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recurrent malaria

A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Nicolas Dauby, Mariana Figueiredo Ferreira, Deborah Konopnicki, Vo Thanh Phuong Nguyen, Brigitte Cantinieaux, Charlotte Martin
Emerging evidence indicates that migrants from Plasmodium falciparum endemic regions are at risk of delayed presentation of P. falciparum malaria. We report three cases of P. falciparum malaria occurring years after arrival in Europe. All patients were originally from Sub-Saharan Africa. Two subjects had controlled HIV infection and one was a pregnant woman. We performed a literature review of all published cases of delayed presentation of P. falciparum in migrants and identified 32 additional cases. All cases but one originate from sub-Saharan Africa...
February 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nil Gural, Liliana Mancio-Silva, Alex B Miller, Ani Galstian, Vincent L Butty, Stuart S Levine, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Salil P Desai, Sebastian A Mikolajczak, Stefan H I Kappe, Heather E Fleming, Sandra March, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sangeeta N Bhatia
The unique relapsing nature of Plasmodium vivax infection is a major barrier to malaria eradication. Upon infection, dormant liver-stage forms, hypnozoites, linger for weeks to months and then relapse to cause recurrent blood-stage infection. Very little is known about hypnozoite biology; definitive biomarkers are lacking and in vitro platforms that support phenotypic studies are needed. Here, we recapitulate the entire liver stage of P. vivax in vitro, using a multiwell format that incorporates micropatterned primary human hepatocyte co-cultures (MPCCs)...
February 6, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Charles C Ezenduka, Daniel Resende Falleiros, Brian B Godman
BACKGROUND: Accurate information on the facility costs of treatment is essential to enhance decision making and funding for malaria control. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of providing treatment for uncomplicated malaria through a public health facility in Nigeria. METHODS: Hospital costs were estimated from a provider perspective, applying a standard costing procedure. Capital and recurrent expenditures were estimated using an ingredient approach combined with step-down methodology...
September 2017: PharmacoEconomics Open
Aleix Elizalde-Torrent, Fernando Val, Ingrid Cardoso C Azevedo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Luiz C L Ferreira, Carmen Fernández-Becerra, Hernando A Del Portillo, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Splenomegaly is one of the most common features of malaria. However, spontaneous splenic rupture, although unusual, represents a severe complication often leading to death. It is mostly seen in acute infection and primary attack, and it is most commonly associated with Plasmodium vivax. Here, a case of spontaneous splenic rupture diagnosed with a portable ultrasound apparatus shortly after starting treatment and with recurrent parasitaemia after splenectomy, is reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: In November 2015, a 45-year-old Brazilian man presented to the hospital in Manaus with fever, headache and myalgia...
February 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Murad R Mamedov, Anja Scholzen, Ramesh V Nair, Katherine Cumnock, Justin A Kenkel, Jose Henrique M Oliveira, Damian L Trujillo, Naresha Saligrama, Yue Zhang, Florian Rubelt, David S Schneider, Yueh-Hsiu Chien, Robert W Sauerwein, Mark M Davis
Despite evidence that γδ T cells play an important role during malaria, their precise role remains unclear. During murine malaria induced by Plasmodium chabaudi infection and in human P. falciparum infection, we found that γδ T cells expanded rapidly after resolution of acute parasitemia, in contrast to αβ T cells that expanded at the acute stage and then declined. Single-cell sequencing showed that TRAV15N-1 (Vδ6.3) γδ T cells were clonally expanded in mice and had convergent complementarity-determining region 3 sequences...
February 1, 2018: Immunity
Marwin H S Segler, Thierry Kogej, Christian Tyrchan, Mark P Waller
In de novo drug design, computational strategies are used to generate novel molecules with good affinity to the desired biological target. In this work, we show that recurrent neural networks can be trained as generative models for molecular structures, similar to statistical language models in natural language processing. We demonstrate that the properties of the generated molecules correlate very well with the properties of the molecules used to train the model. In order to enrich libraries with molecules active toward a given biological target, we propose to fine-tune the model with small sets of molecules, which are known to be active against that target...
January 24, 2018: ACS Central Science
Larissa W Brasil, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Ana B Santoro, Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kühn, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Marcus V G Lacerda, Wuelton M Monteiro, Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz
BACKGROUND: CYP2D6 pathway mediates the activation of primaquine into active metabolite(s) in hepatocytes. CYP2D6 is highly polymorphic, encoding CYP2D6 isoforms with normal, reduced, null or increased activity. It is hypothesized that Plasmodium vivax malaria patients with defective CYP2D6 function would be at increased risk for primaquine failure to prevent recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CYP2D6 polymorphisms and inferred CYP2D6 phenotypes with malaria recurrence in patients from the Western Brazilian Amazon, following chloroquine/primaquine combined therapy...
February 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
Vito Baraka, Hypolite Muhindo Mavoko, Carolyn Nabasumba, Filbert Francis, Pascal Lutumba, Michael Alifrangis, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: The emergence of resistance against artemisinin combination treatment is a major concern for malaria control. ACTs are recommended as the rescue treatment, however, there is limited evidence as to whether treatment and re-treatment with ACTs select for drug-resistant P. falciparum parasites. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of (re-)treatment using artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) on the selection of P. falciparum multidrug resistance-1 (Pfmdr1) alleles in clinical settings...
2018: PloS One
Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Enny Kenangalem, Johny Wafom, Freis Chandrawati, Agatha M Puspitasari, Benedikt Ley, Leily Trianti, Zoé Korten, Asik Surya, Din Syafruddin, Nicholas M Anstey, Jutta Marfurt, Rintis Noviyanti, Ric N Price
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) has been the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in Papua, Indonesia, since March 2006. The efficacy of DHP was reassessed to determine whether there had been any decline following almost a decade of its extensive use. An open-label drug efficacy study of DHP for uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria was carried out between March 2015 and April 2016 in Timika, Papua, Indonesia. Patients with uncomplicated malaria were administered supervised DHP tablets once daily for 3 days...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dharmendra Bhadauria, Harsh Vardhan, Anupma Kaul, Raj Kumar Sharma, Amit Gupta, Narayan Prasad, Manoj Jain
Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to occur in patients with falciparum malaria but not uncommon with vivax malaria. AKI, anemia, thrombocytopenia and jaundice is a recurrent finding in severe malaria and can mimic as thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Relationship of malaria with TMA is unclear till date however evidences suggest their association. Methods & Material: We reviewed our electronic database to evaluate relationship of malaria with TMA, of cases of malaria, jaundice and AKI...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Pauline Byakika-Kibwika, Jane Achan, Mohammed Lamorde, Carine Karera-Gonahasa, Agnes N Kiragga, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Noah Kiwanuka, Sam Nsobya, Ambrose O Talisuna, Concepta Merry
BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a medical emergency associated with high mortality. Adequate treatment requires initial parenteral therapy for fast parasite clearance followed by longer acting oral antimalarial drugs for cure and prevention of recrudescence. METHODS: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the 42-day parasitological outcomes of severe malaria treatment with intravenous artesunate (AS) or intravenous quinine (QNN) followed by oral artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) in children living in a high malaria transmission setting in Eastern Uganda...
December 28, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Makoto Saito, Mary Ellen Gilder, François Nosten, Rose McGready, Philippe J Guérin
BACKGROUND: There is no agreed standard method to assess the efficacy of anti-malarials for uncomplicated falciparum in pregnancy despite an increased risk of adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus. The aim of this review is to present the currently available evidence from both observational and interventional cohort studies on anti-malarial efficacy in pregnancy and summarize the variability of assessment and reporting found in the review process. METHODS: Efficacy methodology and assessment of artemisinin-based treatments (ABT) and quinine-based treatments (QBT) were reviewed systematically using seven databases and two clinical trial registries (protocol registration-PROSPERO: CRD42017054808)...
December 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
Norliza Mat Ariffin, Farida Islahudin, Endang Kumolosasi, Mohd Makmor-Bakry
BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates of Plasmodium vivax infections differ across various geographic regions. Interestingly, South-East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region are documented to exhibit the most frequent recurrence incidences. Identifying patients at a higher risk for recurrences gives valuable information in strengthening the efforts to control P. vivax infections. The aim of the study was to develop a tool to identify P. vivax- infected patients that are at a higher risk of recurrence in Malaysia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Megumi Itoh, Suiane Negreiros do Valle, Sâmela Farias, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Naomi Lucchi, Stella Chenet, Paola Marchesini, Marinete Póvoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and P. falciparum monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ghulam Rahim Awab, Mallika Imwong, Germana Bancone, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Charles J Woodrow
Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Elise Schieck, E Jane Poole, Anja Rippert, Judy Peshu, Philip Sasi, Steffen Borrmann, Peter C Bull
BACKGROUND: During intra-erythrocytic replication Plasmodium falciparum escapes the human host immune system by switching expression of variant surface antigens (VSA). Piecemeal acquisition of variant specific antibody responses to these antigens as a result of exposure to multiple re-infections has been proposed to play a role in acquisition of naturally acquired immunity. METHODS: Immunofluorescence was used to explore the dynamics of anti-VSA IgG responses generated by children to (i) primary malaria episodes and (ii) recurrent P...
November 7, 2017: Malaria Journal
Erik J Scully, Usheer Kanjee, Manoj T Duraisingh
Non-human primates harbor diverse species of malaria parasites, including the progenitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Cross-species transmission of some malaria parasites-most notably the macaque parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi-continues to this day, compelling the scientific community to ask whether these zoonoses could impede malaria control efforts by acting as a source of recurrent human infection. Host-restriction varies considerably among parasite species and is governed by both ecological and molecular variables...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Olivier Bouaziz, David Courtin, Gilles Cottrell, Jacqueline Milet, Gregory Nuel, André Garcia
Background: Children born to mothers with placental malaria (PM) have been described as more susceptible to the occurrence of a first malaria infection. However, whether or not these children remain more at risk during infancy has never been explored. We aimed to determine if children born to mothers with PM are more susceptible to malaria and remain at higher risk between birth and 18 months. Methods: 550 children were weekly followed-up with control of temperature and, if >37...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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