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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783973/erythrocyte-microrna-sequencing-reveals-differential-expression-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Kira Groen, Vicki E Maltby, Rodney A Lea, Katherine A Sanders, J Lynn Fink, Rodney J Scott, Lotti Tajouri, Jeannette Lechner-Scott
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of knowledge concerning erythrocytes in the aetiology of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) despite their potential to contribute to disease through impaired antioxidant capacity and altered haemorheological features. Several studies have identified an abundance of erythrocyte miRNAs and variable profiles associated with disease states, such as sickle cell disease and malaria. The aim of this study was to compare the erythrocyte miRNA profile of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients to healthy sex- and age-matched controls...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780011/a-malaria-case-followed-by-relapse
#2
Şua Sümer, Nazlım Aktuğ Demir, Onur Ural, Gizem Çimen, Emine Yalçınkaya
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by an intracellular parasite, Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans after the bite of an Anopheles mosquito. This disease has been prevalent for decades. It has caused great epidemics in history and has also delayed social and economic development. It is endemic in the Eastern Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolia regions of our country. The most common plasmodium in our country is P. vivax. In P. vivax infections, patients should be treated with primaquine to eradicate hypnozoites...
May 21, 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720181/multiplicity-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-east-africa
#3
Daibin Zhong, Eugenia Lo, Xiaoming Wang, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Guofa Zhou, Harrysone E Atieli, Andrew Githeko, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Ming-Chieh Lee, Yaw Afrane, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Parasite genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) affect clinical outcomes, response to drug treatment and naturally-acquired or vaccine-induced immunity. Traditional methods often underestimate the frequency and diversity of multiclonal infections due to technical sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing techniques provide a novel opportunity to study complexity of parasite populations and molecular epidemiology. METHODS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax samples were collected from health centres/hospitals and schools, respectively, from 2011 to 2015 in Ethiopia...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713556/relapsing-malaria-a-case-report-of-primaquine-resistance
#4
Christopher Dijanic, Jillian Nickerson, Sunita Shakya, Amanda Dijanic, Marilyn Fabbri
Primaquine (an 8-aminoquinoline malarial therapy) is the only FDA-approved therapy to treat the hypnozoite stage of P. vivax . We think of relapse occurring because of parasitic resistance or poor compliance secondary to drug toxicities. However, in patients with repeated treatment failure, we must consider CYP-450 mutations affecting drug metabolism as an important cause of relapse. A 47-year-old man who travelled to a jungle in Venezuela was diagnosed with P. falciparum and P. vivax in July 2015. He was treated with seven rounds of primaquine-based therapy in the following year, all resulted in relapse without further exposure to endemic areas...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702253/infectious-disease-profiles-of-syrian-and-eritrean-migrants-presenting-in-europe-a-systematic-review
#5
Egon Isenring, Jan Fehr, Nejla Gültekin, Patricia Schlagenhauf
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, a large influx of migrants presented in Europe. Their country of origin was mainly either Syria or Eritrea. Public health institutions in host countries in Europe are challenged to screen and care for migrant populations with regard to infectious diseases. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review (according to PRISMA guidelines) to define the infectious disease profile of migrants originating in Syria and Eritrea. RESULTS: The search resulted in 825 papers of possible relevance for infectious diseases in migrants from Syria, of which, after screening, we included 35 in the systematic review...
April 24, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677199/implications-of-current-therapeutic-restrictions-for-primaquine-and-tafenoquine-in-the-radical-cure-of-vivax-malaria
#6
James Watson, Walter R J Taylor, Germana Bancone, Cindy S Chu, Podjanee Jittamala, Nicholas J White
BACKGROUND: The 8-aminoquinoline antimalarials, the only drugs which prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malaria (radical cure), cause dose-dependent oxidant haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients with <30% and <70% of normal G6PD activity are not given standard regimens of primaquine and tafenoquine, respectively. Both drugs are currently considered contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women. METHODS: Quantitative G6PD enzyme activity data from 5198 individuals were used to estimate the proportions of heterozygous females who would be ineligible for treatment at the 30% and 70% activity thresholds, and the relationship with the severity of the deficiency...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672516/use-of-primaquine-and-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-testing-divergent-policies-and-practices-in-malaria-endemic-countries
#7
REVIEW
Judith Recht, Elizabeth A Ashley, Nicholas J White
Primaquine is the only available antimalarial drug that kills dormant liver stages of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malarias and therefore prevents their relapse ('radical cure'). It is also the only generally available antimalarial that rapidly sterilises mature P. falciparum gametocytes. Radical cure requires extended courses of primaquine (usually 14 days; total dose 3.5-7 mg/kg), whereas transmissibility reduction in falciparum malaria requires a single dose (formerly 0.75 mg/kg, now a single low dose [SLD] of 0...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665803/plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-dynamics-re-infections-recrudescences-and-relapses
#8
Michael T White, Stephan Karl, Cristian Koepfli, Rhea J Longley, Natalie E Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Ingrid Felger, Tom Smith, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Leanne Robinson, Azra Ghani, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic populations, complex patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection dynamics may be observed. Genotyping samples from longitudinal cohort studies for merozoite surface protein (msp) variants increases the information available in the data, allowing multiple infecting parasite clones in a single individual to be identified. msp genotyped samples from two longitudinal cohorts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Thailand were analysed using a statistical model where the times of acquisition and clearance of each clone in every individual were estimated using a process of data augmentation...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661873/characterising-blood-stage-antimalarial-drug-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-in-vivo-using-reinfection-patterns
#9
James Watson, Cindy S Chu, Joel Tarning, Nicholas J White
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is an essential quantitative measure of the asexual blood stage effect of an antimalarial drug. In areas of high malaria transmission, and thus frequent individual infection, patients who are treated with slowly eliminated antimalarials become reinfected as drug concentrations decline. In the frequent relapse forms of P. vivax and in P. ovale malaria, recurrent infection occurs from relapses which begin to emerge from the liver approximately two weeks after the primary illness...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614536/-prophylaxis-and-therapy-of-malaria-current-recommendations
#10
Christof D Vinnemeier, Thierry Rolling
Malaria incidence is decreasing on a global scale, while the number of imported cases has remained at a high level in Germany. To decrease this number, counselling of travellers to malaria-endemic regions is important. Patients to high risk countries need regular chemoprophylaxis. The alternative of stand-by emergency treatment for travellers to regions with low or medium risk has been met with growing criticism. For the treatment of all malaria cases, artemisinins are a mainstay of treatment. Regular follow-up is warranted to prevent relapses...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564998/biological-concepts-in-recurrent-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#11
Miles B Markus
A curious aspect of the evolution of the hypnozoite theory of malarial relapse is its transmogrification from theory into 'fact', this being of historical, linguistic, scientific and sociological interest. As far as it goes, the hypnozoite explanation for relapse is almost certainly correct. I contend, however, that many of the genotypically homologous, non-reinfection, relapse-like Plasmodium vivax recurrences that researchers ascribe to hypnozoite activation are probably hypnozoite-independent. Indeed, some malariologists are starting to recognize that homologous P...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548282/prevalence-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-g6pd-deficiency-among-malaria-patients-in-upper-myanmar
#12
Jinyoung Lee, Tae Im Kim, Jung-Mi Kang, Hojong Jun, Hương Giang Lê, Thị Lam Thái, Woon-Mok Sohn, Moe Kyaw Myint, Khin Lin, Tong-Soo Kim, Byoung-Kuk Na
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD; EC 1.1.1.49) deficiency is one of the most common X-linked recessive hereditary disorders in the world. Primaquine (PQ) has been used for radical cure of P. vivax to prevent relapse. Recently, it is also used to reduce P. falciparum gametocyte carriage to block transmission. However, PQ metabolites oxidize hemoglobin and generate excessive reactive oxygen species which can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in malaria patients with inherited G6PD deficiency...
March 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545477/therapeutic-effect-of-quinacrine-an-antiprotozoan-drug-by-selective-suppression-of-p-chk1-2-in-p53-negative-malignant-cancers
#13
Soyoung Park, Ah-Young Oh, Jung-Hyun Cho, Min-Ho Yoon, Tae-Gyun Woo, So-Mi Kang, Ho-Young Lee, Youn-Jin Jung, Bum-Joon Park
Quinacrine (QNC), antiprotozoan drug commonly used against Malaria and Giardiasis , has been recently tried for rheumatics and prion diseases via drug repositioning. In addition, several reports suggest antitumor effects of QNC through suppression of NF-κB and activation of p53. This study demonstrates the anticancer effect of QNC via a novel pathway through the elimination of checkpoint kinase 1/2 (Chk1/2) under p53-inactivated conditions. Inhibition of p53 by PFT-α or siRNA promotes QNC-induced apoptosis in normal fibroblast and p53-intact cancer cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510711/the-ethics-of-using-placebo-in-randomised-controlled-trials-a-case-study-of-a-plasmodium-vivax-antirelapse-trial
#14
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Norbert Steinkamp, Lorenz von Seidlein, Ric N Price
BACKGROUND: The use of placebos in randomised controlled trials is a subject of considerable ethical debate. In this paper we present a set of considerations to evaluate the ethics of placebo controlled trials that includes: social value of the study; need for a randomised controlled trial and placebo; standards of care; risks of harm due to administration of placebo and the harm benefit balance; clinical equipoise; and double standards. We illustrate the application of these considerations using a case study of a large ongoing multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised trial to determine primaquine anti-relapse efficacy in vivax malaria...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478773/in-vitro-culture-drug-sensitivity-and-transcriptome-of-plasmodium-vivax-hypnozoites
#15
Nil Gural, Liliana Mancio-Silva, Alex B Miller, Ani Galstian, Vincent L Butty, Stuart S Levine, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Salil P Desai, Sebastian A Mikolajczak, Stefan H I Kappe, Heather E Fleming, Sandra March, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sangeeta N Bhatia
The unique relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection is a major barrier to malaria eradication. Upon infection, dormant liver-stage forms, hypnozoites, linger for weeks to months and then relapse to cause recurrent blood-stage infection. Very little is known about hypnozoite biology; definitive biomarkers are lacking and in vitro platforms that support phenotypic studies are needed. Here, we recapitulate the entire liver stage of P. vivax in vitro, using a multiwell format that incorporates micropatterned primary human hepatocyte co-cultures (MPCCs)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463259/climatic-fluctuations-and-malaria-transmission-dynamics-prior-to-elimination-in-guna-yala-rep%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-de-panam%C3%A3
#16
Lisbeth Amarilis Hurtado, José E Calzada, Chystrie A Rigg, Milagros Castillo, Luis Fernando Chaves
BACKGROUND: Malaria has historically been entrenched in indigenous populations of the República de Panamá. This scenario occurs despite the fact that successful methods for malaria elimination were developed during the creation of the Panamá Canal. Today, most malaria cases in the República de Panamá affect the Gunas, an indigenous group, which mainly live in autonomous regions of eastern Panamá. Over recent decades several malaria outbreaks have affected the Gunas, and one hypothesis is that such outbreaks could have been exacerbated by climate change, especially by anomalous weather patterns driven by the EL Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...
February 20, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458389/artesunate-shows-potent-anti-tumor-activity-in-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
Thea Kristin Våtsveen, Marit Renée Myhre, Chloé Beate Steen, Sébastien Wälchli, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Baoyan Bai, Pierre Dillard, Theodossis A Theodossiou, Toril Holien, Anders Sundan, Else Marit Inderberg, Erlend B Smeland, June Helen Myklebust, Morten P Oksvold
BACKGROUND: Although chemo-immunotherapy has led to an improved overall survival for most B-cell lymphoma types, relapsed and refractory disease remains a challenge. The malaria drug artesunate has previously been identified as a growth suppressor in some cancer types and was tested as a new treatment option in B-cell lymphoma. METHODS: We included artesunate in a cancer sensitivity drug screen in B lymphoma cell lines. The preclinical properties of artesunate was tested as single agent in vitro in 18 B-cell lymphoma cell lines representing different histologies and in vivo in an aggressive B-cell lymphoma xenograft model, using NSG mice...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456374/factors-affecting-primaquine-combination-treatment-in-malaria-patients-in-selangor-malaysia
#18
Norliza Mat Ariffin, Farida Islahudin, Mohd Makmor-Bakry, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Hafizi A Hamid
Introduction: Primaquine is vital for the management of liver-stage Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria. However, primaquine effectiveness is dependent on various factors and differs between populations. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify factors that affect the length of stay and relapse during primaquine combination treatment in malaria-infected patients in the local setting. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on the use of primaquine combination among P...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426330/molecular-evidence-for-relapse-of-an-imported-plasmodium-ovale-wallikeri-infection
#19
Luzia Veletzky, Mirjam Groger, Heimo Lagler, Julia Walochnik, Herbert Auer, Hans-Peter Fuehrer, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: Malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale spp. has been neglected by and large from research and has received only little scientific attention during the past decades. Ovale malaria is considered to feature relapses by liver hypnozoites although scientific evidence for this paradigm is scarce. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, the case of a 16-year-old male, who presented with fevers to the outpatient department in Vienna, Austria, after travelling to Uganda and Papua New Guinea is described...
February 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395823/cardiopulmonary-bypass-and-malaria-relapse
#20
Stanislas Abrard, Benoit Cousin, Carole Fleury, Olivier Fouquet, Laurent Beydon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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