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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#1
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431516/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-disease-prevention-measures-a-methodological-note-on-defining-incidence-rates
#2
Yin-Bun Cheung, Ying Xu, Matthew Cairns, Paul Milligan
BACKGROUND: In studies of recurrent events, it is common to consider a person who has suffered a disease episode and received curative treatment to be not at risk of suffering a new episode for a duration of time. It is a common practice to deduct this duration from the person's observation time in the statistical analysis of the incidence data. METHODS: We examined the concepts of incidence and protective efficacy from a real life point of view. We developed simple formulae to show the relationship between the incidence rate and protective efficacy between analyses with and without deducting the curative treatment time from the observation time...
April 21, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426698/extensive-alterations-of-blood-metabolites-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#3
Sanchit Gupta, Karl Seydel, Miguel A Miranda-Roman, Catherine M Feintuch, Alex Saidi, Ryung S Kim, Gretchen L Birbeck, Terrie Taylor, Johanna P Daily
Cerebral malaria (CM) presents as an encephalopathy and is due to infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Patients are comatose, often with fever, recurrent seizures and this condition is associated with a high mortality rate. The etiology of the coma and seizures are poorly understood. Circulating small molecules and lipids have bioactive functions and alterations in their concentrations have been implicated in seizure disorders and other forms of encephalopathy. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of blood metabolites during CM to explore a biochemical basis of this encephalopathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388227/the-social-lives-of-global-policies-against-malaria-conceptual-considerations-past-experiences-and-current-issues
#4
Julian Eckl
While a casual observer might easily get the impression that global policies against malaria have unanimous support, there are strongly divergent perspectives on malaria control. Analyzing ethnographic and historical material through a political science lens, I foreground the social negotiation of malaria both as an illness experience of affected populations and as a disease problem defined by experts. Taking the interrelationship between problems, solutions, and solution providers as a point of departure, I reconstruct recurrent tensions and social mechanisms that can account for the tendency to downplay conflicts and to produce technical-biomedical solutions that seem to be irresistible...
April 7, 2017: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376349/genetic-diversity-of-next-generation-antimalarial-targets-a-baseline-for-drug-resistance-surveillance-programmes
#5
Ana Rita Gomes, Matt Ravenhall, Ernest Diez Benavente, Arthur Talman, Colin Sutherland, Cally Roper, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino
Drug resistance is a recurrent problem in the fight against malaria. Genetic and epidemiological surveillance of antimalarial resistant parasite alleles is crucial to guide drug therapies and clinical management. New antimalarial compounds are currently at various stages of clinical trials and regulatory evaluation. Using ∼2000 Plasmodium falciparum genome sequences, we investigated the genetic diversity of eleven gene-targets of promising antimalarial compounds and assessed their potential efficiency across malaria endemic regions...
March 9, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366603/malaria-eradication-and-the-hidden-parasite-reservoir
#6
Miles B Markus
Accumulation of erythrocytic parasites in bone marrow and the spleen has been reported in cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria. If this occurs commonly, these stages represent a possible source of early, relapse-like homologous recurrences. Moreover, they might hinder the elimination of malaria from human populations. Pertinent research suggestions have been made.
March 30, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300558/therapeutic-efficacy-of-chloroquine-for-the-treatment-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-among-outpatients-at-shawa-robit-health-care-centre-north-east-ethiopia
#7
Seble Seifu, Ahmed Zeynudin, Endalew Zemene, Sultan Suleman, Abdissa Biruksew
Nearly 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia is caused by Plasmodium vivax. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. However, the efficacy of this drug has been compromised by CQ resistant P. vivax (CRPv) strains. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy of CQ for treatment of P. vivax malaria at Shawa Robit Health Care Centre, North-Ease Ethiopia. A one-arm, 28-day follow-up, in vivo therapeutic efficacy study was conducted from October 2013 to February 2014...
March 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148267/reduced-ex-vivo-susceptibility-of-plasmodium-falciparum-after-oral-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-in-mali
#8
Souleymane Dama, Hamidou Niangaly, Amed Ouattara, Issaka Sagara, Sekou Sissoko, Oumar Bila Traore, Amadou Bamadio, Niawanlou Dara, Moussa Djimde, Mohamed Lamine Alhousseini, Siaka Goita, Hamma Maiga, Antoine Dara, Ogobara K Doumbo, Abdoulaye A Djimde
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy is the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, recent studies conducted in Mali showed an increased frequency of recurrent parasitaemia following artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatment. METHODS: Study samples were collected during a large WANECAM study. Ex-vivo Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to artemether and lumefantrine was assessed using the tritiated hypoxanthine-based assay...
February 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137810/pfk13-independent-treatment-failure-in-four-imported-cases-of-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-treated-with-artemether-lumefantrine-in-the-united-kingdom
#9
Colin J Sutherland, Paul Lansdell, Mandy Sanders, Julian Muwanguzi, Donelly A van Schalkwyk, Harparkash Kaur, Debbie Nolder, Julie Tucker, Hayley M Bennett, Thomas D Otto, Matthew Berriman, Trupti A Patel, Roderick Lynn, Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas, Peter L Chiodini
We present case histories of four patients treated with artemether-lumefantrine for falciparum malaria in UK hospitals in 2015 to 2016. Each subsequently presented with recurrent symptoms and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia within 6 weeks of treatment with no intervening travel to countries where malaria is endemic. Parasite isolates, all of African origin, harbored variants at some candidate resistance loci. No evidence of pfk13-mediated artemisinin resistance was found. Vigilance for signs of unsatisfactory antimalarial efficacy among imported cases of malaria is recommended...
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095658/therapeutic-assessment-of-primaquine-for-radical-cure-of-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-at-primary-and-tertiary-care-centres-in-southwestern-india
#10
Rishikesh Kumar, Vasudeva Guddattu, Kavitha Saravu
Acquaintance is scanty on primaquine (PQ) efficacy and Plasmodium vivax recurrence in Udupi district, Karnataka, India. We assessed the efficacy of 14 days PQ regimen (0.25 mg/kg/day) to prevent P. vivax recurrence. Microscopically, aparasitemic adults (≥18 years) after acute vivax malaria on day 28 were re-enrolled into 15 months' long follow-up study. A peripheral blood smear examination was performed with participants at every 1-2 month interval. A nested PCR test was performed to confirm the mono-infection with P...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077149/plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-co-infection-with-tick-borne-relapsing-fever-in-dakar
#11
Mamadou A Diallo, Baidy S Kane, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Mouhamed Dieng, Khadim Diongue, Aida S Badiane, Mame Cheikh Seck, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: West African tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) due to Borrelia crocidurae and malaria are co-endemics in Senegal. Although expected to be high, co-infections are rarely reported. A case of falciparum malaria and B. crocidurae co-infection in a patient from Velingara (South of Senegal) is discussed. CASE: A 28 year-old-male patient presented to Aristide Le Dantec Hospital for recurrent fever. He initially presented to a local post health of Pikine (sub-urban of Dakar) and was diagnosed for malaria on the basis of positive malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) specific to Plamodium falciparum...
January 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978709/a-malaria-transmission-blocking-usnic-acid-derivative-prevents-plasmodium-zygote-to-ookinete-maturation-in-the-mosquito-midgut
#12
Rebecca Pastrana-Mena, Derrick K Mathias, Michael Delves, Krithika Rajaram, Jonas G King, Rebecca Yee, Beatrice Trucchi, Luisella Verotta, Rhoel R Dinglasan
The evolution of drug resistance is a recurrent problem that has plagued efforts to treat and control malaria. Recent emergence of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia underscores the need to develop novel antimalarials and identify new targetable pathways in Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking approaches, which typically target gametocytes in the host bloodstream or parasite stages in the mosquito gut, are recognized collectively as a strategy that when used in combination with antimalarials that target erythrocytic stages will not only cure malaria but will also prevent subsequent transmission...
December 16, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958213/opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia-syndrome-due-to-falciparum-malaria-in-two-indian-children
#13
Kallol Bose, Sudip Saha, Md Rahiul Islam, Chayan Chakraborty, Mustakim Laskar
Opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (OMA) syndrome is rare in children, mostly caused by neuroblastoma. Here, we present two very rare cases presenting with OMA due to falciparum malaria. Both of them responded to a high dose of adrenocorticotrophin hormone and intravenous immunoglobulin without recurrence and complication.
November 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936233/malaria-in-hiv-infected-children-receiving-hiv-protease-inhibitor-compared-with-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-impaact-p1068s-substudy-to-p1060
#14
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Elizabeth Petzold, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Benjamin H Chi, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Brian Kirmse, Jillian Neal, Sunil Parikh, Nagamah Deygoo, Patrick Jean Philippe, Lynne Mofenson, William Prescott, Jingyang Chen, Philippa Musoke, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. METHODS: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708189/epidemiology-and-control-of-plasmodium-vivax-in-afghanistan
#15
Toby Leslie, Sami Nahzat, Walid Sediqi
Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80-95% of malaria is P. vivax Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649561/artemether-lumefantrine-versus-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children-aged-less-than-15-years-in-guinea-bissau-an-open-label-non-inferiority-randomised-clinical-trial
#16
Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Amabelia Rodrigues, Poul-Erik Kofoed
BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. Malaria then resurged and recurrent malaria after treatment with AL and stock-outs of AL were common. This study therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of AL and identify an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days to children aged 6 months-15 years with uncomplicated P...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601913/open-label-trial-on-efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-against-the-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-metema-district-northwestern-ethiopia
#17
Feven Wudneh, Ashenafi Assefa, Desalegn Nega, Hussien Mohammed, Hiwot Solomon, Tadesse Kebede, Adugna Woyessa, Yibeltal Assefa, Amha Kebede, Moges Kassa
PURPOSE: Following the increased Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, Ethiopia adopted artemether/lumefantrine (AL) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum in 2004. According to the recommendation of the World Health Organization, this study was carried out for regular monitoring of the efficacy of AL in treating the uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Metema district, Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a one-arm prospective 28-day in vivo therapeutic efficacy study among the uncomplicated P...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581163/immune-response-pattern-in-recurrent-plasmodium-vivax-malaria
#18
Yury Oliveira Chaves, Allyson Guimarães da Costa, Marcelo Luís Monteiro Pereira, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de Lacerda, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Adriana Malheiro, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Patrícia Puccinelli Orlandi, Claudio Romero Farias Marinho, Paulo Afonso Nogueira
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the causative agent of human malaria of large geographic distribution, with 35 million cases annually. In Brazil, it is the most prevalent species, being responsible by around 70 % of the malaria cases. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil), including 36 adult patients with primary malaria, 19 with recurrent malaria, and 20 endemic controls. The ex vivo phenotypic features of circulating leukocyte subsets (CD4(+) T-cells, CD8(+) T-cells, NK, NKT, B, B1 and Treg cells) as well as the plasmatic cytokine profile (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ) were assessed, aiming at establishing patterns of immune response characteristic of primary malaria vs recurrent malaria as compared to endemic controls...
2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565897/adding-a-single-low-dose-of-primaquine-0-25%C3%A2-mg-kg-to-artemether-lumefantrine-did-not-compromise-treatment-outcome-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-tanzania-a-randomized-single-blinded-clinical-trial
#19
Richard Mwaiswelo, Billy Ngasala, Irina Jovel, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Roland Gosling, Zul Premji, Bruno Mmbando, Anders Björkman, Andreas Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recently recommended the addition of a single low-dose of the gametocytocidal drug primaquine (PQ) to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in low transmission settings as a component of pre-elimination or elimination programmes. However, it is unclear whether that influences the ACT cure rate. The study assessed treatment outcome of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) plus a single PQ dose (0.25 mg/kg) versus standard AL regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania...
August 26, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27549633/efficacy-of-chloroquine-and-primaquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-cruzeiro-do-sul-brazil
#20
Suiane Negreiros, Samela Farias, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Sheila Akinyi Okoth, Stella M Chenet, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Paola Marchesini, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Marinete Marins Povoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the efficacy of chloroquine and primaquine on uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. Patients ≥ 5 years of age with either fever or history of fever, and laboratory-confirmed P. vivax monoinfection received chloroquine (total dose = 25 mg/kg) and primaquine (total dose = 3.5 mg/kg), and were followed up for 168 days (24 weeks). We used microsatellite genotyping to differentiate recurrent infections caused by heterologous parasites from those caused by homologous ones...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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