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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720181/multiplicity-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-east-africa
#1
Daibin Zhong, Eugenia Lo, Xiaoming Wang, Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Guofa Zhou, Harrysone E Atieli, Andrew Githeko, Elizabeth Hemming-Schroeder, Ming-Chieh Lee, Yaw Afrane, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Parasite genetic diversity and multiplicity of infection (MOI) affect clinical outcomes, response to drug treatment and naturally-acquired or vaccine-induced immunity. Traditional methods often underestimate the frequency and diversity of multiclonal infections due to technical sensitivity and specificity. Next-generation sequencing techniques provide a novel opportunity to study complexity of parasite populations and molecular epidemiology. METHODS: Symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax samples were collected from health centres/hospitals and schools, respectively, from 2011 to 2015 in Ethiopia...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665803/plasmodium-vivax-and-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-dynamics-re-infections-recrudescences-and-relapses
#2
Michael T White, Stephan Karl, Cristian Koepfli, Rhea J Longley, Natalie E Hofmann, Rahel Wampfler, Ingrid Felger, Tom Smith, Wang Nguitragool, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Leanne Robinson, Azra Ghani, Ivo Mueller
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic populations, complex patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage infection dynamics may be observed. Genotyping samples from longitudinal cohort studies for merozoite surface protein (msp) variants increases the information available in the data, allowing multiple infecting parasite clones in a single individual to be identified. msp genotyped samples from two longitudinal cohorts in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Thailand were analysed using a statistical model where the times of acquisition and clearance of each clone in every individual were estimated using a process of data augmentation...
April 17, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661873/characterising-blood-stage-antimalarial-drug-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-in-vivo-using-reinfection-patterns
#3
James Watson, Cindy S Chu, Joel Tarning, Nicholas J White
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is an essential quantitative measure of the asexual blood stage effect of an antimalarial drug. In areas of high malaria transmission, and thus frequent individual infection, patients who are treated with slowly eliminated antimalarials become reinfected as drug concentrations decline. In the frequent relapse forms of P. vivax and in P. ovale malaria, recurrent infection occurs from relapses which begin to emerge from the liver approximately two weeks after the primary illness...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656958/polymorphisms-in-tlrs-influence-circulating-cytokines-production-in-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-tlr-polymorphisms-influence-cytokine-productions-in-malaria-vivax
#4
Allyson Guimarães Costa, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Fernando Fonseca Almeida Val, Hiochelson Najibe Santos Ibiapina, Amanda Carvalho Oliveira, Andréa Monteiro Tarragô, Nadja Pinto Garcia, Maria Izabel Ovellar Heckmann, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Adriana Malheiro, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães Lacerda
The efficiency of the immune system has been shaped throughout the evolutionary process allowing adaptations. In a Plasmodium vivax infection, the host attempts to develop an innate immune response to keep in check the parasite that is associated with inflammatory and regulatory processes. Production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines simultaneously appears to be a balancing mechanism for the host to prevent the onset of severe disease. Changes in the dynamics of circulating cytokines production can influence the pathogenesis, severity of the disease and episodes of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria)...
April 12, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615039/efficacy-and-safety-of-artemether-lumefantrine-artesunate-amodiaquine-and-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-three-provinces-in-angola-2017
#5
Elizabeth Davlantes, Pedro Rafael Dimbu, Carolina Miguel Ferreira, Maria Florinda Joao, Dilunvuidi Pode, Jacinto Félix, Edgar Sanhangala, Benjamin Nieto Andrade, Samaly Dos Santos Souza, Eldin Talundzic, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Chantelle Owens, Eliane Mbounga, Lubbe Wiesner, Eric S Halsey, José Franco Martins, Filomeno Fortes, Mateusz M Plucinski
BACKGROUND: The Angolan government recommends three artemisinin-based combinations for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Due to the threat of emerging anti-malarial drug resistance, it is important to periodically monitor the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study evaluated these medications' therapeutic efficacy in Benguela, Lunda Sul, and Zaire Provinces...
April 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606365/widening-the-options-for-recurrent-malaria
#6
Quique Bassat, Sanjeev Krishna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564998/biological-concepts-in-recurrent-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#7
Miles B Markus
A curious aspect of the evolution of the hypnozoite theory of malarial relapse is its transmogrification from theory into 'fact', this being of historical, linguistic, scientific and sociological interest. As far as it goes, the hypnozoite explanation for relapse is almost certainly correct. I contend, however, that many of the genotypically homologous, non-reinfection, relapse-like Plasmodium vivax recurrences that researchers ascribe to hypnozoite activation are probably hypnozoite-independent. Indeed, some malariologists are starting to recognize that homologous P...
March 22, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548285/low-risk-of-recurrence-following-artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-plus-primaquine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-the-republic-of-the-sudan
#8
Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Kamala Thriemer, Maha E Elobied, Nouh S Mahgoub, Salah A Boshara, Hassan M H Elsafi, Suhaib A Gumaa, Tassneem Hamid, Hanadi Abdelbagi, Hamid M Basheir, Jutta Marfurt, Ingrid Chen, Roly Gosling, Ric N Price, Benedikt Ley
BACKGROUND: First-line schizontocidal treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the Republic of the Sudan is artesunate (total dose 12 mg/kg) plus Sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (25/1.25 mg/kg) (AS/SP). Patients with Plasmodium vivax are also treated with 14 days primaquine (total dose 3.5 mg/kg) (PQ). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the national policy. METHODS: Patients above 1 year, with microscopy-confirmed, Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax malaria were treated with AS/SP...
March 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544491/insecticide-resistance-in-anopheles-arabiensis-populations-from-dakar-and-its-suburbs-role-of-target-site-and-metabolic-resistance-mechanisms
#9
A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530100/prevalence-of-plasmodium-falciparum-delayed-clearance-associated-polymorphisms-in-adaptor-protein-complex-2-mu-subunit-pfap2mu-and-ubiquitin-specific-protease-1-pfubp1-genes-in-ghanaian-isolates
#10
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488459/case-report-delayed-or-recurrent-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-migrants-a-report-of-three-cases-with-a-literature-review
#11
Nicolas Dauby, Mariana Figueiredo Ferreira, Deborah Konopnicki, Vo Thanh Phuong Nguyen, Brigitte Cantinieaux, Charlotte Martin
Emerging evidence indicates that migrants from Plasmodium falciparum endemic regions are at risk of delayed presentation of P. falciparum malaria. We report three cases of P. falciparum malaria occurring years after arrival in Europe. All patients were originally from Sub-Saharan Africa. Two subjects had controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection and one was a pregnant woman. We performed a literature review of all published cases of delayed presentation of P. falciparum in migrants and identified 32 additional cases...
April 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478773/in-vitro-culture-drug-sensitivity-and-transcriptome-of-plasmodium-vivax-hypnozoites
#12
Nil Gural, Liliana Mancio-Silva, Alex B Miller, Ani Galstian, Vincent L Butty, Stuart S Levine, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Salil P Desai, Sebastian A Mikolajczak, Stefan H I Kappe, Heather E Fleming, Sandra March, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sangeeta N Bhatia
The unique relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection is a major barrier to malaria eradication. Upon infection, dormant liver-stage forms, hypnozoites, linger for weeks to months and then relapse to cause recurrent blood-stage infection. Very little is known about hypnozoite biology; definitive biomarkers are lacking and in vitro platforms that support phenotypic studies are needed. Here, we recapitulate the entire liver stage of P. vivax in vitro, using a multiwell format that incorporates micropatterned primary human hepatocyte co-cultures (MPCCs)...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441495/evaluating-the-treatment-costs-for-uncomplicated-malaria-at-a-public-healthcare-facility-in-nigeria-and-the-implications
#13
Charles C Ezenduka, Daniel Resende Falleiros, Brian B Godman
BACKGROUND: Accurate information on the facility costs of treatment is essential to enhance decision making and funding for malaria control. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria through a public health facility in Nigeria. METHODS: Hospital costs were estimated from a provider perspective, applying a standard costing procedure. Capital and recurrent expenditures were estimated using an ingredient approach combined with step-down methodology...
September 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433507/sudden-spleen-rupture-in-a-plasmodium-vivax-infected-patient-undergoing-malaria-treatment
#14
Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Fernando Val, Ingrid Cardoso C Azevedo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Luiz C L Ferreira, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is one of the most common features of malaria. However, spontaneous splenic rupture, although unusual, represents a severe complication often leading to death. It is mostly seen in acute infection and primary attack, and it is most commonly associated with Plasmodium vivax. Here, a case of spontaneous splenic rupture diagnosed with a portable ultrasound apparatus shortly after starting treatment and with recurrent parasitaemia after splenectomy, is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 45-year-old Brazilian man presented to the hospital in Manaus with fever, headache and myalgia...
February 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426701/a-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-producing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-subset-prevents-malarial-parasitemic-recurrence
#15
Murad R Mamedov, Anja Scholzen, Ramesh V Nair, Katherine Cumnock, Justin A Kenkel, Jose Henrique M Oliveira, Damian L Trujillo, Naresha Saligrama, Yue Zhang, Florian Rubelt, David S Schneider, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Robert W Sauerwein, Mark M Davis
Despite evidence that γδ T cells play an important role during malaria, their precise role remains unclear. During murine malaria induced by Plasmodium chabaudi infection and in human P. falciparum infection, we found that γδ T cells expanded rapidly after resolution of acute parasitemia, in contrast to αβ T cells that expanded at the acute stage and then declined. Single-cell sequencing showed that TRAV15N-1 (Vδ6.3) γδ T cells were clonally expanded in mice and had convergent complementarity-determining region 3 sequences...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392184/generating-focused-molecule-libraries-for-drug-discovery-with-recurrent-neural-networks
#16
Marwin H S Segler, Thierry Kogej, Christian Tyrchan, Mark P Waller
In de novo drug design, computational strategies are used to generate novel molecules with good affinity to the desired biological target. In this work, we show that recurrent neural networks can be trained as generative models for molecular structures, similar to statistical language models in natural language processing. We demonstrate that the properties of the generated molecules correlate very well with the properties of the molecules used to train the model. In order to enrich libraries with molecules active toward a given biological target, we propose to fine-tune the model with small sets of molecules, which are known to be active against that target...
January 24, 2018: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390987/cyp2d6-activity-and-the-risk-of-recurrence-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-the-brazilian-amazon-a-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Larissa W Brasil, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Ana B Santoro, Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kühn, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz
BACKGROUND: CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine into active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, encoding CYP2D6 isoforms with normal, reduced, null or increased activity. It is hypothesized that Plasmodium vivax malaria patients with defective CYP2D6 function would be at increased risk for primaquine failure to prevent recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP2D6 polymorphisms and inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes with malaria recurrence in patients from the Western Brazilian Amazon, following chloroquine/primaquine combined therapy...
February 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390014/impact-of-treatment-and-re-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine-and-artesunate-amodiaquine-on-selection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-multidrug-resistance-gene-1-polymorphisms-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-and-uganda
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Vito Baraka, Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Carolyn Nabasumba, Filbert Francis, Pascal Lutumba, Michael Alifrangis, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance against artemisinin combination treatment is a major concern for malaria control. ACTs are recommended as the rescue treatment, however, there is limited evidence as to whether treatment and re-treatment with ACTs select for drug-resistant P. falciparum parasites. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of (re-)treatment using artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) on the selection of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr1) alleles in clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345221/therapeutic-response-to-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-p-falciparum-and-p-vivax-nine-years-after-its-introduction-in-southern-papua-indonesia
#19
Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Enny Kenangalem, Johny Wafom, Freis Chandrawati, Agatha M Puspitasari, Benedikt Ley, Leily Trianti, Zoé Korten, Asik Surya, Din Syafruddin, Nicholas M Anstey, Jutta Marfurt, Rintis Noviyanti, Ric N Price
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) has been the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in Papua, Indonesia, since March 2006. The efficacy of DHP was reassessed to determine whether there had been any decline following almost a decade of its extensive use. An open-label drug efficacy study of DHP for uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria was carried out between March 2015 and April 2016 in Timika, Papua, Indonesia. Patients with uncomplicated malaria were administered supervised DHP tablets once daily for 3 days...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313573/p-vivax-malaria-presenting-as-thrombotic-microangiopathy
#20
Dharmendra Bhadauria, Harsh Vardhan, Anupma Kaul, Raj Kumar Sharma, Amit Gupta, Narayan Prasad, Manoj Jain
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to occur in patients with falciparum malaria but not uncommon with vivax malaria. AKI, anemia, thrombocytopenia and jaundice is a recurrent finding in severe malaria and can mimic as thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Relationship of malaria with TMA is unclear till date however evidences suggest their association. Methods & Material: We reviewed our electronic database to evaluate relationship of malaria with TMA, of cases of malaria, jaundice and AKI...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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