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Group B streptococcus

Alefiya Neemuchwala, Sarah Teatero, Taryn B T Athey, Allison McGeer, Nahuel Fittipaldi
We report several cases of recombination events leading to capsular switching among sequence type (ST) 1 group B Streptococcus strains. These strains otherwise shared a common genome backbone with serotype V ST1 strains. However, the genomes of ST1 serotype V strains and those of serotypes VI, VII, and VIII strains differed substantially.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sarah Teatero, Patricia Ferrieri, Nahuel Fittipaldi
To further understand the emergence of serotype IV group B Streptococcus (GBS) invasive disease, we used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 3 sequence type 468 strains isolated from neonates in Minnesota, USA. We found that strains of tetracycline-resistant sequence type 468 GBS have acquired virulence genes from a putative clonal complex 17 GBS donor by recombination.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Priyanka Rajendram, Win Mar Kyaw, Yee Sin Leo, Hanley Ho, Wen Kai Chen, Raymond Lin, De Partha Pratim, Hishamuddin Badaruddin, Brenda Ang, Timothy Barkham, Angela Chow
An outbreak of invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease occurred in Singapore in mid-2015. We conducted a case-control study of 22 adults with invasive GBS infections during June 21-November 21, 2015. Consumption of raw fish was strongly associated with invasive sequence type 283 infections, but not with non-sequence type 283 infections.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Shermin Tan, Yijun Lin, Kelly Foo, Han Fang Koh, Charlene Tow, Yiwen Zhang, Li Wei Ang, Lin Cui, Hishamuddin Badaruddin, Peng Lim Ooi, Raymond Tzer Pin Lin, Jeffery Cutter
We conducted a retrospective study of 40 case-patients and 58 controls as part of a nationwide investigation of a group B Streptococcus outbreak in Singapore in 2015. Eating a Chinese-style raw fish dish (yusheng) was a major risk factor for bacteremia, particularly caused by serotype III sequence type 283.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Morven S Edwards, Marcia A Rench, C Daniela Rinaudo, Monica Fabbrini, Giovanna Tuscano, Giada Buffi, Erika Bartolini, Stefano Bonacci, Carol J Baker, Immaculada Margarit
Immunization of nonpregnant adults could help prevent invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections, but adult immune responses have not been investigated. We defined capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and pilus island (PI) surface antigen distribution and expression and immune responses to GBS infection in nonpregnant adults. Prospective surveillance from 7 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA, identified 102 adults with GBS bacteremia; 43% had skin/soft tissue infection, 16% bacteremia without focus, and 12% osteomyelitis...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Brenda Anna Kwambana-Adams, Franklin Asiedu-Bekoe, Badu Sarkodie, Osei Kuffour Afreh, George Khumalo Kuma, Godfred Owusu-Okyere, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Sally-Ann Ohene, Charles Okot, Archibald Kwame Worwui, Catherine Okoi, Madikay Senghore, Jacob Kweku Otu, Chinelo Ebruke, Richard Bannerman, Kwame Amponsa-Achiano, David Opare, Gemma Kay, Timothy Letsa, Owen Kaluwa, Ebenezer Appiah-Denkyira, Victor Bampoe, Syed M A Zaman, Mark J Pallen, Umberto D'Alessandro, Jason M Mwenda, Martin Antonio
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of pneumococcal meningitis among non-infant children and adults occurred in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana between December 2015 and April 2016 despite the recent nationwide implementation of a vaccination programme for infants with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from patients with suspected meningitis in the Brong-Ahafo region. CSF specimens were subjected to Gram staining, culture and rapid antigen testing...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Adam W Bartlett, Ben Smith, C R Robert George, Brendan McMullan, Alison Kesson, Monica M Lahra, Dip Paed, Pamela Palasanthiran
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Early onset (<7 days) GBS disease has been well characterized, whereas the epidemiology of late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, ≥90 days) is less well understood. The aims of this study were to assess risk factors, presentation, management, and outcome for GBS LOD and VLOD. METHODS: Microbiology laboratory databases and hospital diagnostic coding for Sydney Children's Hospital and the Children's Hospital at Westmead were investigated for patients ≥ 7 days of age diagnosed with GBS bloodstream infection or meningitis from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014 (15 years)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Jatinder Singh, Ryan C Johnson, Carey D Schlett, Emad M Elassal, Katrina B Crawford, Deepika Mor, Jeffrey B Lanier, Natasha N Law, William A Walters, Nimfa Teneza-Mora, Jason W Bennett, Eric R Hall, Eugene V Millar, Michael W Ellis, D Scott Merrell
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common in the general population, with increased prevalence among military trainees. Previous research has revealed numerous nasal microbial signatures that correlate with SSTI development and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Thus, we hypothesized that the ecology of the inguinal, oropharynx, and perianal regions may also be altered in response to SSTI and/or S. aureus colonization. We collected body site samples from 46 military trainees with purulent abscess (SSTI group) as well as from 66 asymptomatic controls (non-SSTI group)...
September 2016: MSphere
G S Tansarli, T Skalidis, N J Legakis, M E Falagas
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV...
October 13, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Shaun K Morris, Lisa G Pell, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Michelle C Dimitris, Abdullah Mahmud, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed, Eleanor Pullenayegum, Tahmid Kashem, Shaila S Shanta, Jonathan Gubbay, Eszter Papp, Michelle Science, Stanley Zlotkin, Daniel E Roth
BACKGROUND: Early infancy is a high-risk period for severe acute respiratory infection (ARI), particularly in low-income countries with resource-limited health systems. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is commonly preceded by upper respiratory infection (URTI), and often caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and other common community-acquired viral pathogens. Vitamin D status is a candidate modifiable early-life determinant of the host antiviral immune response and thus may influence the risk of ARI-associated morbidity in high-risk populations...
October 13, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
E Fiaux, M Titecat, O Robineau, J Lora-Tamayo, Y El Samad, M Etienne, N Frebourg, N Blondiaux, B Brunschweiler, F Dujardin, E Beltrand, C Loiez, V Cattoir, J P Canarelli, C Hulet, M Valette, S Nguyen, F Caron, H Migaud, E Senneville
BACKGROUND: Outcome of patients with streptococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) is not well known. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study that involved patients with total hip/knee prosthetic joint (THP/TKP) infections due to Streptococcus spp. from 2001 through 2009. RESULTS: Ninety-five streptococcal PJI episodes (50 THP and 45 TKP) in 87 patients of mean age 69.1 ± 13.7 years met the inclusion criteria...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Constantin Hays, Mathilde Louis, Céline Plainvert, Nicolas Dmytruk, Gérald Touak, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Claire Poyart, Asmaa Tazi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive infections and an emerging pathogen in the elderly. Our objectives were to describe the evolution of GBS resistance to antibiotics in France and to investigate the emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant isolates. A total of 8,757 unrelated GBS isolates were collected and tested for antibiotic susceptibility from 2007 and 2014 according to EUCAST recommendations. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, and vancomycin...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hang Yang, Yongli Bi, Xiaoran Shang, Mengyue Wang, Sara B Linden, Yunpeng Li, Yuhong Li, Daniel C Nelson, Hongping Wei
Streptococcus mutans often survives as a biofilm on the tooth surface and contributes to the development of dental caries. We investigated the efficacy of ClyR, an engineered chimeolysin, against S. mutans biofilms in physiological and cariogenic conditions. Susceptibility tests showed that ClyR was active against all clinical S. mutans isolates tested as well as S. mutans biofilms that displayed resistance to penicillin. S. mutans biofilms formed on hydroxyapatite discs in physiological sugar conditions and cariogenic conditions were reduced ∼2 logs and 3 logs after treatment with 100 μg/ml ClyR, respectively...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jacek Wysocki, Jerzy Brzostek, Ryszard Konior, Falko G Panzer, Nancy A François, Sudheer M Ravula, Devayani A Kolhe, Yue Song, Ilse Dieussaert, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys
To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of two follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following two 3+1 schedules up to four (NCT00624819 - Study A) and five years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, two and four years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM...
October 13, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
B D Enger, R R White, S C Nickerson, L K Fox
Two meta-analyses were conducted using data from peer-reviewed natural exposure (NE) and experimental challenge (EC) teat dip efficacy trials to identify factors influencing the new intramammary infection (IMI) rate. A NE data set containing 16 studies and an EC data set containing 21 studies were created. New IMI rate was calculated based on the percentage of new quarter infections per month (PNQI/mo) for each observation, in both data sets, and used as the dependent variable for model derivation. A linear, mixed-effects model with a random study effect, weighted by number of quarters eligible for infection, was derived for each data set...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Vanessa Poliquin, Elissa Cohen, Philippe Guillaume Poliquin, Carol Schneider, Savas Menticoglou
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed cases of group B Streptococcus (GBS) sepsis in term infants at our institution to identify areas for potential prevention. METHODS: We identified cases by searching our institution's microbiology databases for all positive GBS blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures taken from infants between 2008 and 2013. Patients were included if the timing of the positive culture met the criteria for early-onset GBS disease (age 7 days or under). Charts that met inclusion criteria were abstracted for details related to antepartum screening, intrapartum care, and postpartum outcome...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Ismail Hakki Ekin, Kemal Gurturk, Ziya Ilhan, Suat Ekin, Ayse Ebru Borum, Cigdem Arabaci, Abdullah Yesilova
Human and bovine group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates were serotyped and amounts of released N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetylneuraminyl-lactose by extracellular neuraminidase were colorimetrically assessed. According to serotyping by co-agglutination method, 30 of bovine GBS and 43 of human GBS could be serotyped (ST) by monospecific antisera coated with protein A. The remaining GBS strains were designated as nontypeable (NT). The released N-acetylneuraminic acid was determined in 90.9% of bovine GBS and 47...
October 6, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Fabian Lorenzo-Diaz, Cris Fernández-Lopez, Pierre-Emmanuel Douarre, Adrian Baez-Ortega, Carlos Flores, Philippe Glaser, Manuel Espinosa
Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are opportunistic bacteria that can cause lethal sepsis in children and immuno-compromised patients. Their genome is a reservoir of mobile genetic elements that can be horizontally transferred. Among them, integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) and the smaller integrative and mobilizable elements (IMEs) primarily reside in the bacterial chromosome, yet have the ability to be transferred between cells by conjugation. ICEs and IMEs are therefore a source of genetic variability that participates in the spread of antibiotic resistance...
October 2016: Open Biology
Francesca Latronico, Waleed Nasser, Kai Puhakainen, Jukka Ollgren, Hanne-Leena Hyyryläinen, Stephen B Beres, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jari Jalava, James M Musser, Jaana Vuopio
BACKGROUND:  Many countries worldwide have reported increasing numbers of emm89 group A Streptococcus (GAS) cases during last decade. Pathogen genetic factors linked to this increase need assessment. METHODS:  We investigated epidemiological characteristics of emm89 bacteremic GAS cases, including 7-day and 30-day case fatality (CF), in Finland during 2004-2014 and linked them to whole-genome sequencing data obtained from corresponding strains. Fisher exact test and exact logistic regression were used to compare differences between emm89 bacteremic GAS cases belonging to different genetic clades and subclades...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yoshinari Wakiyama, Ko Kumura, Eijiro Umemura, Satomi Masaki, Kazutaka Ueda, Yasuo Sato, Takashi Watanabe, Yoko Hirai, Keiichi Ajito
Novel lincomycin derivatives possessing an aryl phenyl group or a heteroaryl phenyl group at the C-7 position via sulfur atom were synthesized by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 7(S)-7-deoxy-7-thiolincomycin (5) with various aryl halides. This reaction is the most useful method to synthesize a variety of 7(S)-7-deoxy-7-thiolincomycin derivatives. On the basis of analysis of structure-activity relationships of these novel lincomycin derivatives, we found that (a) the location of basicity in the C-7 side chain was an important factor to enhance antibacterial activities, and (b) compounds 22, 36, 42, 43 and 44 had potent antibacterial activities against a variety of Streptococcus pneumoniae with erm gene, which cause severe respiratory infections, even compared with our C-7-modified lincomycin analogs (1-4) reported previously...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
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