotic cells and organisms. They form the core of a complex regulatory network to co-ordinate metabolic activities in the cytosol with those in the mitochondria and plastids. Despite its relevance, it is still unclear when and how this regulatory pathway was formed during evolution, and to what extent its representations in the major eukaryotic lineages resemble each other. Here we have traced 153 essential proteins forming the human AMPK-TOR pathways across 412 species representing all three domains of life-prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea) and eukaryotes-and reconstructed their evolutionary history...
June 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Rodolfo Mattar Rosa, Juliana Almada Colucci, Rodrigo Yokota, Roseli Peres Moreira, Danielle Sanches Aragão, Amanda Aparecida Ribeiro, Danielle Yuri Arita, Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe, Zaira Palomino, Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Dulce Elena Casarini
Sepsis is an uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response against an infection and a major public health issue worldwide. This condition affects several organs, and, when caused by Gram-negative bacteria, kidneys are particularly damaged. Due to the importance of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulating renal function, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of endotoxemia over the renal RAS. Wistar rats were injected with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (4 mg/kg), mimicking the endotoxemia induced by Gram-negative bacteria...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Sibel Kucukyildirim, Hongan Long, Way Sung, Samuel F Miller, Thomas G Doak, Michael Lynch
Mycobacterium smegmatis is a bacterium that is naturally devoid of known postreplicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR) homologs, mutS and mutL, providing an opportunity to investigate how the mutation rate and spectrum has evolved in the absence of a highly conserved primary repair pathway. Mutation accumulation experiments of M. smegmatis yielded a base-substitution mutation rate of 5.27 × 10(-10) per site per generation, or 0.0036 per genome per generation, which is surprisingly similar to the mutation rate in MMR-functional unicellular organisms...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Wei Huang, Qing Li, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam, Madoka Hokama, Sylvia H Sardi, Masashi Nagao, Matthew L Warman, Bjorn R Olsen
Vascular abnormalities in the eye are the leading cause of many forms of inherited and acquired human blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in the Wnt-binding co-receptor LRP5 leads to aberrant ocular vascularization and loss of vision in genetic disorders such as osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. The canonical Wnt-β-catenin pathway is known to regulate retinal vascular development. However, it is unclear what precise role LPR5 plays in this process. Here, we show that loss of LRP5 function in mice causes retinal hypovascularization during development as well as retinal neovascularization in adulthood with disorganized and leaky vessels...
2016: PloS One
Miguel A Gutiérrez-Monreal, Victor Treviño, Jorge E Moreno-Cuevas, Sean-Patrick Scott
Cancer cells have broken circadian clocks when compared to their normal tissue counterparts. Moreover, it has been shown in breast cancer that disruption of common circadian oscillations is associated with a more negative prognosis. Numerous studies, focused on canonical circadian genes in breast cancer cell lines, have suggested that there are no mRNA circadian-like oscillations. Nevertheless, cancer cell lines have not been extensively characterized and it is unknown to what extent the circadian oscillations are disrupted...
2016: Chronobiology International
Paul W Hamilton, Yu Sun, Jonathan J Henry
The frog, Xenopus laevis, possesses a high capacity to regenerate various larval tissues, including the lens, which is capable of complete regeneration from the cornea epithelium. However, the molecular signaling mechanisms of cornea-lens regeneration are not fully understood. Previous work has implicated the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway, but molecular studies have been very limited. Iris-derived lens regeneration in the newt (Wolffian lens regeneration) has shown a necessity for active Wnt signaling in order to regenerate a new lens...
April 2016: Experimental Eye Research
T Quintela, H Marcelino, M J Deery, R Feret, J Howard, K S Lilley, T Albuquerque, I Gonçalves, A C Duarte, C R A Santos
The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium is a unique structure in the brain that forms an interface between the peripheral blood and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is mostly produced by the CP itself. Because the CP transcriptome is regulated by the sex hormone background, the present study compared gene/protein expression profiles in the CP and CSF from male and female rats aiming to better understand sex-related differences in CP functions and brain physiology. We used data previously obtained by cDNA microarrays to compare the CP transcriptome between male and female rats, and complemented these data with the proteomic analysis of the CSF of castrated and sham-operated males and females...
January 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Wayne Croft, Katharine L Dobson, Tomas C Bellamy
The capacity of synaptic networks to express activity-dependent changes in strength and connectivity is essential for learning and memory processes. In recent years, glial cells (most notably astrocytes) have been recognized as active participants in the modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, implicating these electrically nonexcitable cells in information processing in the brain. While the concept of bidirectional communication between neurons and glia and the mechanisms by which gliotransmission can modulate neuronal function are well established, less attention has been focussed on the computational potential of neuron-glial transmission itself...
2015: Neural Plasticity
Xin Zhou, Giorgia Battistoni, Osama El Demerdash, James Gurtowski, Julia Wunderer, Ilaria Falciatori, Peter Ladurner, Michael C Schatz, Gregory J Hannon, Kaja A Wasik
PIWI proteins and piRNA pathways are essential for transposon silencing and some aspects of gene regulation during animal germline development. In contrast to most animal species, some flatworms also express PIWIs and piRNAs in somatic stem cells, where they are required for tissue renewal and regeneration. Here, we have identified and characterized piRNAs and PIWI proteins in the emerging model flatworm Macrostomum lignano. We found that M. lignano encodes at least three PIWI proteins. One of these, Macpiwi1, acts as a key component of the canonical piRNA pathway in the germline and in somatic stem cells...
November 2015: RNA
Changgong Li, Saverio Bellusci, Zea Borok, Parviz Minoo
The role of WNT signalling in metazoan organogenesis has been a topic of widespread interest. In the lung, while the role of canonical WNT signalling has been examined in some detail by multiple studies, the non-canonical WNT signalling has received limited attention. Reliable evidence shows that this important signalling mechanism constitutes a major regulatory pathway in lung development. In addition, accumulating evidence has also shown that the non-canonical WNT pathway is critical for maintaining lung homeostasis and that aberrant activation of this pathway may underlie several debilitating lung diseases...
November 2015: Journal of Biochemistry
Nancy Velázquez-Zavala, Miriam Rodríguez-González, Rocío Navarro-Olmos, Laura Ongay-Larios, Laura Kawasaki, Francisco Torres-Quiroz, Roberto Coria
When treated with a hyperosmotic stimulus, Kluyveromyces lactis cells respond by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) K. lactis Hog1 (KlHog1) protein via two conserved branches, SLN1 and SHO1. Mutants affected in only one branch can cope with external hyperosmolarity by activating KlHog1p by phosphorylation, except for single ΔKlste11 and ΔKlste50 mutants, which showed high sensitivity to osmotic stress, even though the other branch (SLN1) was intact. Inactivation of both branches by deletion of KlSHO1 and KlSSK2 also produced sensitivity to high salt...
September 2015: Eukaryotic Cell
Aichurek Soultanova, Anja Voigt, Vladimir Chubanov, Thomas Gudermann, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Ulrich Boehm, Wolfgang Kummer
The thymus is the site of T cell maturation which includes positive selection in the cortex and negative selection in the medulla. Acetylcholine is locally produced in the thymus and cholinergic signaling influences the T cell development. We recently described a distinct subset of medullary epithelial cells in the murine thymus which express the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and components of the canonical taste transduction cascade, i.e. transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), phospholipase Cβ(2), and Gα-gustducin...
November 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Robert Heise, Alisdair R Fernie, Mark Stitt, Zoran Nikoloski
Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014). Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
C Leloup, C Allard, L Carneiro, X Fioramonti, S Collins, L Pénicaud
Brain plays a central role in energy homeostasis continuously integrating numerous peripheral signals such as circulating nutrients, and in particular blood glucose level, a variable that must be highly regulated. Then, the brain orchestrates adaptive responses to modulate food intake and peripheral organs activity in order to achieve the fine tuning of glycemia. More than fifty years ago, the presence of glucose-sensitive neurons was discovered in the hypothalamus, but what makes them specific and identifiable still remains disconnected from their electrophysiological signature...
May 26, 2016: Neuroscience
Magdalena A Świątek-Połatyńska, Giselda Bucca, Emma Laing, Jacob Gubbens, Fritz Titgemeyer, Colin P Smith, Sébastien Rigali, Gilles P van Wezel
Streptomycetes produce a wealth of natural products, including over half of all known antibiotics. It was previously demonstrated that N-acetylglucosamine and secondary metabolism are closely entwined in streptomycetes. Here we show that DNA recognition by the N-acetylglucosamine-responsive regulator DasR is growth-phase dependent, and that DasR can bind to sites in the S. coelicolor genome that have no obvious resemblance to previously identified DasR-responsive elements. Thus, the regulon of DasR extends well beyond what was previously predicted and includes a large number of genes with functions far removed from N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, such as genes for small RNAs and DNA transposases...
2015: PloS One
Ying Poi Liu, Margarete Karg, Alex Harwig, Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Aldo Jongejan, Antoine van Kampen, Ben Berkhout
Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are widely used for gene knockdown by inducing the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism, both for research and therapeutic purposes. The shRNA precursor is processed by the RNase III-like enzyme Dicer into biologically active small interfering RNA (siRNA). This effector molecule subsequently targets a complementary mRNA for destruction via the Argonaute 2 (AGO2) complex. The cellular role of Dicer concerns the processing of pre-miRNAs into mature microRNA (miRNA). Recently, a non-canonical pathway was reported for the biogenesis of miR-451, which bypasses Dicer and is processed instead by the slicer activity of AGO2, followed by the regular AGO2-mediated mRNA targeting step...
2015: RNA Biology
Byounghoon Hwang, Funita P Phan, Kevin McCool, Eun Young Choi, Jinsam You, Adam Johnson, Anjon Audhya, Shigeki Miyamoto
NF-κB essential modulator, NEMO, plays a key role in canonical NF-κB signaling induced by a variety of stimuli, including cytokines and genotoxic agents. To dissect the different biochemical and functional roles of NEMO in NF-κB signaling, various mutant forms of NEMO have been previously analyzed. However, transient or stable overexpression of wild-type NEMO can significantly inhibit NF-κB activation, thereby confounding the analysis of NEMO mutant phenotypes. What levels of NEMO overexpression lead to such an artifact and what levels are tolerated with no significant impact on NEMO function in NF-κB activation are currently unknown...
2015: PloS One
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