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Group B streptococcus

Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Baruch B Hertzog, Yael Kaufman, Debabrata Biswas, Miriam Ravins, Poornima Ambalavanan, Reuven Wiener, Veronique Angeli, Swaine L Chen, Emanuel Hanski
Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate gene expression. We identified a group A Streptococcus (GAS) strain possessing the QS system sil, which produces functional bacteriocins, through a sequential signaling pathway integrating host and bacterial signals. Host cells infected by GAS release asparagine (ASN), which is sensed by the bacteria to alter its gene expression and rate of proliferation. We show that upon ASN sensing, GAS upregulates expression of the QS autoinducer peptide SilCR. Initial SilCR expression activates the autoinduction cycle for further SilCR production...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Vitor Cabral, Karina B Xavier
Bacterial sensing is important for perceiving environmental cues and activating responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Hertzog et al. (2018) show that group A Streptococcus can couple the ability to respond to host cues with autoinduction of a quorum sensing system, leading to killing of bacterial competitors.
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Cinta Moraleda, Rachid Benmessaoud, Jessica Esteban, Yuly López, Hassan Alami, Amina Barkat, Tligui Houssain, Meryem Kabiri, Rachid Bezad, Saad Chaacho, Lola Madrid, Jordi Vila, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Jordi Bosch, Sara M Soto, Quique Bassat
PURPOSE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of neonatal sepsis worldwide. Data on the prevalence of maternal GBS colonization, risk factors for carriage, antibiotic susceptibility and circulating serotypes are necessary to tailor adequate locally relevant public health policies. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study including pregnant women and their newborns was conducted between March and July 2013 in Morocco. We collected clinical data and vagino-rectal and urine samples from the recruited pregnant women, together with the clinical characteristics of, and body surface samples from, their newborns...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Costansia Bureta, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Takuya Yamamoto, Takao Setoguchi, Hideki Kawamura, Satoshi Nagano, Ichiro Kawamura, Masahiko Abematsu, Hironori Kakoi, Yasuhiro Ishidou, Setsuro Komiya
BACKGROUND: Here we report a rare case of lumbar spine epidural abscess and facet joint septic arthritis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, which had spread to the iliopsoas muscles, leading to urine retention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old woman with low back pain experienced a sudden onset of bilateral lower limb weakness, it was followed 14 days later by urine retention. At consultation, magnetic resonance imaging and identification of serum β-hemolytic streptococci provided a diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae infection...
March 13, 2018: BMC Surgery
Nafisatu Bello, Abubakar Tukur Dawakin Kudu, Azeezat Bolanle Adetokun, Dalha Wada Taura, Yusuf Dan'asabe Jobbi, Mustapha Umar, Ibrahim Yusuf
Background and Objectives: Bacterial infection in sickle cell anaemic patients is a major cause of mortality and requires proper treatment with appropriate antibiotics. However, continue defiant of these infections causing pathogens to many antibiotics and inadequate screening methods in overburden health care facilities such as our in Kano, Nigeria necessitates the conduct of this study. A research was therefore conducted to isolate, characterize and test for antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteraemia-causing pathogens from febrile children with and without sickle cell disease in Kano, Nigeria...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Manju Ohri, Smriti Parashar, Venkatesh S Pai, Sujata Ghosh, Anuradha Chakraborti
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborn, pregnant women and adults. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it still remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have elucidated key elements of the pathogenic process, from initial attachment to the maternal vaginal epithelium to penetration of the newborn blood-brain barrier...
March 8, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mala Mahendroo
Cervical hyaluronan (HA) synthesis is robustly induced in late pregnancy in numerous species including women and mice. Recent evidence highlights the diverse and dynamic functions of HA in cervical biology that stem from its expression in the cervical stroma, epithelia and immune cells, changes in HA molecular weight and cell specific expression of HA binding partners. Mice deficient in HA in the lower reproductive tract confirm a structural role of HA to increase spacing and disorganization of fibrillar collagen, though this function is not critical for pregnancy and parturition...
March 3, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Elita Jauneikaite, Georgia Kapatai, Frances Davies, Ioana Gozar, Juliana Coelho, Kathleen B Bamford, Benedetto Simone, Lipi Begum, Shannon Katiyo, Bharat Patel, Peter Hoffman, Theresa Lamagni, Eimear T Brannigan, Alison Holmes, Tokozani Kadhani, Tracey Galletly, Kate Martin, Hermione Lyall, Yimmy Chow, Sunit Godambe, Victoria Chalker, Shiranee Sriskandan
Background: Invasive Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of serious neonatal infection. Current strategies to reduce early onset GBS disease have no impact on late onset disease (LOD). Although GBS is a normal part of the enteric microbiota in healthy term infants, LOD cases arising in the neonatal intensive care unit setting raise questions about mode of acquisition. Methods: Enhanced surveillance for any case of late onset GBS sepsis admitted to a level 3, 24-bed neonatal intensive care unit over a 2 year period was instituted following a cluster of four cases...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Irene A Stafford, Eliza Rodrigue, Alexandra Berra, Wesley Adams, Asha J Heard, Joseph L Hagan, Shawn J Stafford
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of newborn gastrointestinal emergencies, affecting 1-3 per 1000 live births. Although NEC has been linked to a microbial etiology, associations with maternal intrapartum and resultant newborn early-onset invasive Group B streptococcus (EO-GBS) have been weakly defined. OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to determine the relationship between EO-GBS and NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Data from 2008 to 2015 were collected from pediatric records with ICD diagnosis codes consistent with all stages of NEC, with the exception of neonatal EO-GBS data (only available 2011-2015)...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Silas F Eto, Dayanne C Fernandes, Alessandra C Moraes, Ed Johnny R Prado, Amanda C Baldassi, Wilson G Manrique, Ives C Silva, Andrea S R Medeiros, Marco A A Belo, Tiago S Balbuena, Samir I Samara, João M Pizauro
Streptococcus agalactiae (Sta), which belongs to Lancefield group B, causes sepsis, endocarditis and bacterial meningitis in human neonates and Nile tilapia. Because the pathophysiology of Sta infection is partially similar in both species, the identification of biomarkers for the diagnosis and study of this disease is of importance for human and animal health. Therefore, in the present study, we produced an immunoglobulin Y (IgY) by immunizing laying hens with Sta proteins and evaluated its ability to detect Sta in paraffinized tilapia brain and cardiac tissue by direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
March 1, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aurélie Morand, Emmanouil Angelakis, Mehdi Ben Chaabane, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, Philippe Gautret
BACKGROUND: Skin infections are among the leading causes of diseases in travelers. Diagnosing pathogens could be difficult. METHOD: We applied molecular assays for the diagnostic of a large collection of skin biopsies and swabs from travelers with suspected skin infections. All samples were tested by qPCR for Coxiella burnetti, Bartonella sp., Rickettsia sp., Borrelia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Tropheryma whipplei, Francisella tularensis, Mycobacteria sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Leishmania spp...
March 2, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
X Hong, H Yu, B Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the severe pathogenic bacteria during the perinatal period, both on pregnant women and newborns. GBS infection may lead to pneumonia, septicemia, meningitis or other severe disease, even death in neonates. Although only 1%-2% infections will develop into GBS disease among the neonates, the etiological mechanism of which is worth researching. This review summarizes the possible factors related to GBS infection or occurrence of the disease, including the risk in gestation period (for example, colonization of GBS on vagina of pregnant women, preterm birth or premature rupture of fetal membranes and so on), related pathogens (bacteria strains, loads or virulence), immune level (inflammatory factor or neutralizing anticytokine auto-Abs), gene defect or primary immunodeficiencies of the hosts...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Matti Jalasvuori, Katariina Koskinen
Tectiviridae are composed of tailless bacteriophages with an icosahedral capsid and an inner membrane enclosing a double-stranded 15 kb linear DNA genome. Five of the seven previously studied Tectivirus isolates infect bacteria from Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (Betatectivirus), one distantly related member (PRD1) infect Enterobactericeae (Alpatectivirus) and one recently discovered virus infect Gluconobacter cerinus (Gammatectivirus). Here we expand the host spectrum of Betatectivirus elements to four additional genera (Streptococcus, Exiguobacterium, Clostridium and Brevibacillus) and to more distantly related Bacillus species (B...
February 23, 2018: Virology
Ann L Jefferies
Early-onset neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS) is sepsis occurring within the first 7 days of life. This statement provides updated recommendations for the care of term (≥37 weeks' gestational age) newborns at risk of EOS, during the first 24 hours of life. Maternal Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in the current pregnancy, GBS bacteriuria, a previous infant with invasive GBS disease, prolonged rupture of membranes (≥18 hours) and maternal fever (temperature ≥38°C) are the factors most commonly associated with EOS...
July 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Kunyong Xu, Eric K Chin, Steven R Bennett, David F Williams, Edwin H Ryan, Sundeep Dev, Robert A Mittra, Polly A Quiram, John B Davies, D Wilkin Parke, Jill B Johnson, Herbert L Cantrill, David R P Almeida
PURPOSE: We describe the presentation of patients developing endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Moreover, we evaluate the management by comparing the outcomes of immediate tap and injection of intravitreal antibiotics (TAI) versus initial surgical pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Finally, we analyze the predictive factors of visual outcomes at 6-month follow-up. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center, nonrandomized interventional study...
February 21, 2018: Ophthalmology
Timothy Mitchell, James W MacDonald, Sengkeo Srinouanpranchanh, Theodor K Bammler, Sean Merillat, Erica Boldenow, Michelle Coleman, Kathy Agnew, Audrey Baldessari, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Richard R Green, Michael J Gale, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
BACKGROUND: Most early preterm births are associated with intraamniotic infection and inflammation, which can lead to systemic inflammation in the fetus. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome describes elevations in the fetal interleukin-6 level, which is a marker for inflammation and fetal organ injury. An understanding of the effects of inflammation on fetal cardiac development may lead to insight into the fetal origins of adult cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the fetal inflammatory response syndrome is associated with disruptions in gene networks that program fetal cardiac development...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
February 23, 2018: Viral Immunology
C Canavese, C Davico, M Casabianca, C Olivieri, S Mancini, G Migliore, A Versace, A Tocchet, B Vitiello
Child bilateral striatal necrosis (BSN) is a rare and etiologically heterogeneous condition. An association with group A streptococcus (GAS) infection was previously reported in two cases of BSN in infancy and early childhood. We here report on a 7-year-old boy who developed chorea and dystonia 20 days after symptomatic recovery from Sydenham's chorea. Repeated brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, obtained before, soon after the onset of the post-Sydenham symptoms, and 1 year later were consistent with an evolution from bilateral striatal microbleeding to necrosis, and consequently reduced basal ganglia volume and enlargement of the frontal horns...
February 22, 2018: Neuropediatrics
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