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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883977/management-of-plasmodium-vivax-risk-and-illness-in-travelers
#1
EDITORIAL
J Kevin Baird
Malaria poses an exceptionally complex problem for providers of travel medicine services. Perceived high risk of exposure during travel typically prompts prescribing protective antimalarial drugs. Suppressive chemoprophylactic agents have dominated strategy for that practice for over 70 years. This broad class of therapeutic agents kills parasites after they emerge from the liver and attempt development in red blood cells. The dominance of suppressive chemoprophylaxis in travel medicine stems largely from the view of Plasmodium falciparum as the utmost threat to the patient - these drugs are poorly suited to preventing Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale due to inactivity against the latent liver stages of these species not produced by P...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862132/the-complex-relationship-of-exposure-to-new-plasmodium-infections-and-incidence-of-clinical-malaria-in-papua-new-guinea
#2
Natalie E Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Rahel Wampfler, Benson Kiniboro, Albina Teliki, Jonah Iga, Andreea Waltmann, Inoni Betuela, Ingrid Felger, Leanne J Robinson, Ivo Mueller
The molecular force of blood-stage infection (molFOB) is a quantitative surrogate metric for malaria transmission at population level and for exposure at individual level. Relationships between molFOB, parasite prevalence and clinical incidence were assessed in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort, where P.vivax (Pv) hypnozoites were eliminated in half the children by primaquine (PQ). Discounting relapses, children acquired equal numbers of new P. falciparum (Pf) and Pv blood-stage infections/year (Pf-molFOB = 0-18, Pv-molFOB = 0-23) resulting in comparable spatial and temporal patterns in incidence and prevalence of infections...
September 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857064/implementation-of-g6pd-testing-and-primaquine-for-p-vivax-radical-cure-operational-perspectives-from-thailand-and-cambodia
#3
Suravadee Kitchakarn, Dysoley Lek, Sea Thol, Chantheasy Hok, Aungkana Saejeng, Rekol Huy, Nipon Chinanonwait, Krongthong Thimasarn, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
Following progressive success in reducing the burden of malaria over the past two decades, countries of the Asia Pacific are now aiming for elimination of malaria by 2030. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the two main malaria species that are endemic in the region. P. vivax is generally perceived to be less severe but will be harder to eliminate, owing partly to its dormant liver stage (known as a hypnozoite) that can cause multiple relapses following an initial clinical episode caused by a mosquito-borne infection...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836792/galactose-anchored-gelatin-nanoparticles-for-primaquine-delivery-and-improved-pharmacokinetics-a-biodegradable-and-safe-approach-for-effective-anti-plasmodial-activity-against-p-falciparum-3d7-and-in-vivo-hepatocytes-targeting
#4
Hitesh Kumar, Avinash Gothwal, Iliyas Khan, Kartik T Nakhate, Amit Alexander, Ajazuddin Khan, Vineeta Singh, Umesh Gupta
Primaquine phosphate (PQ) is mainly used as radical cure therapy to eradicate relapse of malaria at the liver stage, which is particularly caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax. In the present study, PQ loaded galactosylated gelatin nanoparticles (Gel-LA-PQ-NPs) were formulated using one step desolvation technique. The mean particle size of Gel-LA-PQ-NPs was found to be 93.48±6.36 nm with a zeta potential of 4.80±0.20 mV having 69.90±1.53% encapsulation efficiency. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the NPs were spherical in shape and uniformly distributed without any cluster formation...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820683/malaria-in-the-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-in-china-a-twelve-year-surveillance-data-study
#5
Kangming Lin, Haiyan Wei, Weikang Jiang, Jun Li, Weiwei Zhang, Shujiao Wei, Yichao Yang, Yaming Huang, Xiangyang Feng, Hong Tu, Jun Feng
The incidence of an indigenous malaria, defined as malaria acquired by a local mosquito transmission, declined from 2004 to 2015 in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. However, imported malaria, defined as malaria acquired from other endemic regions outside of China, has been increasing in the region, as in the rest of the country, particularly the disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A retrospective study was conducted to explore malaria-endemic characteristics in Guangxi during the 2004-2015 timeframe; a total of 2,726 confirmed malaria cases were reported, and the majority (90...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804661/imported-asymptomatic-bancroftian-filariasis-discovered-from-a-plasmodium-vivax-infected-patient-a-case-report-from-singapore
#6
Jean-Marc Chavatte, Roland Jureen
Human lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne disease mainly caused by the parasitic nematode Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted worldwide within the tropical and subtropical regions. Singapore was once endemic for bancroftian filariasis but recent reports are scarce and the disease is nearly forgotten. The case report presented here reports the incidental hospital laboratory finding of an asymptomatic microfilaremia in a relapsing Plasmodium vivax imported case during a malaria treatment follow-up appointment...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759593/proteogenomic-analysis-of-the-total-and-surface-exposed-proteomes-of-plasmodium-vivax-salivary-gland-sporozoites
#7
Kristian E Swearingen, Scott E Lindner, Erika L Flannery, Ashley M Vaughan, Robert D Morrison, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Muller, Aaron Jex, Robert L Moritz, Stefan H I Kappe, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sebastian A Mikolajczak
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the majority of human malaria cases. Research efforts predominantly focus on P. falciparum because of the clinical severity of infection and associated mortality rates. However, P. vivax malaria affects more people in a wider global range. Furthermore, unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax can persist in the liver as dormant hypnozoites that can be activated weeks to years after primary infection, causing relapse of symptomatic blood stages. This feature makes P. vivax unique and difficult to eliminate with the standard tools of vector control and treatment of symptomatic blood stage infection with antimalarial drugs...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750669/population-level-estimates-of-the-proportion-of-plasmodium-vivax-blood-stage-infections-attributable-to-relapses-among-febrile-patients-attending-adama-malaria-diagnostic-centre-east-shoa-zone-oromia-ethiopia
#8
Lemu Golassa, Michael T White
BACKGROUND: Malaria is ranked as the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are co-endemic. The incidence of P. vivax is usually considered to be less seasonal than P. falciparum. Clinical cases of symptomatic P. falciparum exhibit notable seasonal variation, driven by rainfall-dependent variation in the abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes. A similar peak of clinical cases of P. vivax is usually observed during the rainy season. However, the ability of P...
July 27, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749773/hemolytic-potential-of-tafenoquine-in-female-volunteers-heterozygous-for-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-deficiency-g6pd-mahidol-variant-versus-g6pd-normal-volunteers
#9
Ronnatrai Rueangweerayut, Germana Bancone, Emma J Harrell, Andrew P Beelen, Supornchai Kongpatanakul, Jörg J Möhrle, Vicki Rousell, Khadeeja Mohamed, Ammar Qureshi, Sushma Narayan, Nushara Yubon, Ann Miller, François H Nosten, Lucio Luzzatto, Stephan Duparc, Jörg-Peter Kleim, Justin A Green
Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol(487A) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40-60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days)...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617860/increasing-prevalence-of-infectious-diseases-in-asylum-seekers-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-switzerland
#10
Constantine Bloch-Infanger, Veronika Bättig, Jürg Kremo, Andreas F Widmer, Adrian Egli, Roland Bingisser, Manuel Battegay, Stefan Erb
OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. METHODS: At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615258/effect-of-a-package-of-health-and-nutrition-services-on-sustained-recovery-in-children-after-moderate-acute-malnutrition-and-factors-related-to-sustaining-recovery-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Heather C Stobaugh, Lucy B Bollinger, Sara E Adams, Audrey H Crocker, Jennifer B Grise, Julie A Kennedy, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Dennis J Dietzen, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
Background: Children who recover from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have high rates of relapse in the year after nutritional recovery. Interventions to decrease these adverse outcomes are needed to maximize the overall effectiveness of supplemental feeding programs (SFPs).Objective: We evaluated the effectiveness of a package of health and nutrition interventions on improving the proportion of children who sustained recovery for 1 y after MAM treatment. We further explored factors related to sustained recovery...
August 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612497/pharmacotherapy-follow-up-role-in-active-malaria-surveillance-in-a-travel-medicine-centre-outside-the-transmission-area-in-brazil
#12
R S Pedro, P Brasil, A Pina-Costa, C R Machado, L S Damasceno, C T Daniel-Ribeiro, L Guaraldo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Malaria is a potentially severe disease, widespread in tropical and subtropical areas. Apart from parasite drug resistance, which receives the largest share of attention, several factors directly influence the response to antimalarial treatment such as incorrect doses, adverse drug events, lack of adherence to treatment, drug quality and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacotherapy follow-up can be used to monitor and improve the effectiveness of treatment, prevent drug-related problems and ensure patient safety...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526056/the-blood-schizonticidal-activity-of-tafenoquine-makes-an-essential-contribution-to-its-prophylactic-efficacy-in-nonimmune-subjects-at-the-intended-dose-200%C3%A2-mg
#13
REVIEW
Geoffrey Dow, Bryan Smith
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial being developed for malaria prophylaxis. It has been generally assumed that TQ, administered prophylactically, acts primarily on the developing exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites (causal prophylaxis), and that polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes thought to impact the activity of other 8-aminoquinolines also inhibit this property of TQ. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a diagnostic test for CYP2D6 metabolizer status might be required. In field studies in which metabolic status was not an exclusion criteria, TQ has been shown to exhibit similar prophylactic efficacy as blood schizonticidal drugs (mefloquine)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446690/antimalarial-efficacy-of-mmv390048-an-inhibitor-of-plasmodium-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase
#14
Tanya Paquet, Claire Le Manach, Diego González Cabrera, Yassir Younis, Philipp P Henrich, Tara S Abraham, Marcus C S Lee, Rajshekhar Basak, Sonja Ghidelli-Disse, María José Lafuente-Monasterio, Marcus Bantscheff, Andrea Ruecker, Andrew M Blagborough, Sara E Zakutansky, Anne-Marie Zeeman, Karen L White, David M Shackleford, Janne Mannila, Julia Morizzi, Christian Scheurer, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, María Santos Martínez, Santiago Ferrer, Laura María Sanz, Francisco Javier Gamo, Janette Reader, Mariette Botha, Koen J Dechering, Robert W Sauerwein, Anchalee Tungtaeng, Pattaraporn Vanachayangkul, Chek Shik Lim, Jeremy Burrows, Michael J Witty, Kennan C Marsh, Christophe Bodenreider, Rosemary Rochford, Suresh M Solapure, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Sergio Wittlin, Susan A Charman, Cristina Donini, Brice Campo, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Kirsten K Hanson, Gerard Drewes, Clemens H M Kocken, Michael J Delves, Didier Leroy, David A Fidock, David Waterson, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale
As part of the global effort toward malaria eradication, phenotypic whole-cell screening revealed the 2-aminopyridine class of small molecules as a good starting point to develop new antimalarial drugs. Stemming from this series, we found that the derivative, MMV390048, lacked cross-resistance with current drugs used to treat malaria. This compound was efficacious against all Plasmodium life cycle stages, apart from late hypnozoites in the liver. Efficacy was shown in the humanized Plasmodium falciparum mouse model, and modest reductions in mouse-to-mouse transmission were achieved in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model...
April 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#15
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366603/malaria-eradication-and-the-hidden-parasite-reservoir
#16
Miles B Markus
Accumulation of erythrocytic parasites in bone marrow and the spleen has been reported in cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria. If this occurs commonly, these stages represent a possible source of early, relapse-like homologous recurrences. Moreover, they might hinder the elimination of malaria from human populations. Pertinent research suggestions have been made.
July 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284211/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-presentation-treatment-and-relapse-characteristics-of-human-plasmodium-ovale-malaria
#17
REVIEW
Mirjam Groger, Hannah S Fischer, Luzia Veletzky, Albert Lalremruata, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: Despite increased efforts to control and ultimately eradicate human malaria, Plasmodium ovale malaria is for the most part outside the focus of research or public health programmes. Importantly, the understanding of P. ovale-nowadays regarded as the two distinct species P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi-largely stems from case reports and case series lacking study designs providing high quality evidence. Consecutively, there is a lack of systematic evaluation of the clinical presentation, appropriate treatment and relapse characteristics of P...
March 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279180/primaquine-thiazolidinones-block-malaria-transmission-and-development-of-the-liver-exoerythrocytic-forms
#18
Anna Caroline C Aguiar, Flávio Jr B Figueiredo, Patrícia D Neuenfeldt, Tony H Katsuragawa, Bruna B Drawanz, Wilson Cunico, Photini Sinnis, Fidel Zavala, Antoniana U Krettli
BACKGROUND: Primaquine is an anti-malarial used to prevent Plasmodium vivax relapses and malaria transmission. However, PQ metabolites cause haemolysis in patients deficient in the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Fifteen PQ-thiazolidinone derivatives, synthesized through one-post reactions from primaquine, arenealdehydes and mercaptoacetic acid, were evaluated in parallel in several biological assays, including ability to block malaria transmission to mosquitoes. RESULTS: All primaquine derivatives (PQ-TZs) exhibited lower cell toxicity than primaquine; none caused haemolysis to normal or G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes in vitro...
March 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264678/passive-case-detection-of-malaria-in-ratanakiri-province-cambodia-to-detect-villages-at-higher-risk-for-malaria
#19
Somony Heng, Lies Durnez, Sokny Mao, Sovannaroth Siv, Sochantha Tho, Vanna Mean, Vincent Sluydts, Marc Coosemans
BACKGROUND: Cambodia reduced malaria incidence by more than 75% between 2000 and 2015, a target of the Millennium Development Goal 6. The Cambodian Government aims to eliminate all forms of malaria by 2025. The country's malaria incidence is highly variable at provincial level, but less is known at village level. This study used passive case detection (PCD) data at village level in Ratanakiri Province from 2010 to 2014 to describe incidence trends and identify high-risk areas of malaria to be primarily targeted towards malaria elimination...
March 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256794/laser-capture-microdissection-enables-transcriptomic-analysis-of-dividing-and-quiescent-liver-stages-of-plasmodium-relapsing-species
#20
Roger Cubi, Shruthi S Vembar, Anne Biton, Jean-Francois Franetich, Mallaury Bordessoulles, Daniel Sossau, Gigliola Zanghi, Henriette Bosson-Vanga, Magalie Benard, Alicia Moreno, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Roger Le Grand, Artur Scherf, Dominique Mazier
Dormant liver stage forms (hypnozoites) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax present major hurdles to control and eradicate infection. Despite major research efforts, the molecular composition of hypnozoites remains ill defined. Here, we applied a combination of state-of-the-art technologies to generate the first transcriptome of hypnozoites. We developed a robust laser dissection microscopy protocol to isolate individual Plasmodium cynomolgi hypnozoites and schizonts from infected monkey hepatocytes and optimized RNA-seq analysis to obtain the first transcriptomes of these stages...
August 2017: Cellular Microbiology
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