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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938473/the-role-of-episodic-postprandial-peptides-in-exercise-induced-compensatory-eating
#1
Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell, Phillipa Caudwell, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Erik Näslund, Graham Finlayson
Purpose: Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control (hunger and energy intake). Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial 'episodic' peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12-weeks aerobic exercise and in response to high (HFLC) and low fat (LFHC) meals. Methods: 32 overweight/obese individuals - 16 completed 12-weeks aerobic exercise and 16 were age- and BMI-matched non-exercising controls...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936752/postpartum-specific-anxiety-as-a-predictor-of-infant-feeding-outcomes-and-perceptions-of-infant-feeding-behaviours-new-evidence-for-childbearing-specific-measures-of-mood
#2
Victoria Fallon, Jason Christian Grovenor Halford, Kate Mary Bennett, Joanne Allison Harrold
Studies of pregnancy-specific anxiety suggest that it is a distinct construct which predicts perinatal outcomes more effectively than other general measures of anxiety. In response, a novel measure of postpartum-specific anxiety (PSAS) has been developed and validated, but it is not yet clear whether it possesses the same predictive power as its pregnancy-specific counterparts. The aim of this short-term prospective study was to (a) test the predictive validity of the PSAS in the context of one specific perinatal outcome, infant-feeding, and (b) examine whether the PSAS may be more efficacious at predicting infant-feeding outcomes and behaviours than the more commonly used general measures...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935147/effect-of-resistant-wheat-starch-on-subjective-appetite-and-food-intake-in-healthy-adults
#3
Christine H Emilien, Walter H Hsu, James H Hollis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of replacing standard wheat flour (SWF) with resistant wheat starch (RWS) on markers of appetite and food intake in healthy adults. METHODS: A randomized, single-blind, crossover study was conducted with 27 healthy adults (ages 23 ± 2 y with a body mass index of 23.0 ± 3.0 kg/m(2)). After an overnight fast, muffins that contained only SWF or muffins in which 40% of the SWF was replaced with RWS were consumed as part of the breakfast meal...
November 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#5
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918793/-workup-and-treatment-of-gastroparesis
#6
Mette Winther Klinge, Jan Bech Pedersen, Birgit Schelde, Sten Lund, Klaus Krogh
Gastroparesis is defined as impaired gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction and cardinal symptoms including vomiting, nausea, early satiety, and upper abdominal pain. Most cases of gastroparesis are diabetic, idiopathic or post-operative. The correlation between symptoms and objective measures of gastroparesis is poor. Basic treatment includes dietary advices and prokinetics. Selected patients not responding to basic treatment can be offered gastric electrical stimulation. In many cases, gastroparesis is present in combination with other motility disorders, especially constipation...
September 18, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917503/food-reluctance-of-preschool-children-attending-daycare-centers-is-associated-with-a-lower-body-mass-index
#7
Véronique Surette, Stéphanie Ward, Pascale Morin, Hassan Vatanparast, Mathieu Bélanger
BACKGROUND: Food reluctance can present as fussiness, picky eating, slowness in eating, and high satiety responsiveness. It can be associated with inadequate weight gain during early childhood. Although a majority of preschoolers attend daycare centers, associations between their eating behaviors at daycare and their body composition have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to develop an estimate of food reluctance and to assess the relationship between food reluctance at daycare and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference of preschoolers...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915571/p62-plasmid-can-alleviate-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunctions
#8
Tatiana Halenova, Oleksii Savchuk, Ludmila Ostapchenko, Andrey Chursov, Nathan Fridlyand, Andrey B Komissarov, Franco Venanzi, Sergey I Kolesnikov, Albert A Sufianov, Michael Y Sherman, Vladimir L Gabai, Alexander M Shneider
A high-calorie diet (HCD) induces two mutually exacerbating effects contributing to diet-induced obesity (DIO): impaired glucose metabolism and increased food consumption. A link between the metabolic and behavioral manifestations is not well understood yet. We hypothesized that chronic inflammation induced by HCD plays a key role in linking together the two components of diet-induced pathology. Based on this hypothesis, we tested if a plasmid (DNA vaccine) encoding p62 (SQSTM1) would alleviate DIO including its metabolic and/or food consumption abnormalities...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913843/food-and-functional-dyspepsia-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
K R Duncanson, N J Talley, M M Walker, T L Burrows
BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by early satiety, post-prandial fullness or epigastric pain related to meals, which affects up to 20% of western populations. A high dietary fat intake has been linked to FD and duodenal eosinophilia has been noted in FD. We hypothesised that an allergen such as wheat is a risk factor for FD and that withdrawal will improve symptoms of FD. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food and functional dyspepsia...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912031/hormones-and-the-coolidge-effect
#10
REVIEW
Elisa Ventura-Aquino, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Raúl G Paredes
The Coolidge effect is the renewal of sexual behavior after the presentation of a novel sexual partner and possibly occurs as the result of habituation and dishabituation processes. This re-motivation to copulate is well studied in males and is commonly related to sexual satiety, which involves several neurobiological changes in steroid receptors and their mRNA expression in the CNS. On the other hand, there are few reports studying sexual novelty in females and have been limited to behavioral aspects. Here we report that the levels of rat proceptive behavior, a sign of sexual motivation, declines after 4 h of continuous mating, particularly in females that were unable to regulate the time of mating...
September 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910546/could-hop-derived-bitter-compounds-improve-glucose-homeostasis-by-stimulating-the-secretion-of-glp-1
#11
Luigi Barrea, Giuseppe Annunziata, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Angela Arnone, Gian Carlo Tenore, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) is by far the greatest contributors to the bitter property of beer. Over the past years, a large body of evidence demonstrated the presence of taste receptors in different locations of the oral cavity. In addition to the taste buds of the tongue, cells expressing these receptors have been identified in olfactory bulbs, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. In the gut, the attention was mainly directed to sweet Taste Receptor (T1R) and bitter Taste Receptor (T2R) receptors. In particular, T2R has shown to modulate secretion of different gut hormones, mainly Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), which are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the control of gut motility, thereby increasing the sense of satiety...
September 14, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905678/negative-emotional-appraisal-selectively-disrupts-retrieval-of-expected-outcome-values-required-for-goal-directed-instrumental-choice
#12
Tanya L Pritchard, Gabrielle Weidemann, Lee Hogarth
Stress induction reduces people's ability to modify their instrumental choices following changes in the value of outcomes, but the mechanisms underpinning this effect have not been specified because previous studies have lacked crucial control conditions. To address this, the current study had participants learn two instrumental responses for food and water, respectively, before water was devalued by specific satiety. Choice between these two responses was then measured in extinction, reacquisition and Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) tests...
September 14, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902620/associations-between-body-weight-status-psychological-well-being-and-disordered-eating-with-intuitive-eating-among-malaysian-undergraduate-university-students
#13
Wan Ying Gan, Wei Ching Yeoh
Intuitive eating, which can be defined as reliance on physiological hunger and satiety cues to guide eating, has been proposed as a healthy weight management strategy. To date, there has not been a published study on intuitive eating in the context of Malaysia. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aims to determine associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating behaviors with intuitive eating among undergraduate university students. A total of 333 undergraduate respondents (21...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888597/mechanisms-linking-metabolic-stress-with-innate-immunity-in-the-endometrium
#14
I Martin Sheldon, James G Cronin, Mateusz Pospiech, Matthew L Turner
Bacterial infections of the uterus after parturition are ubiquitous in dairy cattle and often cause uterine disease, such as metritis or endometritis. However, the metabolic stress associated with milk production increases the risk of developing disease. Resolution of bacterial infections requires rapid and robust innate immune responses, which depend on host cell receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria. Here, we argue that metabolic stress impairs the inflammatory response to pathogens...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888462/control-of-protein-digestion-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-conditions-using-biopolymer-microgels
#15
Zipei Zhang, Ruojie Zhang, David Julian McClements
Controlling the rate and extent of protein digestion within different regions of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is important for regulating hormonal responses (such as hunger, satiety, and satiation) and immune responses (such as allergenicity). In this study, hydrogel beads (biopolymer microgels) were fabricated by injecting a solution of anionic alginate molecules into a solution of cationic calcium ions using a vibrating extrusion device. A model food protein (whey protein isolate, WPI) was mixed with the alginate solution prior to bead formation...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876576/rapunzel-syndrome-african-variations-on-a-european-fairytale
#16
J Plaskett, G Chinnery, D Thomson, B Dedekind, E Jonas, S Thomson
BACKGROUND: Trichobezoars are intraluminal accretions of ingested hair. Rapunzel syndrome is a rare and extreme presentation with extension down through into the small intestine. Most frequently reported in children and psychiatric patients, we report on an African series of five patients. METHOD: Five patients presenting with trichobezoars were retrospectively reviewed and analysed with regard to patient background, demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, surgical management and complications...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874181/effect-of-an-intensive-nutrition-intervention-of-a-high-protein-and-low-glycemic-index-diet-on-weight-of-kidney-transplant-recipients-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Elis Forcellini Pedrollo, Bruna Bellincanta Nicoletto, Larissa Salomoni Carpes, Júlia de Melo Cardoso de Freitas, Julia Roberta Buboltz, Cristina Carra Forte, Andrea Carla Bauer, Roberto Ceratti Manfro, Gabriela Corrêa Souza, Cristiane Bauermann Leitão
BACKGROUND: Excessive weight gain is commonly observed within the first year after kidney transplantation and is associated with negative outcomes, such as graft loss and cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high protein and low glycemic-index diet on preventing weight gain after kidney transplantation. METHODS: We designed a prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of a high protein (1...
September 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874103/neuroendocrine-regulation-of-food-intake-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#18
Romualdi Daniela, Immediata Valentina, De Cicco Simona, Tagliaferri Valeria, Lanzone Antonio
Several peripheral and central signals are involved in the sophisticated regulation of food intake. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are prone to consume a diet higher in saturated fat and foods with high glycemic index and show impaired appetite regulation and measures of satiety. As a consequence, obesity, mostly of the central type, is prevalent in the syndrome and worsens the endocrine and metabolic profile of the affected patients. This review article briefly analyzes the current knowledge about the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the interplay between feeding behavior, obesity, and reproductive abnormalities in PCOS...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873709/yacon-syrup-food-applications-and-impact-on-satiety-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Maria de Fátima Gomes da Silva, Ana Paula Dionísio, Antônio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, Lia Silveira Adriano, Claudia Oliveira Pinto, Fernando Antonio Pinto de Abreu, Nedio Jair Wurlitzer, Idila Maria Araújo, Deborah Dos Santos Garruti, Dorasilvia Ferreira Pontes
Syrup obtained from yacon roots could be well positioned as a nutritional product due to its high fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content. Considering this, we examined the potential food applications of yacon syrup, using the focal group methodology, and its sensorial acceptability when incorporated in yogurt. The beneficial effects of the consumption of yacon syrup were studied over a 2-week period in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment (namely Test A) and other consistent of only one day of yacon syrup consumption (namely Test B) were also evaluated...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873388/gastrointestinal-endocrinology-in-bariatric-surgery
#20
Martin Wabitsch
The long-lasting weight-reducing effect of bariatric surgical procedures cannot simply be explained by the malabsorption of nutrients and the subsequent energy deficit due to this malabsorption. Clinical studies have shown that the reorganization of the anatomy of the gut and the subsequent alterations of gastrointestinal physiology have a large impact on the secretion and function of gastrointestinal hormones, which regulate hunger and satiety. These changes have been named the BRAVE effect: <under>b</under>ile flow alteration, <under>r</under>eduction of gastric size, <under>a</under>natomical gut rearrangement and altered flow of nutrients, <under>v</under>agal manipulation, and <under>e</under>nteric gut modulation...
2017: Endocrine Development
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