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Group B streptococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107386/regulation-of-pi-2b-pilus-expression-in-hypervirulent-streptococcus-agalactiae-st-17-bm110
#1
Bruno Périchon, Noémi Szili, Laurence du Merle, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Myriam Gominet, Samuel Bellais, Claire Poyart, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Shaynoor Dramsi
The widely spread Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as Group B Streptococcus, GBS) "hypervirulent" ST17 clone is strongly associated with neonatal meningitis. The PI-2b locus is mainly found in ST17 strains but is also present in a few non ST17 human isolates such as the ST-7 prototype strain A909. Here, we analysed the expression of the PI-2b pilus in the ST17 strain BM110 as compared to the non ST17 A909. Comparative genome analyses revealed the presence of a 43-base pair (bp) hairpin-like structure in the upstream region of PI-2b operon in all 26 ST17 genomes, which was absent in the 8 non-ST17 strains carrying the PI-2b locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094220/molecular-docking-discovery-synthesis-and-pharmacological-properties-of-new-6-substituted-2-3-phenoxyphenyl-4-phenyl-quinoline-derivatives-an-approach-to-developing-potent-dna-gyrase-inhibitors-antibacterial-agents
#2
Manikandan Alagumuthu, Sivakumar Arumugam
Synthesis and molecular validation of 6-substituted-2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4-phenylquinoline derivatives (4a-h) as antibacterial/DNA gyrase inhibitors reported. Primarily, 6-substituted-2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4-phenylquinoline derivatives were docked into the active sites of DNA gyrase A&B, to ensure the binding mode of the compounds, and the results were superior on DNA gyrase A over DNA gyrase B. Based on this, S. aureus DNA gyrase A assay was proposed and executed. Most prominent DNA gyrase inhibition showed by 6-fluoro-2-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-4-phenylquinoline (4c), IC50 0...
January 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093452/a-time-to-save
#3
Carol J Baker
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), characterized by Lancefield in 1933, was not recognized as a human pathogen until the early 1970s when it emerged and replaced Escherichia coli as the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis among neonates and young infants. This article briefly gives a personnel account of the discovery of clinical syndromes of GBS distinguished by age at onset, vertical mode of transmission for early-onset disease, meningeal tropism for GBS capsular (CPS) type III strains, and protective CPS epitopes...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090076/a-journey-into-the-brain-insight-into-how-bacterial-pathogens-cross-blood-brain-barriers
#4
Mathieu Coureuil, Hervé Lécuyer, Sandrine Bourdoulous, Xavier Nassif
The blood-brain barrier, which is one of the tightest barriers in the body, protects the brain from insults, such as infections. Indeed, only a few of the numerous blood-borne bacteria can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis. In this Review, we focus on invasive extracellular pathogens, such as Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli, to review the obstacles that bacteria have to overcome in order to invade the meninges from the bloodstream, and the specific skills they have developed to bypass the blood-brain barrier...
January 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077757/biotypes-and-scm-types-of-isolates-of-streptococcus-canis-from-diseased-and-healthy-cats
#5
J F Timoney, S Velineni, B Ulrich, P Blanchard
Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074049/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-%C3%AE-methoxyimino-acylide-derivatives-against-macrolide-resistant-pathogens-and-mutation-analysis-in-23s-rrna
#6
Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Ippei Yoshida, Mayumi Ueki, Katsuhiko Tanabe, Akira Manaka, Keiichi Hiramatsu
We characterized in vitro activities of α-methoxyimino acylides against macrolide-resistant clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes and Mycoplasma pneumoniae with ribosome modification or substitution and selected acylide-resistant mutants to clarify the binding point of the acylides. The acylides had low MICs against erm(B) gene-containing S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes (MIC90s, 1-4 μg ml(-1)). For M. pneumoniae, although they had poor potencies against macrolide-resistant strains with the A2058G (Escherichia coli numbering) mutation in 23S rRNA (MICs, >32 μg ml(-1)), one of them showed in vitro activities against macrolide-resistant strains with the A2058U or A2059G mutations (MICs, 0...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074024/whole-genome-sequencing-of-invasion-resistant-cells-identifies-laminin-%C3%AE-2-as-a-host-factor-for-bacterial-invasion
#7
Xander M van Wijk, Simon Döhrmann, Björn M Hallström, Shangzhong Li, Bjørn G Voldborg, Brandon X Meng, Karen K McKee, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Peter D Yurchenco, Bernhard O Palsson, Nathan E Lewis, Victor Nizet, Jeffrey D Esko
: To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When these mutants were compared to the pgsA745 cell line, a CHO xylosyltransferase mutant generated previously using chemical mutagenesis, an unexpected result was obtained. Bacterial invasion of pgsA745 cells by group B Streptococcus (GBS), group A Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus was markedly reduced compared to the invasion of wild-type cells, but newly generated CRISPR-cas9 mutants were only resistant to GBS...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067833/contribution-of-the-rgfd-quorum-sensing-peptide-to-rgf-regulation-and-host-cell-association-in-group-b-streptococcus
#8
Robert E Parker, David Knupp, Rim Al Safadi, Agnѐs Rosenau, Shannon D Manning
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a common inhabitant of the genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal tract in up to 40% of healthy adults; however, this opportunistic pathogen is able to breach restrictive host barriers to cause disease and persist in harsh and changing conditions. This study sought to identify a role for quorum sensing, a form of cell to cell communication, in the regulation of the fibrinogen-binding (rgfBDAC) two-component system and the ability to associate with decidualized endometrial cells in vitro...
January 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063545/pr%C3%A3-vention-de-l-infection-n%C3%A3-onatale-%C3%A3-streptocoques-du-groupe-b-d-apparition-pr%C3%A3-coce
#9
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIF: Analyser les données issues de la littérature et formuler des recommandations sur la prise en charge des parturientes en vue de prévenir l'infection néonatale à streptocoques du groupe B d'apparition précoce. Parmi les révisions clés que renferme la présente directive clinique mise à jour, on trouve des modifications quant aux recommandations en ce qui concerne les schémas posologiques d'antibioprophylaxie, les épreuves de sensibilité et la prise en charge des femmes présentant une rupture prématurée des membranes...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063544/the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#10
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060047/genotype-characterization-of-group-b-streptococcus-isolated-from-infants-with-invasive-diseases-in-south-korea
#11
Hyun Mi Kang, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyunju Lee, Dae Sun Jo, Hye Soo Lee, Taek Soo Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Ki Wook Yun, Bongjin Lee, Eun Hwa Choi
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of invasive infections in infants. This study aimed to investigate the genotypic diversity of GBS causing invasive infections in infants and to observe the prevalence of the highly virulent clone in South Korea. METHODS: Invasive strains of GBS were collected prospectively from infants admitted at four hospitals during 1995 to 2015. Serotype and multilocus sequence typing was determined. All isolates underwent PCR amplification to detect the presence of the hypervirulent surface adhesin (hvgA) gene...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053705/first-report-of-human-infection-due-to-streptococcus-devriesei
#12
P Tammaro, N Richard, B Andre, A Andremont, H Mammeri
So far, Streptococcus devriesei, which belongs to the mutans streptococci group, has been incriminated in the formation of caries in Equidae. We report the first human infection due to this species in a 54-year-old man with gangrenous cholecystitis. The patient was treated successfully by cholecystectomy and ceftriaxone.
January 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045978/cord-blood-acute-phase-reactants-predict-early-onset-neonatal-sepsis-in-preterm-infants
#13
Leena B Mithal, Hannah L Palac, Ram Yogev, Linda M Ernst, Karen K Mestan
BACKGROUND: Early onset sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR) biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection. METHODS: In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038683/the-gut-microbiota-in-conventional-and-serrated-precursors-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
Brandilyn A Peters, Christine Dominianni, Jean A Shapiro, Timothy R Church, Jing Wu, George Miller, Elizabeth Yuen, Hal Freiman, Ian Lustbader, James Salik, Charles Friedlander, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease arising from at least two precursors-the conventional adenoma (CA) and the serrated polyp. We and others have previously shown a relationship between the human gut microbiota and colorectal cancer; however, its relationship to the different early precursors of colorectal cancer is understudied. We tested, for the first time, the relationship of the gut microbiota to specific colorectal polyp types. RESULTS: Gut microbiota were assessed in 540 colonoscopy-screened adults by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool samples...
December 30, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036311/etiological-profile-of-early-neonatal-bacterial-sepsis-by-multiplex-qpcr
#15
Walter P Silva-Junior, Almir S Martins, Paula C N Xavier, Kelly L A Appel, Silvio A Oliveira Junior, Durval B Palhares
INTRODUCTION: Given the major impact in terms of morbidity and mortality that episodes of early neonatal sepsis (ENS) have on both newborns and health systems, this study aimed to identify the etiological profile of early neonatal bacterial sepsis by a multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). METHODOLOGY: Blood samples from newborns diagnosed with clinical ENS and hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were collected and analyzed using the multiplex qPCR method to detect Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033242/brachial-plexus-palsy-in-young-infants-harboring-osteomyelitis-of-the-humerus-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
We present an infant with brachial plexus palsy who had osteomyelitis of the humerus, and summarize previously reported cases. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in osteomyelitis in infants, group B streptococcus is responsible for 40% of humeral osteomyelitis. Early diagnosis is critical to prevent long-term sequalae, but is hampered by infants frequently being well and afebrile at presentation.
December 28, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032541/molecular-characteristics-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-deficient-in-alpha-like-protein-encoding-genes
#17
Christina Gabrielsen, Johan Andreas Mæland, Randi Valsø Lyng, Randreas Radtke, Jan Egil Afset
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci; GBS) are important human and animal pathogens, which can be subdivided based on different capsular polysaccharides and surface-anchored alpha-like proteins (Alp), as well as other proteins. Nearly all GBS strains possess an Alp (Alp GBS), although Alp negative GBS (non-Alp GBS) do occur. In this study 10 (1.1%) of 932 clinical human GBS tested lacked an Alp encoding gene. All 10 strains were from patients with bloodstream infection, confirming that non-Alp GBS can be highly virulent...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018325/sensitive-quantitative-analysis-of-the-meconium-bacterial-microbiota-in-healthy-term-infants-born-vaginally-or-by-cesarean-section
#18
Ravinder Nagpal, Hirokazu Tsuji, Takuya Takahashi, Kazunari Kawashima, Satoru Nagata, Koji Nomoto, Yuichiro Yamashiro
For decades, babies were thought to be born germ-free, but recent evidences suggest that they are already exposed to various bacteria in utero. However, the data on population levels of such pioneer gut bacteria, particularly in context to birth mode, is sparse. We herein aimed to quantify such bacteria from the meconium of 151 healthy term Japanese infants born vaginally or by C-section. Neonatal first meconium was obtained within 24-48 h of delivery; RNA was extracted and subjected to reverse-transcription-quantitative PCR using specific primers for Clostridium coccoides group, C...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017431/who-consultation-on-group-b-streptococcus-vaccine-development-report-from-a-meeting-held-on-27-28-april-2016
#19
Miwako Kobayashi, Stephanie J Schrag, Mark R Alderson, Shabir A Madhi, Carol J Baker, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, David C Kaslow, Peter G Smith, Vasee S Moorthy, Johan Vekemans
Globally, group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants in the first 90days of life. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for women at increased risk of transmitting GBS to their newborns has been effective in reducing part, but not all, of the GBS disease burden in many high income countries (HICs). In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), IAP use is low. Immunization of pregnant women with a GBS vaccine represents an alternative strategy to protecting newborns and young infants, through transplacental antibody transfer and potentially by reducing new vaginal colonization...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012512/no-evidence-for-impaired-humoral-immunity-to-pneumococcal-proteins-in-australian-aboriginal-children-with-otitis-media
#20
Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham, Karli J Corscadden, Harvey L Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Jessica Hillwood, Sophie Toster, Phillipa Edminston, Guicheng Zhang, Anthony Keil, Peter C Richmond
BACKGROUND: The Australian Aboriginal population experiences disproportionately high rates of otitis media (OM). Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the main pathogens responsible for OM and currently no vaccine offering cross strain protection exists. Vaccines consisting of conserved antigens to S. pneumoniae may reduce the burden of OM in high-risk populations; however no data exists examining naturally acquired antibody in Aboriginal children with OM. METHODS: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG were measured against the S...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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