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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789472/the-impact-of-nutrition-and-health-claims-on-consumer-perceptions-and-portion-size-selection-results-from-a-nationally-representative-survey
#1
Tony Benson, Fiona Lavelle, Tamara Bucher, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Bernadette Egan, Clare E Collins, Moira Dean
Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a 'halo' effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The current study aimed to overcome this limitation through the use of a nationally representative survey. In a cross-sectional survey of 1039 adults across the island of Ireland, respondents were presented with three different claims (nutrition claim = "Low in fat"; health claim = "With plant sterols...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781193/newborn-adipokines-and-early-childhood-growth
#2
E H Yeung, R Sundaram, Y Xie, D A Lawrence
BACKGROUND: While adipokines can regulate satiety and energy metabolism, whether they are associated with childhood growth is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether adipokine levels at birth are associated with growth. METHODS: A total of 2264 singletons and 1144 twins from Upstate KIDS (born 2008-2010) had adiponectin, leptin, resistin and complement factor D measured in newborn blood spots. Parents reported anthropometry from paediatric visits via questionnaires every 4-6 months...
May 20, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778907/association-of-the-fto-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-gene-rs9939609-polymorphism-with-rewarding-value-of-food-and-eating-behavior-in-chilean-children
#3
Ana Maria Obregón Rivas, Jose L Santos, Macarena A Valladares, Jameson Cameron, Gary Goldfield
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 in the FTO gene and homeostatic/non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chilean children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 258 children (44% female; 8-14 y of age). Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Z-score of height, body mass index, and waist circumference) were performed. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire; the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire; the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire...
March 27, 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777741/effect-of-exposure-to-similar-flavours-in-sensory-specific-satiety-implications-for-eating-behaviour
#4
Ana González, Sergio Andrés Recio, Jesús Sánchez, Marta Gil, Isabel de Brugada
Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to a decline in pleasantness of eaten foods in comparison to other non-ingested meals. Although SSS is specific to the eaten food, it can also generalize to other meals that share similar properties to the satiated food. It is possible that this phenomenon could become more specific after extensive experience, as repeated exposure to an assortment of similar food could cause perceptual learning (i.e. an increase in the distinctiveness of each specific item). This in turn would reduce generalization from the consumed food to other similar products, so they will be more readily consumed...
May 16, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773982/training-rats-using-water-rewards-without-water-restriction
#5
Pamela Reinagel
High-throughput behavioral training of rodents has been a transformative development for systems neuroscience. Water or food restriction is typically required to motivate task engagement. We hypothesized a gap between physiological water need and hedonic water satiety that could be leveraged to train rats for water rewards without water restriction. We show that when Citric Acid (CA) is added to water, female rats drink less, yet consume enough to maintain long term health. With 24 h/day access to a visual task with water rewards, rats with ad lib CA water performed 84% ± 18% as many trials as in the same task under water restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772292/does-the-cost-of-a-meal-influence-the-portion-size-effect
#6
Faris M Zuraikat, Liane S Roe, Alissa D Smethers, Levi W Reihart, Barbara J Rolls
Serving larger portions leads to increased intake, but little is known about how the cost of a meal affects this response. Therefore, we tested whether the amount of money paid for a meal influenced the portion size effect at a lunch served in a controlled restaurant-style setting. In a crossover design, 79 adults (55 women; 24 men) came to the lab once a week for 4 weeks to eat a main dish of pasta with side dishes. Across weeks, the meal was varied in two factors: portion size of the main dish (400 g or 600 g) and cost of the meal (US$8 or $16)...
May 14, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760179/time-restricted-feeding-prevents-ablation-of-diurnal-rhythms-in-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-observed-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#7
Stephen J Kentish, George Hatzinikolas, Hui Li, Claudine A Frisby, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) are involved in the regulation of food intake. GVAs exhibit diurnal rhythmicity in their response to food related stimuli allowing time of day specific satiety signalling. This diurnal rhythmicity is ablated in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Time restricted feeding (TRF) has a strong influence on peripheral clocks. This study aimed to determine whether diurnal patterns in GVA mechanosensitivity are entrained by TRF.Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice (N=256) were fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 12wks...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758188/tuft-cells-distribution-and-connections-with-nerves-and-endocrine-cells-in-mouse-intestine
#8
Xiaowen Cheng, Ulrikke Voss, Eva Ekblad
Tuft cells are gastrointestinal (GI) sensory cells recognized by their characteristic shape and their microvilli "tuft". Aims of the present study were to elucidate their regional distribution and spatial connections with satiety associated endocrine cells and nerve fibers throughout the intestinal tract. C57BL/6J mice were used in the experiments. The small intestine was divided into five segments, and the large intestine was kept undivided. The segments were coiled into "Swiss rolls". Numbers and topographic distribution of tuft cells and possible contacts with endocrine cells and nerve fibers were estimated in the different segments, using immunocytochemistry...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756380/metabolic-inhibitors-of-o-glcnac-transferase-ogt-that-act-in-vivo-implicate-decreased-o-glcnac-levels-in-leptin-mediated-nutrient-sensing
#9
Ta-Wei Liu, Wesley F Zandberg, Tracey M Gloster, Lehua Deng, Kelsey D Murray, Xiaoyang Shan, David Jaro Vocadlo
O-linked glycosylation of serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residues is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAc is conserved within mammals and is implicated in a wide range of physiological processes. Here we describe metabolic precursor inhibitors of OGT suitable for use both in cells and in vivo in mice. These 5-thiosugar analogues of N-acetylglucosamine are assimilated through a convergent metabolic pathway, most likely involving N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate de-N-acetylase (NAGA) to generate a common OGT inhibitor within cells...
May 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747044/taste-as-a-marker-for-behavioral-energy-regulation-replication-and-extension-of-meal-pattern-evidence-from-selectively-bred-rats
#10
Nancy K Dess, Kira R Schreiber, Gabriel M Winter, Clinton D Chapman
A key feature of energy regulation among species that eat discrete meals is meal patterning - meal frequency, size, and duration. Such animals can adjust to internal states and external circumstances with changes in one or more of those meal parameters, with or without altering total food intake. Relatively little is known about individual differences in meal patterning. We previously reported meal patterning differences between rat lines selectively bred for differential saccharin solution intake, lines that also differ in sensitivity to metabolic challenges: Relative to high-saccharin-consuming counterparts (HiS), male low-saccharin-consuming rats (LoS) ate smaller, more frequent meals...
May 7, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746171/increased-task-channel-mediated-currents-underlie-high-fat-diet-induced-vagal-afferent-dysfunction
#11
Sung Jin Park, Yang Yu, Brittany Wagner, William C Valinsky, Alan E Lomax, Michael J Beyak
We have previously demonstrated that satiety sensing vagal afferent neurons are less responsive to meal-related stimuli in obesity, due to reduced electrical excitability. As leak K+ currents are key determinants of membrane excitability, we hypothesized that leak K+ currents are increased in vagal afferents during obesity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by feeding C57Bl/6J mice a high fat fed diet (60% energy from fat - HFF) for 8-10 weeks. In vitro extracellular recordings were performed on jejunal afferent nerves...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742429/diet-induced-growth-is-regulated-via-acquired-leptin-resistance-and-engages-a-pomc-somatostatin-growth-hormone-circuit
#12
Heiko Löhr, Simon Hess, Mafalda M A Pereira, Philip Reinoß, Sandra Leibold, Christel Schenkel, Claudia M Wunderlich, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning, Matthias Hammerschmidt
Anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) neurons of the hypothalamic melanocortin system function as key regulators of energy homeostasis, also controlling somatic growth across different species. However, the mechanisms of melanocortin-dependent growth control still remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal a thus-far-unrecognized structural and functional connection between Pomc neurons and the somatotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Excessive feeding of larval zebrafish causes leptin resistance and reduced levels of the hypothalamic satiety mediator pomca...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740319/pharmacological-blockade-of-adenosine-a-2a-but-not-a-1-receptors-enhances-goal-directed-valuation-in-satiety-based-instrumental-behavior
#13
Yan Li, Xinran Pan, Yan He, Yang Ruan, Linshan Huang, Yuling Zhou, Zhidong Hou, Chaoxiang He, Zhe Wang, Xiong Zhang, Jiang-Fan Chen
The balance and smooth shift between flexible, goal-directed behaviors and repetitive, habitual actions are critical to optimal performance of behavioral tasks. The striatum plays an essential role in control of goal-directed versus habitual behaviors through a rich interplay of the numerous neurotransmitters and neuromodulators to modify the input, processing and output functions of the striatum. The adenosine receptors (namely A2A R and A1 R), with their high expression pattern in the striatum and abilities to interact and integrate dopamine, glutamate and cannabinoid signals in the striatum, may represent novel therapeutic targets for modulating instrumental behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732155/misdiagnosis-of-primary-pleural-dlbcl-as-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Xinmei Yang, Xiaofang Xu, Binbin Song, Qiang Zhou, Ying Zheng
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). DLBCL presents with pleural involvement at an advanced stage; however, primary pleural lymphomas without any other site of involvement are rare, and the possibility of misdiagnosis is high, particularly in developing countries, where tuberculosis or other severe pulmonary infections remain a major health concern. Furthermore, lymphoma and tuberculosis share a number of common clinical characteristics, such as fever, night sweats, feeling of satiety after a small meal, fatigue and unexplained weight loss, among others...
June 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731001/effect-of-timing-of-corn-silage-supplementation-to-holstein-dairy-cows-given-limited-daily-access-to-pasture-intake-and-performance
#15
D A Mattiauda, M J Gibb, M Carriquiry, S Tamminga, P Chilibroste
The timing in which supplements are provided in grazing systems can affect dry matter (DM) intake and productive performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ingestive behaviour, DM intake, milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows. In total, 33 Holstein dairy cows in a randomized block design grazed on a second-year mixed grass-legume pasture from 0900 to 1500 h and received 2.7 kg of a commercial supplement at each milking. Paddock sizes were adjusted to provide a daily herbage allowance of 15 kg DM/cow determined at ground level...
May 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730186/just-add-water-effects-of-added-gastric-distention-by-water-on-gastric-emptying-and-satiety-related-brain-activity
#16
Guido Camps, Ralf Veit, Monica Mars, Cees de Graaf, Paul Am Smeets
BACKGROUND: Gastric distention contributes to meal termination. There is little research on the neural correlates of gastric distention by food. To date, neural measures have not been obtained concurrently with measurements of gastric distention. OBJECTIVES: 1) To study how offering a small versus a large water load following a standardized nutrient load affects gastric distention over time. 2) To assess associations between satiety experiences and brain activity and the degree of gastric distention...
May 3, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728598/glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-health-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Andreas Andersen, Asger Lund, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
In healthy individuals, the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) potentiates insulin release and suppresses glucagon secretion in response to the ingestion of nutrients. GLP1 also delays gastric emptying and increases satiety. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), supraphysiological doses of GLP1 normalize the endogenous insulin response during a hyperglycaemic clamp. Owing to the short plasma half-life of native GLP1, several GLP1 receptor agonists (GLP1RAs) with longer half-lives have been developed for the treatment of T2DM...
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723574/influences-of-hunger-satiety-and-oral-glucose-on-functional-brain-connectivity-a-multimethod-resting-state-fmri-study
#18
Arkan Al-Zubaidi, Marcus Heldmann, Alfred Mertins, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Thomas F Münte
A major regulatory task of the organism is to keep brain functions relatively constant in spite of metabolic changes (e.g., hunger vs. satiety) or availability of energy (e.g., glucose administration). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) can reveal resulting changes in brain function but previous studies have focused mostly on the hypothalamus. Therefore, we took a whole brain approach and examined 24 healthy normal-weight men once after 36 hours of fasting and once in a satiated state (six meals over the course of 36 hours)...
April 30, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722834/effects-of-caloric-and-noncaloric-sweeteners-on-antroduodenal-motility-gastrointestinal-hormone-secretion-and-appetite-related-sensations-in-healthy-subjects
#19
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Eveline Deloose, Egbert Clevers, Alessandra Rotondo, Jens F Rehfeld, Inge Depoortere, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Jan Tack
Background: Activation of gastrointestinal (GI) sweet taste receptors by caloric sweeteners triggers secretion of anorexigenic and inhibition of orexigenic GI hormones to regulate food intake. The effect of noncaloric sweeteners on these mechanisms is controversial. We have recently shown that motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions signal hunger feelings, thereby identifying GI motility, and its regulatory hormone motilin, as novel players in food intake regulation. Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners on GI motility, GI hormone secretion, and hunger in humans...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721802/microbiota-and-metabolic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Alessia Pascale, Nicoletta Marchesi, Cristina Marelli, Adriana Coppola, Livio Luzi, Stefano Govoni, Andrea Giustina, Carmine Gazzaruso
The microbiota is a complex ecosystem of microorganisms consisting of bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungi, living in different districts of the human body, such as the gastro-enteric tube, skin, mouth, respiratory system, and the vagina. Over 70% of the microbiota lives in the gastrointestinal tract in a mutually beneficial relationship with its host. The microbiota plays a major role in many metabolic functions, including modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis, regulation of satiety, production of energy and vitamins...
May 2, 2018: Endocrine
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