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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231094/can-the-palatability-of-healthy-satiety-promoting-foods-increase-with-repeated-exposure-during-weight-loss
#1
Katherene O-B Anguah, Jennifer C Lovejoy, Bruce A Craig, Malinda M Gehrke, Philip A Palmer, Petra E Eichelsdoerfer, Megan A McCrory
Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a weight loss intervention which were particularly high in fiber and low in energy density would increase with repeated exposure. At weeks 0, 3, and 6, participants (n = 42; body mass index (BMI) 31.2 ± 4.3 kg/m²) were given a test battery of 28 foods, approximately half which had been provided as part of the intervention, while the remaining half were not foods provided as part of the intervention...
February 22, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229540/introduction-to-special-issue-self-regulation-of-appetite-it-s-complicated
#2
Deborah Young-Hyman
OBJECTIVE: A meeting of multidisciplinary biobehavioral scientists and National Institutes of Health (NIH) program staff was convened by the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Division of Program Coordination, Planning, and Strategic Initiatives, Office of the Director, NIH to examine mechanisms associated with humans' ability to self-regulate appetite and appetitive behavior. METHODS: Based upon prior discussions of the NIH Obesity Research Task Force Behavioral Phenotyping Work Group, the premise was adopted that, in modern society, multiple factors on multiple levels interact to create circumstances wherein self-control of appetite is difficult, leading to overconsumption of unhealthy foods versus healthy eating patterns, contributing to our current levels of obesity...
March 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228713/metabolic-and-cardiovascular-benefits-and-risks-of-emd386088-a-5-ht6-receptor-partial-agonist-and-dopamine-transporter-inhibitor
#3
Magdalena Kotańska, Joanna Śniecikowska, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Marcin Kołaczkowski, Karolina Pytka
Since 5-HT6 receptors play role in controlling feeding and satiety and dopamine is essential for normal feeding behavior, we evaluated the ability of EMD 386088-5-HT6 receptor partial agonist and dopamine transporter inhibitor-to reduce body weight in obese rats, as well as its anorectic properties (calorie intake reduction) in rat model of excessive eating and the influence on metabolism (plasma glucose and glycerol levels). We also determined the effect of the studied compound on pica behavior in rats and its influence on blood pressure after single administration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228425/prebiotic-supplementation-improves-appetite-control-in-children-with-overweight-and-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Megan P Hume, Alissa C Nicolucci, Raylene A Reimer
Background: Prebiotics have been shown to improve satiety in adults with overweight and obesity; however, studies in children are limited.Objective: We examined the effects of prebiotic supplementation on appetite control and energy intake in children with overweight and obesity.Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-two boys and girls, ages 7-12 y, with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥85th percentile were randomly assigned to 8 g oligofructose-enriched inulin/d or placebo (maltodextrin) for 16 wk...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227695/implantable-gastric-electric-stimulator-with-automatic-daily-activity-compliance-reporting
#5
Eri Takami, Javier J Sanchez, Rose Province, Antonio J Torres, Eri Takami, Javier J Sanchez, Rose Province, Antonio J Torres, Eri Takami, Javier J Sanchez, Antonio J Torres, Rose Province
In order for any obesity therapy to be successful real behavior change by the individual is required. We present an implantable obesity therapy that combines gastric electrical stimulation for satiety with onboard sensors that provide self-monitoring for the patient and compliance reporting to the clinician. An algorithm for processing data from the onboard three axis accelerometer for use in physical activity monitoring was developed and validated. Four obese patients participated in a study where self-reported sleep and exercise was compared with the events detected by the implanted system, and two commercially available, wearable activity monitors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224319/fine-morphological-evaluation-of-hypothalamus-in-patients-with-hyperphagia
#6
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Various metabolic diseases induced by eating disorders are some of the most serious and difficult problems for modern public healthcare. However, little is known about hyperphagia, partly because of the lack of a clear definition. Several basic studies have analyzed eating habits using endocrinological or neurophysiological approaches, which have suggested a controlled balance between the hunger and satiety centers in the central nervous system. However, more detailed neuro-radiologic evaluations have not been achieved for the hypothalamus, and evaluations were limited only to the floor of the third ventricles...
February 21, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222022/central-and-peripheral-control-of-food-intake
#8
M M I Abdalla
The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake...
January 1, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217377/itopride-for-gastric-volume-gastric-emptying-and-drinking-capacity-in-functional-dyspepsia
#9
Shahab Abid, Wasim Jafri, Maseeh Uz Zaman, Rakhshanda Bilal, Safia Awan, Aamir Abbas
AIM: To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212827/longitudinal-associations-between-maternal-feeding-and-overweight-in-low-income-toddlers
#10
Julie C Lumeng, Niko Kaciroti, Lauren Retzloff, Katherine Rosenblum, Alison L Miller
Maternal feeding is a frequent intervention target for the prevention of early childhood obesity but longitudinal associations between feeding and child overweight are poorly understood. This observational cohort study sought to examine the cross-lagged associations between maternal feeding and overweight across ages 21, 27, and 33 months. Feeding was measured by maternal self-report (n = 222) at each age. Child weight and length were measured. Cross-lagged analysis was used to evaluate longitudinal associations between feeding and overweight, adjusting for infant birth weight, maternal body mass index, maternal education, and maternal depressive symptoms...
February 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210986/the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-managing-type-2-diabetes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-as-add-on-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Jerry Meece
: The prevalence and associated clinical burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing in the USA and other countries. As a consequence, the role of the pharmacist in managing T2D is expanding, and it is becoming increasingly important for pharmacists to have a complete understanding of the disease course and treatment options. Pharmacists have a key role in the use of injectable therapies, including incretin-based treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). This article discusses the role of the pharmacist in the management of patients with T2D, particularly with respect to the use of GLP-1RAs to achieve glycemic control...
February 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210913/dietary-and-commercialized-fructose-sweet-or-sour
#12
REVIEW
Aslihan Yerlikaya, Tuncay Dagel, Christopher King, Masanari Kubawara, Miguel A Lanaspa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Adrian Covic, Jacek Manitius, Alan A Sag, Mehmet Kanbay
Metabolic syndrome and diabetes are main health problems of modern life in the twenty-first century. Alarming ratios of global prevalence lead to conduct more and more researches about etiological factors and pathogenesis. Disease mechanism is elementary for advancing more efficient and practicable treatment methods. Concurrent increase in both fructose consumption with Western diet and metabolic syndrome has revealed fructose hypothesis that suggests fructose as one of etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, etc...
February 16, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210884/energy-balance-and-obesity-what-are-the-main-drivers
#13
Isabelle Romieu, Laure Dossus, Simón Barquera, Hervé M Blottière, Paul W Franks, Marc Gunter, Nahla Hwalla, Stephen D Hursting, Michael Leitzmann, Barrie Margetts, Chizuru Nishida, Nancy Potischman, Jacob Seidell, Magdalena Stepien, Youfa Wang, Klaas Westerterp, Pattanee Winichagoon, Martin Wiseman, Walter C Willett
PURPOSE: The aim of this paper is to review the evidence of the association between energy balance and obesity. METHODS: In December 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France convened a Working Group of international experts to review the evidence regarding energy balance and obesity, with a focus on Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). RESULTS: The global epidemic of obesity and the double burden, in LMICs, of malnutrition (coexistence of undernutrition and overnutrition) are both related to poor quality diet and unbalanced energy intake...
February 17, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205670/leptin-and-ghrelin-concentration-in-hyperthyroid-cats-before-and-after-radioactive-iodine-therapy-compared-to-euthyroid-control-cats
#14
Sina Marsilio, Barbara Glanemann, Lucile Martin, Balazs Szladovits, Reto Neiger
OBJECTIVE: Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1)...
February 16, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203570/multifocal-gastric-ulcers-caused-by-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-in-a-patient-with-significant-weight-loss
#15
Mark A Gromski, Jennifer L Peng, Jiehao Zhou, Howard C Masuoka, Attaya Suvannasankha, Suthat Liangpunsakul
Primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease with varied clinical presentations. The stomach is the most common GI site and accounts for 70% to 75% of GI lymphomas. We present a patient with gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who presented with significant weight loss, early satiety, and multifocal ulcerated gastric lesions. Esophagoduodenoscopy should be performed in patients presenting with warning symptoms as in our case. Diagnosis is usually made by endoscopic biopsies. Multiple treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195823/clinical-safety-of-bariatric-arterial-embolization-preliminary-results-of-the-beat-obesity-trial
#16
Clifford R Weiss, Olaguoke Akinwande, Kaylan Paudel, Lawrence J Cheskin, Brian Holly, Kelvin Hong, Aaron M Fischman, Rahul S Patel, Eun J Shin, Kimberley E Steele, Timothy H Moran, Kristen Kaiser, Amie Park, David M Shade, Dara L Kraitchman, Aravind Arepally
Purpose To conduct a pilot prospective clinical trial to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and short-term efficacy of bariatric embolization, a recently developed endovascular procedure for the treatment of obesity, in patients with severe obesity. Materials and Methods This is an institutional review board- and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prospective physician-initiated investigational device exemption study. This phase of the study ran from June 2, 2014, to August 4, 2015. Five severely obese patients (four women, one man) who were 31-49 years of age and who had a mean body mass index of 43...
January 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193866/the-ets-5-transcription-factor-regulates-activity-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-controlling-satiety
#17
Vaida Juozaityte, David Pladevall-Morera, Agnieszka Podolska, Steffen Nørgaard, Brent Neumann, Roger Pocock
Animal behavior is shaped through interplay among genes, the environment, and previous experience. As in mammals, satiety signals induce quiescence in Caenorhabditis elegans Here we report that the C. elegans transcription factor ETS-5, an ortholog of mammalian FEV/Pet1, controls satiety-induced quiescence. Nutritional status has a major influence on C. elegans behavior. When foraging, food availability controls behavioral state switching between active (roaming) and sedentary (dwelling) states; however, when provided with high-quality food, C...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#18
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177745/pre-and-within-meal-effects-of-fluid-dairy-products-on-appetite-food-intake-glycemia-and-regulatory-hormones-in-children
#19
Shirley Vien, Bohdan L Luhovyy, Barkha P Patel, Shirin Panahi, Dalia El Khoury, Rebecca C Mollard, Jill K Hamilton, G Harvey Anderson
The effect of beverages commonly consumed by children in-between or with meals on short-term food intake (FI) and glycemic control has received little attention. Therefore, two experiments were conducted in 9-14 y old children following a randomized repeated measures design. Experiment 1 (<i>n</i>=32) compared the effects of water (control) and isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk, chocolate milk, yogurt drink and fruit punch on subjective appetite and FI. Experiment 2 (<i>n</i>=20) compared the effects of isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk and fruit punch on subjective appetite, FI, glycemic and appetite hormone responses...
November 21, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173692/insoluble-dietary-fiber-from-pear-pomace-can-prevent-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-mainly-by-improving-the-structure-of-gut-microbiota
#20
Shimin Chang, Xingtian Cui, Mingzhang Guo, Yiling Tian, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Yuxing Zhang
Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) was regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long term intake of high-fat diet in current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, while the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent more proportion in plant food, were mistakenly through to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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