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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156855/differences-in-leptin-ghrelin-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-between-religious-fasting-and-normal-fasting
#1
Özge Telci Çaklılı, Banu İşbilen, Gülcan Yavuz, Selcan Tülü, Banu Mesçi, Aytekin Oğuz
Background/aim: Leptin, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) affect hunger, satiety feelings, and food intake. We hypothesized that during Ramadan, if the brain knows that the body will be hungry until sunset, there may be differences between leptin, ghrelin, and GLP-1 levels in Ramadan and non-Ramadan fasting. Materials and methods: This study had two phases. In the first phase, the participants were asked to skip the dawn meal of Ramadan (suhur), so that 12 h of fasting could be achieved. Participants ceased food intake at midnight, and at noon blood was drawn...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156372/psychometric-properties-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-ies-2-in-a-culturally-diverse-hispanic-american-sample
#2
Jessica F Saunders, Kristin A Nichols-Lopez, Leslie D Frazier
BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating tendency consistently associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes, including lower risk for obesity and eating disorders (EDs). Obesity rates are disproportionately high in Hispanic American populations, yet the properties of intuitive eating remain to be examined in such samples. METHOD: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a Hispanic American sample of adult college students (N=482), and related IES-2 scores to levels of disordered eating, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetable consumption, and body shape satisfaction...
November 14, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155248/a-biphasic-reduction-in-a-measure-of-palatability-following-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#3
Jasmin A Strickland, Joseph M Austen, David J Sanderson
Consumption of foods results in a transient reduction in hedonic value that influences the extent and nature of feeding behavior. The time course of this effect, however, is poorly specified. In an initial experiment, using an analysis of the microstructure of licking in mice we found that consumption of sucrose led to a rapid reduction in lick cluster size, a measure of palatability, which recovered after ten minutes, but reemerged 60min after initial consumption. We then replicated the finding that lick cluster size is reduced after 60min, but not 10min, under conditions in which a number of potential behavioural confounds were removed...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155136/adipose-tissue-and-reproductive-health
#4
REVIEW
Hannah Mathew, V Daniel Castracane, Christos Mantzoros
The understanding of adipose tissue role has evolved from that of a depot energy storage organ to a dynamic endocrine organ. While genetics, sexual phenotype and sex steroids can impact the mass and distribution of adipose tissue, there is a counter-influence of white adipocytes on reproduction. This primarily occurs via the secretion of adipokines, the most studied of which- leptin and adiponectin- are highlighted in this article. Leptin, the "satiety hormone" primarily acts on the hypothalamus via pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) NPY neurons to translate acute changes in nutrition and energy expenditure, as well as chronic adipose accumulation into changes in appetite and potentially mediate insulin resistance via shared pathway and notably impacting reproductive health via influence on GnRH secreting neurons...
November 16, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151813/dietary-energy-density-applying-behavioural-science-to-weight-management
#5
B J Rolls
Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143945/one-evidence-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-has-the-bidirectional-effects-on-appetite-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#6
Xin Zhang, Yundi Gao, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Shuyao Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered in 1995, with various biological functions, has received much attention recently due to its role in the regulation of appetite in mammals. However, the function of CART on the appetite control in fish species is still not very clear. In this study, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) cart gene was cloned for the first time, and the cart mRNA levels in 11 feeding-related tissues was investigated. The Siberian sturgeon cart gene sequence was 1459 base pairs (bp), including a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 39 bp, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 52 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding 115 amino acids...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142478/chronic-opioids-in-gastroparesis-relationship-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-healthcare-utilization-and-employment
#7
Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
AIM: To examine the relationship of chronic scheduled opioid use on symptoms, healthcare utilization and employment in gastroparesis (Gp) patients. METHODS: Patients referred to our tertiary care academic center from May 2016 to July 2017, with established diagnosis or symptoms suggestive of Gp filled out the Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms, abdominal pain and demographics questionnaires, and underwent gastric emptying and blood tests. They were asked about taking pain medicines and the types, doses, and duration...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141969/cardiovascular-and-antiobesity-effects-of-resveratrol-mediated-through-the-gut-microbiota
#8
REVIEW
Julia K Bird, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Weber, Robert E Steinert
Encouraging scientific research into the health effects of dietary bioactive resveratrol has been confounded by its rapid first-pass metabolism, which leads to low in vivo bioavailability. Preliminary studies have shown that resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function. In rodents, resveratrol can modify the relative Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and reverse the gut microbial dysbiosis caused by a high-fat diet...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136633/impaired-enterohormone-response-following-a-liquid-test-meal-in-gastrectomized-patients
#9
Lidia Santarpia, Maria Carmen Pagano, Iolanda Cioffi, Lucia Alfonsi, Rosario Cuomo, Giuseppe Labruna, Lucia Sacchetti, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
BACKGROUND: Total gastrectomy (TG) is responsible for symptoms or disturbance of alimentary status (changes in body weight, food intake per meal and frequency of meal per day) which, in turn are responsible for weight loss and malnutrition. The study evaluates the gut hormone responses in totally gastrectomized (TG) patients after a liquid meal test. METHODS: Twenty total gastrectomized cancer-free patients (12 M, 8 F, 56.4 ± 10.2 years, BMI 21.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2) and 10 healthy volunteers (4 M, 6 F, 48...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133755/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-helicobacter-pylori-infection-and-diabetic-gastroparesis
#10
Ju Huang
BACKGROUND: Whether Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential correlation between H. pylori infection and DGP. METHODS: In this study, 163 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 175 nondiabetic patients who were treated in our department were divided into DGP, simple diabetes, non-DGP (NDG), and normal groups based on their conditions. The H. pylori infection rate in each group was calculated...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132237/neural-circuits-of-eating-behaviour-opportunities-for-therapeutic-development
#11
Peter G Clifton
Understanding of the neural and physiological substrates of hunger and satiety has increased rapidly over the last three decades, and pharmacological targets have already been identified for the treatment of obesity that has moved from pre-clinical screening to therapies approved by regulatory authorities. Initially, this review describes the way in which physiological signals of energy availability interact with hedonic and rewarding properties of food to modulate the neural circuitry that supports eating behaviour...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130716/-effect-of-quinua-chenopodium-quinoa-consumption-as-a-coadjuvant-in-nutritional-intervention-in-prediabetic-subjects
#12
María Salud Abellán Ruiz, María Dolores Barnuevo Espinosa, Carlos García Santamaría, Carlos Javier Contreras Fernández, Miriam Aldeguer García, Fulgencio Soto Méndez, Isabel Guillén Guillén, Antonio Jesús Luque Rubia, Francisco Javier Quinde Ràzuri, Antonio Martínez Garrido, Francisco Javier López Román
INTRODUCTION: Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129925/the-neural-basis-of-homeostatic-and-anticipatory-thirst
#13
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Charles W Bourque
Water intake is one of the most basic physiological responses and is essential to sustain life. The perception of thirst has a critical role in controlling body fluid homeostasis and if neglected or dysregulated can lead to life-threatening pathologies. Clear evidence suggests that the perception of thirst occurs in higher-order centres, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), which receive information from midline thalamic relay nuclei. Multiple brain regions, notably circumventricular organs such as the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) and subfornical organ (SFO), monitor changes in blood osmolality, solute load and hormone circulation and are thought to orchestrate appropriate responses to maintain extracellular fluid near ideal set points by engaging the medial thalamic-ACC/IC network...
November 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128523/acute-effect-of-smoking-and-smoking-abstinence-on-energy-intake-and-appetite-related-hormones-blood-concentrations
#14
M Yannakoulia, C A Anastasiou, K Zachari, M Sidiropoulou, P Katsaounou, R Tenta
The effect of smoking on energy balance and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of the present study is to examine the acute effect of smoking and its abstinence on energy intake, subjective feelings of appetite and related hormones. Fourteen healthy smokers participated in a randomized, crossover study consisting of two trials: the Cigarette trial (participants smoked two cigarettes of their brand within 15min) and the Sham trial (they were asked to hold the cigarette as smoking, but without lighting it)...
November 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124885/oleoylethanolamide-the-role-of-a-bioactive-lipid-amide-in-modulating-eating-behaviour
#15
REVIEW
J Sihag, P J H Jones
Fatty acid ethanolamides are lipid mediators that regulate a plethora of physiological functions. One such bioactive lipid mediator, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), is a potent agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), which modulates increased expression of the fatty acid translocase CD36 that enables the regulation of feeding behaviour. Consumption of dietary fat rich in oleic acid activates taste receptors in the gut activating specific enzymes that lead to the formation of OEA...
November 10, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122953/dietary-weight-loss-induced-changes-in-rbp4-ffa-and-ace-predict-weight-regain-in-people-with-overweight-and-obesity
#16
Roel G Vink, Nadia J Roumans, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
Adipokines and other biomarkers were previously identified with roles in energy expenditure, appetite, satiety, and adiposity. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary weight loss-induced changes in adipokines and other biomarkers known to play a role in weight regulation or energy expenditure could predict weight regain in people with overweight and obesity. In this randomized controlled trial 26 males and 30 females (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2)) followed either a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks followed by a weight stable period of 4 weeks (dietary intervention (DI) period) and a 9-month follow-up period...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121988/efficacy-of-banha-sasim-tang-on-functional-dyspepsia-classified-as-excess-pattern-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Yun Hee Kim, Jun Young Kim, So Young Jung, O-Jin Kwon, Jun-Hwan Lee, Chang-Gue Son
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) refers to the presence of one or more gastrointestinal symptoms including postprandial fullness, epigastric pain, burning, and early satiety without an organic explanation for chronic symptoms. FD causes considerable discomfort in patients and affects their everyday activity and productivity. Because most conventional treatments have limited efficacy, numerous patients seek alternatives such as herbal medicines. In this proposed study, we will conduct a clinical trial of an herbal drug, Banha-sasim-tang (BST)...
November 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116147/spexin-suppress-food-intake-in-zebrafish-evidence-from-gene-knockout-study
#18
Binbin Zheng, Shuisheng Li, Yun Liu, Yu Li, Huapu Chen, Haipei Tang, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin, Yong Zhang, Christopher H K Cheng
Spexin1 (SPX1) is a newly discovered neuropeptide in vertebrates. Its biological function remains to be elucidated. In this study, we have generated the zebrafish spx1 (-/-) mutant lines using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Phenotypes of the spx1 (-/-) mutant zebrafish were analyzed in order to understand the effects on reproduction and food intake. The reproductive capability is not impaired in spx1 mutant zebrafish. However, we found that the spx1 (-/-) mutant fish had a higher food intake than the wild type (WT) fish...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112082/a-pilot-study-measuring-the-novel-satiety-hormone-pro-uroguanylin-in-adolescents-with-and-without-obesity
#19
Matthew D Di Guglielmo, Dalal Tonb, Zhaoping He, Adebowale Adeyemi, Kenneth L van Golen
OBJECTIVE: Disruption of satiety signaling may lead to increased caloric intake and obesity. Uroguanylin, the intestinal hormone, travels as a precursor to the central nervous system where it activates guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) and stimulates pro-satiety neurons. Rodent studies have demonstrated that (1) GUCY2C-knockout mice over-eat and have increased weight gain vs. wild-type mice; and (2) hyper-caloric obesity diminishes uroguanylin expression. We measured circulating plasma pro-uroguanylin, along with other gastrointestinal peptides and inflammatory markers, in human adolescents with and without obesity, as a pilot study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110749/salivary-leptin-and-tas1r2-tas1r3-polymorphisms-are-related-to-sweet-taste-sensitivity-and-carbohydrate-intake-from-a-buffet-meal-in-healthy-young-adults
#20
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
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