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Group B streptococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923374/a-case-of-infected-schwannoma-mimicking-malignant-tumor
#1
Mamer S Rosario, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Inatani, Takashi Higuchi, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: Infected schwannoma has been reported, this being one of the four cases published in the literature. Infected schwannoma has proven to be a tough diagnostic challenge to the treating tumor surgeon, mimicking infectious entities and most essentially, a malignant tumor. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors report the case of a 64-year-old male with a soft tissue mass in his right gluteal area that presented initially with right leg pain, then later with signs of inflammation on the tumor area...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922070/deep-sequencing-of-the-16s-ribosomal-rna-of-the-neonatal-oral-microbiome-a-comparison-of-breast-fed-and-formula-fed-infants
#2
S S Al-Shehri, E L Sweeney, D M Cowley, H G Liley, P D Ranasinghe, B G Charles, P N Shaw, D Vagenas, J A Duley, C L Knox
In utero and upon delivery, neonates are exposed to a wide array of microorganisms from various sources, including maternal bacteria. Prior studies have proposed that the mode of feeding shapes the gut microbiota and, subsequently the child's health. However, the effect of the mode of feeding and its influence on the development of the neonatal oral microbiota in early infancy has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the oral microbiota of healthy infants that were exclusively breast-fed or formula-fed using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920985/the-first-case-of-recurrent-ultra-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-sepsis-in-a-3-year-old-child
#3
Ai Hosoda, Ryohei Gatayama, Shiori Moriyama, Noriyuki Ishii, Kenichiro Yamada, Youhei Matsuzaki, Masayoshi Shinjoh
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a commonly recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonatal and young infants. Invasive GBS infection is classified into early onset GBS disease (EOD, day 0-6), late onset GBS disease (LOD, day 7-89) and ultra late onset GBS disease (ULOD, after 3 months of age). ULOD is uncommon and recurrence is especially rare. We present the first recurrent case of ULOD GBS sepsis in 3-year-old girl with a past medical history of hydrops fetalis and thoracic congenital lymphatic dysplasia...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920580/positive-clinical-outcomes-derived-from-using-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-prevent-streptococcal-pharyngotonsillitis-in-children-a-pilot-investigation
#4
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917849/presence-and-resistance-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-vaginal-specimens-of-pregnant-and-adult-non-pregnant-women-and-association-with-other-aerobic-bacteria
#5
Fatima Numanović, Jasmina Smajlović, Merima Gegić, Zineta Delibegović, Sabaheta Bektaš, Emir Halilović, Jasmina Nurkić
Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S...
February 1, 2017: Medicinski Glasnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913674/immunoglobulins-and-their-receptors-and-subversion-of-their-protective-roles-by-bacterial-pathogens
#6
REVIEW
Jenny M Woof
Immunoglobulins (Igs) play critical roles in immune defence against infectious disease. They elicit potent elimination processes such as triggering complement activation and engaging specific Fc receptors present on immune cells, resulting in phagocytosis and other killing mechanisms. Many important pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert or evade Ig-mediated defence. One such mechanism used by several pathogenic bacteria features proteins that bind the Ig Fc region and compromise engagement of host effector molecules...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#7
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910939/real-time-pcr-based-serotyping-of-streptococcus-agalactiae
#8
Kathleen M Breeding, Bhavana Ragipani, Kun-Uk David Lee, Martin Malik, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated, gram-positive pathogen that is an important cause of neonatal invasive infections, including sepsis and meningitis. There are ten known GBS serotypes based on distinct capsule compositions (Ia, Ib, II-IX), and current candidate capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines target only a subset of these. Serotyping of GBS isolates is important for understanding local epidemiology and for monitoring for serotype replacement or capsular switching. However, serotyping generally requires either latex agglutination, multiplex PCR with analysis of band sizes, or analysis of whole genome sequences-all techniques that are either expensive or not widely available...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895845/a-trial-of-a-7-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-hiv-infected-adults
#10
Neil French, Stephen B Gordon, Thandie Mwalukomo, Sarah A White, Gershom Mwafulirwa, Herbert Longwe, Martin Mwaiponya, Eduard E Zijlstra, Malcolm E Molyneux, Charles F Gilks
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading and serious coinfection in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, particularly in Africa. Prevention of this disease by vaccination with the current 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is suboptimal. Protein conjugate vaccines offer a further option for protection, but data on their clinical efficacy in adults are needed. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical efficacy trial, we studied the efficacy of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in predominantly HIV-infected Malawian adolescents and adults who had recovered from documented invasive pneumococcal disease...
September 2016: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885699/strains-of-group-b-streptococci-from-septic-patients-induce-platelet-activation-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#11
Xiaoyan Liu, Hongyun Liu, Xianming Luo, Ping Zhang, Yanmin Gao, Shuangfeng Xie, Kang Xu, Jianxing Chang, Liping Ma
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes life-threatening bacterial sepsis, especially in newborns and pregnant women. Patients suffering from sepsis often display low platelet counts, characterized by thrombocytopenia, because of platelet activation. In the present study, the roles of six GBS strains from septic patients in platelet aggregation, as well as the underlying mechanisms, were investigated. Incubation of platelets with three of the strains induced platelet aggregation, increased the secretion of cellular adhesin molecule CD62P and activation of GPIIb/IIIa...
November 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879969/factors-associated-with-choice-of-approach-for-group-b-streptococcus-screening
#12
H Sefty, A Klivitsky, M Bromberg, R Dichtiar, M Ben Ami, T Shohat, A Glatman-Freedman
BACKGROUND: The crude rate of early-onset Group B streptococcus disease (EOGBS) in Israel has been consistently under 0.5 for 1000 live births for the past 8 years. The Israeli Ministry of Health has adapted the risk factor based approach for preventing EOGBS and universal bacteriological screening for GBS is not recommended. In spite of this policy, there are indications that many pregnant women in Israel undergo bacteriological screening for GBS. The objective of this study is to assess the rate and characteristics of pregnant women who undergo screening for group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in Israel...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875686/early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-and-the-implementation-of-group-b-streptococcus-prophylaxis-in-a-brazilian-maternity-hospital-a-descriptive-study
#13
Felipe Teixeira de Mello Freitas, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra Romero
OBJECTIVES: To describe early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) epidemiology in a public maternity hospital in Brasilia, Brazil. METHODS: We defined EOS as a positive blood culture result obtained from infants aged ≤72h plus treatment with antibiotic therapy for ≥5 days. Incidence was calculated based on the number of cases and total live births (LB). This is a descriptive study comparing the period of 2012-2013 with the period of 2014-September 2015, before and after implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis during labor for group B streptococcus (GBS) prevention, respectively...
November 19, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875551/crystal-structures-of-group-b-streptococcus-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-apo-form-binary-and-ternary-complexes
#14
Norbert Schormann, Chapelle A Ayres, Alexandra Fry, Todd J Green, Surajit Banerjee, Glen C Ulett, Debasish Chattopadhyay
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase or GAPDH is an evolutionarily conserved glycolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the two step oxidative phosphorylation of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate using inorganic phosphate and NAD+ as cofactor. GAPDH of Group B Streptococcus is a major virulence factor and a potential vaccine candidate. Moreover, since GAPDH activity is essential for bacterial growth it may serve as a possible drug target. Crystal structures of Group B Streptococcus GAPDH in the apo-form, two different binary complexes and the ternary complex are described here...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872823/serial-physical-examinations-a-simple-and-reliable-tool-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-for-early-onset-sepsis
#15
Alberto Berardi, Anna Maria Buffagni, Cecilia Rossi, Eleonora Vaccina, Chiara Cattelani, Lucia Gambini, Federica Baccilieri, Francesca Varioli, Fabrizio Ferrari
AIM: To investigate whether serial physical examinations (SPEs) are a safe tool for managing neonates at risk for early-onset sepsis (EOS). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of neonates (≥ 34 wks' gestation) delivered in three high-volume level IIIbirthing centres in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) during a 4-mo period (from September 1 to December 31, 2015). Neonates at risk for EOS were managed according to the SPEs strategy, these were carried out in turn by bedside nursing staff and physicians...
November 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872553/development-of-a-novel-test-for-simultaneous-bacterial-identification-and-antibiotic-susceptibility
#16
Jonathan Faro, Malika Mitchell, Yuh-Jue Chen, Sarah Kamal, Gerald Riddle, Sebastian Faro
Background. Elucidation of a pathogen's antimicrobial susceptibility requires subculture after the organism is first isolated. This takes several days, requiring patients to be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. This approach contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. Methods. Microtiter wells were coated with a polyclonal antibody targeting the pathogen of interest. Bacterial suspensions were added in the presence/absence of selected antibiotics. After washing, captured bacteria were detected...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#17
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines were evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early and late onset disease (EOD and LOD, respectively) plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867430/evaluation-in-mouse-model-of-combined-virus-bacterial-vaccine-based-on-attenuated-influenza-a-h7n3-virus-and-the-group-b-streptococcus-recombinant-polypeptides
#18
Yulia A Desheva, Galina F Leontieva, Tatiana A Kramskaya, Tatiana A Smolonogina, Kornelia B Grabovskaya, Irina V Kiseleva, Larisa G Rudenko, Alexander N Suvorov
BACKGROUND: Secondary bacterial influenza complications are a common cause of excesses morbidity and mortality, which determines the need to develop means for specific prophylaxis. Group B streptococcal infection is especially common cause of pneumonia among children and the elderly with underlying conditions. Here we investigate in a mouse model the effects of combined intranasal immunization using live attenuated influenza vaccine and recombinant polypeptides based on group B Streptococcus surface proteins...
2016: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861568/appropriateness-of-intrapartum-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-disease
#19
Aida Bianco, Elisabetta Larosa, Claudia Pileggi, Maria Pavia
The aims of this study were to describe the adherence to CDC guidelines for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) and to identify possible factors influencing noncompliance with guidelines. We conducted a retrospective study in Italy. Our cohort included women in whom antenatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening was not performed, was performed, but results were not available at the time of labor or delivery and women who were positive for GBS colonization. The indications for complete execution of IAP according to revised CDC guidelines was evaluated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853322/risk-factors-for-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-neonates-of-mothers-with-negative-antenatal-testing
#20
V Parente, R H Clark, L Ku, C Fennell, M Johnson, E Morris, A Romaine, U Utin, D K Benjamin, J A Messina, P B Smith, R G Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for early-onset group B Streptococcus (EOGBS) disease in neonates of mothers with negative antenatal screening. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of neonates born to mothers with negative antenatal GBS screening between 2002 and 2012. Our primary outcome was EOGBS infection. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with EOGBS. RESULTS: EOGBS was confirmed in 492 of the 179 818 neonates that met the study inclusion criteria...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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