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Group B streptococcus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343192/coverage-and-outcomes-of-antenatal-tests-for-infections-a-population-based-survey-in-the-province-of-trento-italy
#1
Michela Dalmartello, Fabio Parazzini, Mariangela Pedron, Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Collini, Carlo La Vecchia, Silvano Piffer
BACKGROUND: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. AIMS: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342882/implication-of-soluble-forms-of-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-infectious-disease-and-tumor-insights-from-transgenic-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
Etsuro Ono, Toshimitsu Uede
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. They play a critical role in maintaining tissue integrity and mediating migration of cells, and some of them also act as viral receptors. It has been known that soluble forms of the viral receptors bind to the surface glycoproteins of the viruses and neutralize them, resulting in inhibition of the viral entry into cells. Nectin-1 is one of important CAMs belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339458/co-association-between-group-b-streptococcus-and-candida-albicans-promotes-interactions-with-vaginal-epithelium
#3
Grace R Pidwill, Sara Rego, Howard F Jenkinson, Richard J Lamont, Angela H Nobbs
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis worldwide. In the majority of cases, GBS is transmitted vertically from mother to neonate, making maternal vaginal colonisation a key risk factor for neonatal disease. The fungus Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of the female genitourinary tract, and the causative agent of vaginal thrush. Carriage of C. albicans has been shown to be an independent risk factor for vaginal colonisation by GBS. However, the nature of interactions between these two microbes is poorly understood...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329755/detection-of-xisco-gene-for-identification-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#4
Francisco Salvà-Serra, Gwendolyn Connolly, Edward R B Moore, Lucia Gonzales-Siles
We describe a PCR-assay differentiating Streptococcus pneumoniae from closely-related species of the Mitis group of the genus Streptococcus and identification of pneumococcus clinical isolates, based on the "Xisco" gene discriminatory marker. The complete "Xisco" gene sequence was observed in all S. pneumoniae genomes analyzed and absent in all non-pneumococcus genomes.
December 15, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328950/ultrastructural-damage-in-streptococcus-mutans-incubated-with-saliva-and-histatin-5
#5
A M Fernández-Presas, Y Márquez Torres, R García González, A Reyes Torres, I Becker Fauser, H Rodríguez Barrera, B Ruíz García, R Toloza Medina, J Delgado Domínguez, J L Molinarí Soriano
OBJECTIVE: To study the ultrastructural alterations induced in Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) incubated with saliva, saliva plus histatin 5 and histatin 5. METHODS: S. mutans incubated with saliva histatin 5 or a combination of both were morphologically analyzed and counted. The results were expressed as (CFU)ml-1. Ultrastructural damage was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural localization of histatin 5 was examined using immunogold labeling...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326375/group-b-streptococcus-septic-arthritis-of-the-hip-following-spontaneous-abortion
#6
Madeline Lyons, Elizabeth Zielinski, Jibanananda Satpathy
Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection of the hip in otherwise healthy adults is a rare entity that is previously only reported following peripartum gynaecological procedure and instrumentation. We report a case of infection of the hip with GBS following spontaneous abortion. Delay in identification of infection as the cause of pain ultimately leads to irreversible joint destruction. This case report will heighten the awareness of the first contact providers as well as orthopaedic surgeons to be more vigilant for possible septic complications associated with gynaecological procedures/complications and subsequent painful joints...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321200/bilateral-haemorrhagic-basal-ganglia-infarction-associated-with-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-meningitis
#7
Rajesh Gupta, Taiwo Maraiyesa, Brendon Conry
A 2-day-old infant presented with poor feeding and grunting. Investigations revealed a raised C reactive protein of 164. Full septic screen was done, which subsequently confirmed a diagnosis of group B streptococcus meningitis. Baby was apyrexial and haemodynamically stable. There were no obvious neurological manifestations, and a routine cranial ultrasound scan was done, which revealed echogenic changes in the basal ganglia and thalami. MRI brain showed extensive haemorrhagic infarction within the lentiform and caudate nuclei with involvement of both posterior limbs of the internal capsule...
January 9, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317173/identification-of-a-proteomic-biomarker-associated-with-invasive-st1-serotype-vi-group-b-streptococcus-by-maldi-tof-ms
#8
Hsiao-Chuan Lin, Jang-Jih Lu, Lee-Chung Lin, Cheng-Mao Ho, Kao-Pin Hwang, Yu-Ching Liu, Chao-Jung Chen
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important invasive pathogen in neonates, pregnant women and the elderly. Serotype VI GBS, which has been rarely reported globally, has emerged as a significant pathogen in Asia. However, traditional serologic latex agglutination (LA) methods may fail to type isolates that lack of or low expression of CPS. METHODS: A total of 104 GBS strains were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Multiplex PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were also performed to confirm their strains...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310577/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-infants-from-urban-area-of-south-china-2011-2014
#9
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308916/maternal-immunization-where-are-we-now-and-how-to-move-forward
#10
Ivo Vojtek, Ilse Dieussaert, T Mark Doherty, Valentine Franck, Linda Hanssens, Jacqueline Miller, Rafik Bekkat-Berkani, Walid Kandeil, David Prado-Cohrs, Andrew Vyse
Pregnancy and the post-partum period are associated with elevated risks to both mother and infant from infectious disease. Vaccination of pregnant women, also called maternal immunization, has the potential to protect pregnant women, fetuses, and infants from several vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G antibodies are actively transferred through the placenta to provide passive immunity to newborns during the first months of life, until the time for infant vaccinations or until the period of greatest susceptibility has passed...
January 8, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306007/molecular-discrimination-of-bacillus-cereus-group-species-in-foods-lettuce-spinach-and-kimbap-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr-targeting-groel-and-gyrb
#11
Shuai Wei, Ramachandran Chelliah, Byung-Jae Park, Joong-Hyun Park, Fereidoun Forghani, Youn-Seo Park, Min-Seok Cho, Dong-Suk Park, Deog-Hwan Oh
The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate specific biomarkers to differentiate within Bacillus cereus group species from contaminated food samples with the use of real-time PCR. A total of 120 strains, comprising of 28 reference, 2 type, 78 wild strains of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis along with 12 strains representing 2 bacterial groups - B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. weihenstephanensis (B. cereus group); B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes (non-Bacillus sp...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305544/evaluation-of-simplexa%C3%A2-group-a-strep-direct-kit-compared-to-hologic%C3%A2-group-a-streptococcal-direct-assay-for-detection-of-group-a-streptococcus-gas-in-throat-swabs
#12
Deirdre L Church, Tracie Lloyd, Oscar Larios, Daniel B Gregson
Diagnosis of bacterial pharyngitis is confirmed by detection of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) in patient throat samples. Testing of throat samples has historically relied on culture but new molecular methods allow much faster test turnaround time (i.e., same day vs. 48-72h for culture). Our laboratory uses the Hologic® GAS Direct (GASD) assay for screening more than 125,000 throat samples per annum. Simplexa™ GAS Direct is a new real-time PCR (qPCR) assay that does not require initial DNA extraction. Performance of Simplexa qPCR was compared to GASD...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305279/neonatal-colonization-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-china-prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-serotypes-and-molecular-characterization
#13
Dan Guo, Xuelian Cao, Shunming Li, Qianting Ou, Dongxin Lin, Zhenjiang Yao, Sidong Chen, Chuan'an Wu, Guoming Wen, Xiaohua Ye
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, serotypes, and molecular characterization of GBS colonized in neonates. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a multistage sampling method. Swabs for GBS identification were taken from infants' ear, oral cavity, and umbilicus immediately after birth. All GBS isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance genes, serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and virulence genes...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303123/comparative-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-tricalcium-phosphate-calcium-sodium-phosphosilicate-and-casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-in-reducing-streptococcus-mutans-levels-in-saliva
#14
V Samuel, M Ramakrishnan, H S Halawany, N B Abraham, V Jacob, S Anil
BACKGROUND: There are only limited studies that have determined the antibacterial effects of various remineralizing agents that can be beneficial to children. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of tricalcium phosphate (TCP), calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSP), and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) enhanced with fluoride in reducing the Streptococcus mutans (SM) levels in saliva of children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 245 children, 120 of them with SM colony forming units (CFU)/ml in the range of 104-106/ml of saliva were assigned to four groups: (I) TCP; (II) CSP; (III) CPP-ACP enhanced with fluoride; and (IV) control...
November 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301010/diminished-capsule-exacerbates-virulence-blood-brain-barrier-penetration-intracellular-persistence-and-antibiotic-evasion-of-hyperhemolytic-group-b-streptococcus
#15
Claire Gendrin, Sean Merillat, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Blair Armistead, Lisa Ngo, Anjali Aggarwal, Phoenicia Quach, Jacob Berrigan, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are encapsulated, β-hemolytic bacteria that are a common cause of infections in human newborns and certain adults. Two virulence factors important for GBS virulence are the sialic acid capsular polysaccharide that promotes immune evasion and the hemolytic pigment that induces host cell cytotoxcity. These virulence factors are often oppositely regulated by the CovR/CovS two-component system. Clinical GBS strains exhibiting hyperhemolysis and low capsule due to pathoadaptive covR/S mutations have been isolated from patients...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299896/infective-endocarditis-presenting-as-endogenous-endophthalmitis-secondary-to-streptococcus-agalactiae-in-a-healthy-adult-case-reports-and-literature-review
#16
Yu Ra Sim, Ye Jin Lee, Seung Woon Park, Sang Hyun Kim, Ju Hee Choi, Jung Yoon Choi, Min Ja Kim, Jang Wook Sohn, Jaemoon Ahn, Young Kyung Yoon
Endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to group B Streptococcus (GBS) is extremely rare, particularly in healthy adults. However, the visual prognosis is poor. We report the first South Korean case of GBS infective endocarditis presenting as endogenous endophthalmitis and skin and soft tissue infection. Cultures of blood, vitreous humor, and pus from skin aspirates yielded a penicillin-susceptible serotype V strain of Streptococcus agalactiae. After 6 weeks, the patient completely recovered from GBS infective endocarditis...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287293/traumatic-neonatal-lumbar-punctures-experience-at-a-large-pediatric-tertiary-care-center-in-canada
#17
Adela Matettore, Tobias R Kollmann
OBJECTIVE:  Contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by blood during neonatal lumbar puncture (LP) is common and poses diagnostic difficulties. Our objectives were to determine the number of traumatic LPs performed at the BC Children's Hospital over 9 years and whether there was an association between traumatic LPs and demographic variables, hospital location, or time of the procedure. STUDY DESIGN:  This study was a retrospective review of neonatal CSF samples from May 2006 to March 2015...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284415/streptococcus-agalactiae-infective-endocarditis-complicated-by-multiple-mycotic-hepatic-aneurysms-and-massive-splenic-infarction-a-case-report
#18
Pietro Achilli, Angelo Guttadauro, Paolo Bonfanti, Sabina Terragni, Luca Fumagalli, Ugo Cioffi, Francesco Gabrielli, Matilde De Simone, Marco Chiarelli
BACKGROUND: The burden of disease caused by Streptococcus agalactiae has increased significantly among older adults in the last decades. Group B streptococcus infection can be associated with invasive disease and severe clinical syndromes, such as meningitis and endocarditis. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 56-year-old man who developed multiple mycotic aneurysms of the right hepatic artery and massive splenic infarction as rare complications of Streptococcus agalactiae infective endocarditis...
December 29, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280076/clinical-and-laboratory-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-different-treatment-modalities-on-titanium-healing-caps-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Kristina Emily Schmidt, Thorsten Mathias Auschill, Christian Heumann, Roland Frankenberger, Sigrun Eick, Anton Sculean, Nicole Birgit Arweiler
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of treatment modalities on titanium surface characteristics and surrounding tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen participants each had four titanium healing caps (HC) attached to four newly inserted implants. After healing, each HC was randomly assigned to either (1) titanium curettes (TC), (2) stainless steel ultrasonic tip (PS), (3) erythritol air-polishing powder (EP), or (4) only rubber cup polishing (CON)...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279621/calotropis-gigantea-extract-as-a-potential-anticariogenic-agents-against-streptococcus-mutans-an-in-vivo-comparative-evaluation
#20
Meenakshi Sharma, Sandeep Tandon, Ullal Anand Nayak, Damodhar Kappadi, Ambika Singh Rathore, Anil Goyal
Objective: The current study was intended to evaluate and compare the in vivo efficacy of Calotropis gigantea mouth rinse as anticariogenic agents with 0.2% chlorhexidine and Listerine mouth rinse. Materials and Methods: An experimental crossover study was conducted on sixty school children aged 14-15 years. Participants were divided into three Groups A, B, and C. In all children, baseline unstimulated saliva samples were collected and assessed for Streptococcus mutans counts...
May 2017: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
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