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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908749/a-new-role-for-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-control-of-male-rat-sexual-behavior-expression
#1
Gabriela Rodríguez-Manzo, Ana Canseco-Alba
GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABAA receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906086/massive-adrenal-vein-aneurysm-mimicking-an-adrenal-tumor-in-a-patient-with-hemophilia-a-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Richard Sleightholm, Steven Wahlmeier, Jeffrey S Carson, Andjela Drincic, Audrey Lazenby, Jason M Foster
BACKGROUND: Visceral venous aneurysms are exceedingly rare, and until now, there have been no reports of this phenomenon in the adrenal vasculature. This report details the first adrenal venous aneurysm reported in the literature. The aneurysm presented as an 18-cm mass that was initially suspected to be a hematoma or tumor on the basis of the complex medical history of the patient, which included hemophilia A and testicular cancer. After surgical excision, pathologic examination confirmed this mass to be a 15...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903310/the-determinants-of-food-choice
#3
Gareth Leng, Roger A H Adan, Michele Belot, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Kees de Graaf, Suzanne L Dickson, Todd Hare, Silvia Maier, John Menzies, Hubert Preissl, Lucia A Reisch, Peter J Rogers, Paul A M Smeets
Health nudge interventions to steer people into healthier lifestyles are increasingly applied by governments worldwide, and it is natural to look to such approaches to improve health by altering what people choose to eat. However, to produce policy recommendations that are likely to be effective, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#4
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898071/are-adolescents-more-vulnerable-to-the-harmful-effects-of-cannabis-than-adults-a-placebo-controlled-study-in-human-males
#5
C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896652/the-long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-pyloroplasty-combined-with-gastric-electrical-stimulation-therapy-in-gastroparesis
#6
Brian R Davis, Irene Sarosiek, Mohammad Bashashati, Ben Alvarado, Richard W McCallum
INTRODUCTION: Gastroparesis is delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction. Symptomatic improvement can be 50-60% with gastric electrical stimulation. To address delayed gastric emptying, pyloroplasty was added. This study examines the long-term efficacy and safety of simultaneous gastric electrical stimulator implantation and pyloroplasty. METHODS: In this prospective single-arm trial conducted from 2012 to 2015, 27 [23 females; mean age 43 (22-63)] gastroparesis patients who underwent simultaneous gastric electrical stimulator implantation with Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty were studied...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895954/adult-embryonal-sarcoma-of-the-liver-management-of-a-massive-liver-tumor
#7
Daniela Treitl, Alexandra Roudenko, Siba El Hussein, Magda Rizer, Philip Bao
Undifferentiated embryonal sarcomas of the liver are extremely rare cases in adults. We report the case of a 30-year-old male who presented with early satiety and abdominal pain due to a massive tumor originating from the left liver and occupying the entire epigastrium. The patient underwent bland embolization in an attempt to decrease the size of the tumor. He then underwent a formal left hepatectomy with resection of liver segments 2, 3, and 4. Extrahepatic inflow control of the portal vein and hepatic artery was performed prior to parenchymal transection...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895063/association-of-eating-behaviours-with-diurnal-preference-and-rotating-shift-work-in-japanese-female-nurses-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Takahiro Yoshizaki, Yukari Kawano, Osamu Noguchi, Junko Onishi, Reiko Teramoto, Ayaka Sunami, Yuri Yokoyama, Yuki Tada, Azumi Hida, Fumiharu Togo
OBJECTIVES: Our study examines differences in eating behaviour between day workers and rotating shift workers, and considers whether diurnal preference could explain the differences. METHODS: Japanese female nurses were studied (39 day workers and 123 rotating shift workers, aged 21-63 years) using self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires assessed eating behaviours, diurnal preference and demographic characteristics. The questionnaire in the Guidelines for the management of obesity disease issued by the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity was used to obtain scores for the levels of obesity-related eating behaviours, including cognition of constitution, motivation for eating, eating as a diversion, feeling of satiety, eating style, meal contents and temporal eating patterns...
November 28, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895003/effect-on-nitrogen-balance-thermogenesis-body-composition-satiety-and-circulating-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-up-to-one-year-after-surgery-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-on-dietary-protein-during-surgical-weight-loss
#9
Violeta Moizé, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Josep Vidal, Patricia Miner, Yves Boirie, Blandine Laferrère
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS), the most effective treatment for severe obesity, typically results in 40-50 kg weight loss in the year following the surgery. Beyond its action on protein metabolism, dietary protein intake (PI) affects satiety, thermogenesis, energy efficiency, and body composition (BC). However, the required amount of PI after surgical weight loss is not known. The current daily PI recommendation for diet-induced weight loss is 0.8 g/kg ideal body weight (IBW) per day, but whether this amount is sufficient to preserve fat-free mass during active surgical weight loss is unknown...
November 28, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#10
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890592/small-particle-size-lipid-emulsions-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-lean-men
#11
Y K Chan, S C Budgett, A K MacGibbon, S Y Quek, S Kindleysides, S D Poppitt
Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886198/obesity-fermentable-carbohydrates-increase-satiety-signals
#12
Claire Greenhill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 25, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885554/short-term-effects-of-a-green-coffee-extract-garcinia-c-ambogia-and-l-carnitine-containing-chewing-gum-on-snack-intake-and-appetite-regulation
#13
Cecilia Bobillo, Graham Finlayson, Ana Martínez, Daniela Fischman, Analisa Beneitez, Alejandro J Ferrero, Belisario E Fernández, Marcos A Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Different studies have assessed the influence of chewing gum to aid control of appetite and reduce food intake. PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of chewing gum on satiety, food hedonics and snack intake and to explore the potential effects of the combination of Garcinia c ambogia, green coffee extract and L-carnitine on satiety, when administered in a gum format. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which 57 subjects randomly received three kinds of treatments, in a crossover design: (1) active gum; (2) placebo gum; and (3) no gum...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884350/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-augments-the-feeding-responses-evoked-by-gastrin-releasing-peptides
#14
Martha C Washington, Thaer R Mhalhal, Tanisha Johnson-Rouse, Jose Berger, John Heath, Randy Seeley, Ayman I Sayegh
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective method for the treatment of obesity, and metabolic disease RYGB may reduce body weight by altering the feeding responses evoked by the short-term satiety peptides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we measured meal size (MS, chow), intermeal interval (IMI) length, and satiety ratio (SR, IMI/MS; food consumed per a unit of time) by the small and the large forms of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in rats, GRP-10 and GRP-29 (0, 0...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883233/intranasal-insulin-boosts-gustatory-sensitivity
#15
Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Huan Yang, Yvonne F Brünner, Jessica Freiherr
Intranasal insulin had been in the spotlight not only for enhancing memory processes but also for its anorexic effects, as well as its effects on olfactory sensitivity. Here, the influence of intranasal insulin on gustatory sensitivity was investigated using intranasal applications of insulin or placebo in a double-blind manner alongside a control condition without any application. We hypothesized that intranasal insulin, as it mediates satiety, alters gustatory sensitivity whereas placebo application and control should not alter gustatory sensitivity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880695/the-association-of-birth-weight-and-infant-growth-with-childhood-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-and-its-mediating-effects-on-energy-balance-related-behaviours-the-abcd-study
#16
Arend W van Deutekom, Mai Jm Chinapaw, Maaike Gj Gademan, Jos Wr Twisk, Reinoud Jbj Gemke, Tanja Gm Vrijkotte
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of birth weight and infant growth with childhood autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and to assess whether ANS activity mediates the associations of birth weight and infant growth with energy-balance-related behaviours, including energy intake, satiety response, physical activity and screen time. METHODS: In 2089 children, we prospectively collected birth weight, infant growth defined as conditional weight and height gain between birth and 12 months and-at 5 years-indices of cardiac ANS activity and parent-reported energy-balance-related behaviours...
August 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877118/contexts-paired-with-junk-food-impair-goal-directed-behavior-in-rats-implications-for-decision-making-in-obesogenic-environments
#17
Michael D Kendig, Ambrose M K Cheung, Joel S Raymond, Laura H Corbit
The high prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases calls for greater understanding of the factors that drive excess energy intake. Calorie-dense palatable foods are readily available and often are paired with highly salient environmental cues. These cues can trigger food-seeking and consumption in the absence of hunger. Here we examined the effects of palatable food-paired environmental cues on control of instrumental food-seeking behavior. In Experiment 1, adult male rats received exposures to one context containing three "junk" foods (JFs context) and another containing chow (Chow context)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877077/amelioration-of-estrogen-deficiency-induced-obesity-by-collagen-hydrolysate
#18
Tsay-I Chiang, I-Chang Chang, Hsueh-Hui Lee, Kuang Hui Hsieh, Yung-Wei Chiu, Te-Jen Lai, Jer-Yuh Liu, Li-Sung Hsu, Shao-Hsuan Kao
Objectives: Menopausal transition with declining estrogen levels significantly affects the physiological properties of women and consequently contributes to a series of medical conditions, including obesity. Obesity is a crucial risk factor associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. Increasing dietary protein content improves satiety and energy expenditure. Thus, we hypothesize that supplementing with collagen, a common dietary protein, may alleviate menopause-induced obesity...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869800/a-rapidly-acting-glutamatergic-arc%C3%A2-pvh-satiety-circuit-postsynaptically-regulated-by-%C3%AE-msh
#19
Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh, Bradford B Lowell
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons sense the fed or fasted state and regulate hunger. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the ARC (ARC(AgRP) neurons) are stimulated by fasting and, once activated, they rapidly (within minutes) drive hunger. Pro-opiomelanocortin (ARC(POMC)) neurons are viewed as the counterpoint to ARC(AgRP) neurons. They are regulated in an opposite fashion and decrease hunger. However, unlike ARC(AgRP) neurons, ARC(POMC) neurons are extremely slow in affecting hunger (many hours). Thus, a temporally analogous, rapid ARC satiety pathway does not exist or is presently unidentified...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866989/do-interoceptive-awareness-and-interoceptive-responsiveness-mediate-the-relationship-between-body-appreciation-and-intuitive-eating-in-young-women
#20
Alana Oswald, Janine Chapman, Carlene Wilson
The extent to which an individual appreciates their own body is recognised as a proximal predictor of intuitive eating, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are less clearly understood. This study tested whether two partially independent, self-reported facets of interoceptive ability: 'interoceptive awareness' (defined as the ability to detect internal bodily cues) and 'interoceptive responsiveness' (the way in which individuals value and respond to these cues) mediated the relationship between body appreciation and three subscales of intuitive eating: 'unconditional permission to eat'; 'reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues', and 'eating for physical rather than emotional reasons'...
November 17, 2016: Appetite
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