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Charles D Warne, Sophie G Zaloumis, Nadine A Bertalli, Martin B Delatycki, Amanda J Nicoll, Christine E McLaren, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Greg J Anderson, John K Olynyk, Lawrie W Powell, Katrina J Allen, Lyle C Gurrin
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Women who are homozygous for the p.C282Y mutation in the HFE gene are at much lower risk of iron overload-related disease than p.C282Y homozygous men, presumably due to the iron-depleting effects of menstruation and pregnancy. We used data from a population cohort study to model the impact of menstruation cessation at menopause on serum ferritin (SF) levels in female p.C282Y homozygotes, with p.C282Y/p.H63D simple or compound heterozygotes and those with neither p...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michael Worobey, Thomas D Watts, Richard A McKay, Marc A Suchard, Timothy Granade, Dirk E Teuwen, Beryl A Koblin, Walid Heneine, Philippe Lemey, Harold W Jaffe
The emergence of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North American men who have sex with men was a key turning point in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Phylogenetic studies have suggested cryptic subtype B circulation in the United States (US) throughout the 1970s and an even older presence in the Caribbean. However, these temporal and geographical inferences, based upon partial HIV-1 genomes that postdate the recognition of AIDS in 1981, remain contentious and the earliest movements of the virus within the US are unknown. We serologically screened >2,000 1970s serum samples and developed a highly sensitive approach for recovering viral RNA from degraded archival samples...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Keong Chong, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Wei-Jei Lee, Charles J Billington, John P Bantle, Qi Wang, Avis J Thomas, John E Connett, Daniel B Leslie, William B Inabnet, Robert W Jeffery, Michael G Sarr, Michael D Jensen, Adrian Vella, Leaque Ahmed, Kumar Belani, Joyce L Schone, Amy E Olofson, Heather A Bainbridge, Patricia S Laqua, Judith Korner, Lee-Ming Chuang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compare effects of different nations on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs. intensive medical management (IMM) in achieving remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2008 and December 2011, this randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted at four teaching hospitals in the United States and Taiwan involving 71 participants with mild obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)). Thirty-six of 71 participants were randomly assigned to the RYGB group, and the others were in IMM group...
October 25, 2016: Obesity Surgery
A V Morgun, N V Kuvacheva, E D Khilazheva, E A Pozhilenkova, Ya V Gorina, N A Malinovskaya, Yu K Komleva, O L Lopatina, Yu A Panina, E D Gasymly, A B Salmina
The peculiarities in expression of transport proteins and the proteins implicated in the control of glycolysis by the cellular components of neurovascular units were examined in animals of different age under normal conditions and after modeled perinatal stress or hypoxic brain injury. In both cases, the specialties in expression of transport proteins in ontogenesis were revealed. The perinatal hypoxic brain injury resulted in up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, and GLUT4 expression in endotheliocytes of hippocampal microvessels accompanied by transient elevation of HIF-1α and GSK3 expression...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
E P Kopantsev, M B Kostina, E V Grankina, M R Kopantseva, V I Egorov, E D Sverdlov
Hybrid therapeutic gene FCU1 gene was cloned into a lentiviral expression vector and the therapeutic effect of its expression was studied in three pancreatic cancer cell lines. Expression of FCU1 gene sensitized cells of two of three studied pancreatic cancer cell lines to 5-fluorocytosine. In addition, uracil phosphoribosyl transferase activity of the hybrid FCU1 protein increased sensitivity of transfected cells of all three studied pancreatic cancer cell lines to 5-fluorouracil, a standard chemotherapeutic agent...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Marlon E Buncamper, Wouter B van der Sluis, Roos S D van der Pas, Müjde Özer, Jan Maerten Smit, Birgit I Witte, Mark-Bram Bouman, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: For many transgender women, vaginoplasty is the final stage in the gender-confirming process. Penile inversion vaginoplasty is considered the gold standard for vaginal construction in transgender women. In this study, the authors assessed intraoperative and postoperative complications after penile inversion vaginoplasty. METHODS: All patients who underwent penile inversion vaginoplasty between January of 2000 and January of 2014 were identified retrospectively from the authors' hospital registry...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Cheryl E Gariepy, Melvin B Heyman, Mark E Lowe, John F Pohl, Steven L Werlin, Michael Wilschanski, Bradley Barth, Douglas S Fishman, Steven D Freedman, Matthew J Giefer, Tanja Gonska, Ryan Himes, Sohail Z Husain, Veronique D Morinville, Chee Y Ooi, Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, David M Troendle, Elizabeth Yen, Aliye Uc
: Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) have been diagnosed in children at increasing rates over the past decade. However, as pediatric ARP and CP are still relatively rare conditions, little quality evidence is available on which to base the diagnosis and determination of etiology. OBJECTIVES: To review the current state of the literature regarding the etiology of these disorders and to developed a consensus among a panel of clinically active specialists caring for children with these disorders to help guide the diagnostic evaluation and identify areas most in need of future research...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Brian McKenna, Jane Oakes, Niki Fourniotis, Nigel Toomey, Trentham Furness
A recovery-oriented model of care has become the major focus of mental health service delivery in the state of Victoria, Australia. However, there is a total absence of knowledge of recovery-oriented mental health practice in community care units (CCUs). Therefore, the aims of this exploratory study were to: (a) describe what aspects of the current model of care fit within the domains of recovery; and (b) describe the pragmatic processes that staff use to mold their care within the domains of recovery. Twenty-one key stakeholders provided informed voluntary consent to participate in one-to-one interviews...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Nursing
B Borm, F Gärtner, D Khaghani, P Neumayer
We demonstrate that stacking several imaging plates (IPs) constitutes an easy method to increase hard x-ray detection efficiency. Used to record x-ray radiographic images produced by an intense-laser driven hard x-ray backlighter source, the IP stacks resulted in a significant improvement of the radiograph density resolution. We attribute this to the higher quantum efficiency of the combined detectors, leading to a reduced photon noise. Electron-photon transport simulations of the interaction processes in the detector reproduce the observed contrast improvement...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
B P MacLeod, J E Hoffman, S A Burke, D A Bonn
Measurement instruments and fabrication tools with spatial resolution on the atomic scale require facilities that mitigate the impact of vibration sources in the environment. One approach to protection from vibration in a building's foundation is to place the instrument on a massive inertia block, supported on pneumatic isolators. This opens the questions of whether or not a massive floating block is susceptible to acoustic forces, and how to mitigate the effects of any such acoustic buffeting. Here this is investigated with quantitative measurements of vibrations and sound pressure, together with finite element modeling...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
John E Sader, Riccardo Borgani, Christopher T Gibson, David B Haviland, Michael J Higgins, Jason I Kilpatrick, Jianing Lu, Paul Mulvaney, Cameron J Shearer, Ashley D Slattery, Per-Anders Thorén, Jim Tran, Heyou Zhang, Hongrui Zhang, Tian Zheng
Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often calibrate the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual instruments. This calibration is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual instrument (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their calibration measurements to those of others-standardising AFM force measurements-and simultaneously enabling non-invasive calibration of AFM cantilevers of any geometry...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Robert G Nichols, Nicole E Hume, Philip B Smith, Jeffrey M Peters, Andrew D Patterson
The drug metabolism field has long recognized the beneficial and sometimes deleterious influence of microbiota in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. Early pioneering work with the sulfanilamide precursor prontosil pointed toward the necessity not only to better understand the metabolic capabilities of the microbiota but also, importantly, to identify the specific microbiota involved in the generation and metabolism of drugs. However, technological limitations important for cataloging the microbiota community as well as for understanding and/or predicting their metabolic capabilities hindered progress...
October 26, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Valerio Dimonte, Alvisa Palese, Paolo Chiari, Dario Laquintana, Gianni Tognoni, Paola Di Giulio
. The debate on the development of advanced nursing competences. The dossier aims to describe and disentagle the present Italian and international debate on the development and recognition of advanced nursing competences. Following a general brief description of the legislative national background, the attention is first of all focused on the lack of clarity on the definition of advanced competence, which is further complicated by the issue of their formal, contractual and economic recognition. To explore these issues a list of contributions is presented and some proposals are formulated to favor a better oriented development of the debate: a...
July 2016: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
Yuan Wang, Chun-Huan Li, Bo Luo, Ya Nan Sun, Young Ho Kim, An-Zhi Wei, Jin-Ming Gao
Four new unsaturated aliphatic acid amides, named zanthoamides A-D (1-4), and eight known ones-tetrahydrobungeanool (5), ZP-amide A (6), ZP-amide B (7), ZP-amide C (8), ZP-amide D (9), ZP-amide E (10), bugeanumamide A (11), and (2E,7E,9E)-N-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl)-6,11-dioxo-2,7,9-dodecatrienamide (12)-were isolated from the pericarps of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of spectroscopic methods, including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses and comparison with previously reported data...
October 23, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Giuseppe Mannino, Andrea Occhipinti, Massimo E Maffei
Boswellia serrata and Boswellia sacra (syn. B. carteri) are important medicinal plants widely used for their content of bioactive lipophilic triterpenes. The qualitative and quantitative determination of boswellic acids (BAs) is important for their use in dietary supplements aimed to provide a support for osteoarthritic and inflammatory diseases. We used High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Diode Array Detector (DAD) coupled to ElectroSpray Ionization and tandem Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for the qualitative and quantitative determination of BAs extracted from the gum resins of B...
October 6, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
M R Smith, F Hong, H Li, L I Gordon, R D Gascoyne, E M Paietta, R H Advani, A Forero-Torres, S J Horning, B S Kahl
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 26 October 2016. doi:10.1038/leu.2016.305.
October 26, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Ana Babic, Ying Bao, Zhi Rong Qian, Chen Yuan, Edward L Giovannucci, Hugues Aschard, Peter Kraft, Laufey T Amundadottir, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Kimmie Ng, Meir J Stampfer, Shuji Ogino, Julie E Buring, Howard D Sesso, John Michael Gaziano, Nader Rifai, Michael N Pollak, Matthew L Anderson, Barbara B Cochrane, Juhua Luo, JoAnn E Manson, Charles S Fuchs, Brian Wolpin
Leptin is an adipokine involved in regulating energy balance which has been identified as a potential biological link in development of obesity-associated cancers such as pancreatic cancer. In this prospective, nested case-control study of 470 cases and 1094 controls from five U.S. cohorts, we used conditional logistic regression to evaluate pancreatic cancer risk by prediagnostic plasma leptin, adjusting for race/ethnicity, diabetes, body-mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide, adiponectin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D...
October 25, 2016: Cancer Research
I Rostás, J Tenk, A Mikó, N Füredi, S Soós, M Solymár, A Lengyel, M Székely, B Gaszner, D Feller, E Pétervári, M Balaskó
Leptin is a key catabolic regulator of food intake (FI) and energy expenditure. Both aging and obesity have been shown to induce leptin-resistance. The present study aimed to analyze age-related changes in the anorexigenic and hypermetabolic responsiveness to acute intracerebroventricular leptin administration in different age-groups of normally fed male Wistar rats (adult and old rats from 3 to 24months of age, NF3 to NF24, respectively). The expressions of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and inhibitory SOCS3 genes were also assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
October 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Junfan Niu, Jun Chen, Zhihong Xu, Xiang Zhu, Qinglai Wu, Junkai Li
Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that has been characterized by special chemical structures, interesting bioactivities and has been registered for fungicide against rice sheath blight in China. Phloem mobility is of great significance to long-distance transport of systemic pesticides in plants. In order to improve the phloem mobility and bioactivities of PCA, seventeen PCA-amino acid ester conjugates were designed and synthesized by conjugating PCA with different amino-acid esters. The conjugates were evaluated for their fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and their phloem mobility was determined by HPLC...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Gláucia E M L Siervo, Fernanda M Ogo, Aline D Valério, Thamara N X Silva, Larissa Staurengo-Ferrari, Tathiana A Alvarenga, Rubens Cecchini, Waldiceu A Verri, Flávia A Guarnier, Monica L Andersen, Glaura S A Fernandes
Good sleep quality has a direct effect on the activity of the neuroendocrine-reproductive control axis and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sleep restriction (SR) during the peripubertal period impaired the postnatal development of the epididymis in Wistar rats. After 21 days SR (18h per day), epididymides were collected on Postnatal Day (PND) 62 for evaluation of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory profile, sperm count and histopathological and stereological analyses; in addition, the motility of spermatozoa from the vas deferens was examined...
October 26, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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