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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346991/an-integrated-assessment-framework-for-the-analysis-of-multiple-pressures-in-aquatic-ecosystems-and-the-appraisal-of-management-options
#1
A Pistocchi, A Udias, B Grizzetti, E Gelati, P Koundouri, R Ludwig, A Papandreou, I Souliotis
The contribution illustrates an integrated assessment framework aimed at evaluating the relationships between multiple pressures and water body status for the purposes of river basin management. The framework includes the following steps. (1) Understanding how the different pressures affect the status of water bodies. This entails the characterization of biophysical state variables and the definition of a causal relationship between pressures and status. Therefore this step involves interaction between experts bearing ecological understanding and experts providing models to represent the effect of pressures...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346659/is-universal-hla-b-15-02-screening-a-cost-effective-option-in-an-ethnically-diverse-population-a-case-study-of-malaysia
#2
H Y Chong, Z Mohamed, L L Tan, D B C Wu, F H Shabaruddin, M Dahlui, Y D Apalasamy, S R Snyder, M S Williams, J Hao, L H Cavallari, N Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Strong association was documented between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15:02 and carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Asians. Beyond Asia, the HLA testing is potentially valuable in many countries with increasingly diverse communities of Asian ancestry, to facilitate an early recognition of patient susceptibility to SCARs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal HLA-B*15:02 screening in preventing carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/ toxic epidermal necrolysis in an ethnically-diverse Malaysian population...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346589/comparison-of-antibiotic-therapy-and-appendectomy-for-acute-uncomplicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-meta-analysis
#3
Libin Huang, Yuan Yin, Lie Yang, Cun Wang, Yuan Li, Zongguang Zhou
Importance: Antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis is effective in adult patients, but its application in pediatric patients remains controversial. Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of antibiotic treatment vs appendectomy as the primary therapy for acute uncomplicated appendicitis in pediatric patients. Data Sources: The PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for randomized clinical trials were searched through April 17, 2016...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346505/long-duration-effect-of-multi-factor-stresses-on-the-cellular-biochemistry-oil-yielding-performance-and-morphology-of-nannochloropsis-oculata
#4
Likun Wei, Xuxiong Huang
Microalga Nannochloropsis oculata is a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Elevating its oil-yielding capacity is conducive to cost-saving biodiesel production. However, the regulatory processes of multi-factor collaborative stresses (MFCS) on the oil-yielding performance of N. oculata are unclear. The duration effects of MFCS (high irradiation, nitrogen deficiency and elevated iron supplementation) on N. oculata were investigated in an 18-d batch culture. Despite the reduction in cell division, the biomass concentration increased, resulting from the large accumulation of the carbon/energy-reservoir...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346260/effectiveness-analysis-of-a-part-time-rapid-response-system-during-operation-versus-nonoperation
#5
Youlim Kim, Dong Seon Lee, Hyunju Min, Yun Young Choi, Eun Young Lee, Inae Song, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, You Hwan Jo, Ho Il Yoon, Jae Ho Lee, Choon-Taek Lee, Sang Hwan Do, Yeon Joo Lee
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012)...
March 24, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345870/ultra-fast-separation-and-analysis-of-monoclonal-antibody-aggregates-using-membrane-chromatography
#6
Pedram Madadkar, Umatheny Umatheva, Geoff Hale, Yves Durocher, Raja Ghosh
We discuss a method for rapid and cost-effective analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) aggregates. Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography, which was previously shown to be highly suitable for such separation and analysis, was used in a recently developed format referred to as laterally-fed membrane chromatography (or LFMC). A stack of rectangular polyvinylidene fluoride (or PVDF) membranes having 0.22 µm pores housed within a modified analytical-scale LFMC device was used for analyzing aggregate types and content in different monoclonal antibody samples...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345710/desktop-nmr-for-structure-elucidation-and-identification-of-strychnine-adulteration
#7
Kawarpal Singh, Bernhard Blümich
Elucidating the structure of complex molecules is difficult at low magnetic fields due to the overlap of different peak multiplets and second-order coupling effects. This is even more challenging for rigid molecules with small chemical shift differences and with prochiral centers. Since low-field NMR spectroscopy is sometimes presumed as restricted to the analysis of only small and simple molecules, this paper aims at countering this misconception: it demonstrates the use of low-field NMR spectroscopy in chemical forensics for identifying strychnine and its counterions by exploring the chemical shift as a signature in different 1D (1)H and (13)C experiments...
March 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345481/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-implementing-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-in-critical-care-units
#8
Jesus Ruiz-Ramos, Juan Frasquet, Eva Romá, Jose Luis Poveda-Andres, Miguel Salavert-Leti, Alvaro Catellanos, Paula Ramirez
AIMS: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programme implementation focused on critical care units based on assumptions for the Spanish setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A decision model comparing costs and outcomes of sepsis, community-acquired pneumonia, and nosocomial infections (including catheter-related bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia) in critical care units with or without an AS was designed...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345440/the-economic-burden-of-opioid-abuse-updated-findings
#9
Noam Y Kirson, Lauren M Scarpati, Caroline J Enloe, Aliya P Dincer, Howard G Birnbaum, Tracy J Mayne
BACKGROUND: Opioid pain relievers can be highly effective in providing relief for patients suffering from pain. At the same time, prescription opioid abuse, dependence, overdose, and poisoning (hereinafter "abuse") have become a national public health concern. Opioid abuse is also costly: previous estimates of the annual excess costs of opioid abuse to payers range from approximately $10,000 to $20,000 per patient. OBJECTIVES: To (a) provide a comprehensive, current estimate of the economic burden of opioid abuse to commercial payers and (b) explore the drivers of these excess costs of abuse...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345436/characterizing-health-care-utilization-direct-costs-and-comorbidities-associated-with-interstitial-cystitis-a-retrospective-claims-analysis
#10
Amy Tung, Zsolt Hepp, Aasthaa Bansal, Emily Beth Devine
BACKGROUND: Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a debilitating condition that affects up to 5% of the U.S. POPULATION: This condition is characterized by bladder pain, urinary urgency and frequency, nocturia, and, in some patients, bladder lesions called Hunner's lesions (HL). IC patients who have HL experience a clinical course that is distinct from those without HL and, as a result, respond differently to existing treatments. Without effective and lasting therapeutic options, IC patients are expected to experience a reduced quality of life and be a significant economic burden...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345434/effect-of-diabetes-treatment-related-attributes-on-costs-to-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-a-real-world-population
#11
Jie Meng, Roman Casciano, Yi-Chien Lee, Lee Stern, Dmitry Gultyaev, Liyue Tong, Brice Kitio-Dschassi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results in a substantial economic burden on patients, health care systems, and society. Most literature assessing the cost of T2DM focuses on the long-term complications of the disease, the association between glucose control and cost, and patient characteristics resulting in poor and costly outcomes. However, it is likely that attributes specific to diabetes therapy can affect the use of costly resources. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of diabetes treatment-related attributes, such as improved efficacy, adherence, and reduced risk for hypoglycemia, on costs to T2DM patients...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344842/effectiveness-of-direct-safety-regulations-on-manufacturers-and-users-of-industrial-machines-its-implications-on-industrial-safety-policies-in-republic-of-korea
#12
Gi Heung Choi
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable efforts made in recent years, the industrial accident rate and the fatality rate in the Republic of Korea are much higher than those in most developed countries in Europe and North America. Industrial safety policies and safety regulations are also known to be ineffective and inefficient in some cases. METHODS: This study focuses on the quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of direct safety regulations such as safety certification, self-declaration of conformity, and safety inspection of industrial machines in the Republic of Korea...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344822/quantitative-analysis-of-lipids-a-higher-throughput-lc-ms-ms-based-method-and-its-comparison-to-elisa
#13
Adarsh S Gandhi, David Budac, Tanzilya Khayrullina, Roland Staal, Gamini Chandrasena
AIM: Lipids such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes are released as a result of an inflammatory episode in pain (central and peripheral). METHODOLOGY & RESULTS: To measure these lipids as potential mechanistic biomarkers in neuropathic pain models, we developed a higher-throughput LC-MS/MS-based method with simultaneous detection of PGE2, PGD2, PGF2α, LTB4, TXB2 and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol in brain and spinal cord tissues. We also demonstrate that the LC-MS/MS method was more sensitive and specific in differentiating PGE2 levels in CNS tissues compared with ELISA...
March 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344636/development-of-an-efficient-glucosinolate-extraction-method
#14
T Doheny-Adams, K Redeker, V Kittipol, I Bancroft, S E Hartley
BACKGROUND: Glucosinolates, anionic sulfur rich secondary metabolites, have been extensively studied because of their occurrence in the agriculturally important brassicaceae and their impact on human and animal health. There is also increasing interest in the biofumigant properties of toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products as a method to control agricultural pests. Evaluating biofumigation potential requires rapid and accurate quantification of glucosinolates, but current commonly used methods of extraction prior to analysis involve a number of time consuming and hazardous steps; this study aimed to develop an improved method for glucosinolate extraction...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344632/dynamic-and-temporal-assessment-of-human-dried-blood-spot-ms-ms-all-shotgun-lipidomics-analysis
#15
Fei Gao, Justice McDaniel, Emily Y Chen, Hannah E Rockwell, Jeremy Drolet, Vivek K Vishnudas, Vladimir Tolstikov, Rangaprasad Sarangarajan, Niven R Narain, Michael A Kiebish
BACKGROUND: Real-time and dynamic assessment of an individual's lipid homeostatic state in blood is complicated due to the need to collect samples in a clinical environment. In the context of precision medicine and population health, tools that facilitate sample collection and empower the individual to participate in the process are necessary to complement advanced bioanalytical analysis. The dried blood spot (DBS) methodology via finger prick or heel prick is a minimally invasive sample collection method that allows the relative ease and low cost of sample collection as well as transport...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344600/staged-reconstruction-brachytherapy-has-lower-overall-cost-in-recurrent-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#16
Arash O Naghavi, Ricardo J Gonzalez, Jacob G Scott, Youngchul Kim, Yazan A Abuodeh, Tobin J Strom, Michelle Echevarria, John E Mullinax, Kamran A Ahmed, Louis B Harrison, Daniel C Fernandez
PURPOSE: Adjuvant brachytherapy (AB) with immediate (IR) and staged reconstruction (SR) are distinct treatment modalities available for patients with recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Although SR may offer local control and toxicity benefit, it requires additional upfront procedures, and there is no evidence that it improves overall survival. With the importance of value-based care, our goal is to identify which technique is more cost effective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 22 patients with recurrent extremity STS treated with resection followed by AB alone...
February 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344528/surgical-approach-and-anesthetic-modality-for-carpal-tunnel-release-a-nationwide-database-study-with-health-care-cost-implications
#17
Brock D Foster, Lakshmanan Sivasundaram, Nathanael Heckmann, Jeremiah R Cohen, William C Pannell, Jeffrey C Wang, Alidad Ghiassi
Background: Carpal tunnel release (CTR) is commonly performed for carpal tunnel syndrome once conservative treatment has failed. Operative technique and anesthetic modality vary by surgeon preference and patient factors. However, CTR practices and anesthetic trends have, to date, not been described on a nationwide scale in the United States. Methods: The PearlDiver Patient Records Database was used to search Current Procedural Terminology codes for elective CTR from 2007 to 2011. Anesthetic modality (eg, general and regional anesthesia vs local anesthesia) and surgical approach (eg, endoscopic vs open) were recorded for this patient population...
March 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344517/economic-evaluation-of-participatory-learning-and-action-with-women-s-groups-facilitated-by-accredited-social-health-activists-to-improve-birth-outcomes-in-rural-eastern-india
#18
Rajesh Kumar Sinha, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Prasanta Kishore Tripathy, Nirmala Nair, Rajkumar Gope, Shibanand Rath, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality remains unacceptably high in many low and middle-income countries, including India. A community mobilisation intervention using participatory learning and action with women's groups facilitated by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) was conducted to improve maternal and newborn health. The intervention was evaluated through a cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in Jharkhand and Odisha, eastern India. This aims to assess the cost-effectiveness this intervention...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343953/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-and-cost-effective-animal-tissue-model-for-training-transurethral-resection-of-the-prostate
#19
Sichuan Hou, Gillian Ross, Iain Tait, Paul Halliday, Benjie Tang
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a new and cost-effective animal tissue training model for practicing resection skills of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A porcine kidney was prepared and restructured to simulate the relevant anatomy of the human prostate. The restructured prostate was connected to an artificial urethra and bladder. Face, content, and construct validity of the model was carried out using a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, and comparison in task performance between participants and experts was made using observational clinical human reliability analysis...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343775/lower-vaccine-uptake-amongst-older-individuals-living-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-social-determinants-of-vaccine-uptake
#20
REVIEW
Anu Jain, A J van Hoek, Delia Boccia, Sara L Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is a key intervention to reduce infectious disease mortality and morbidity amongst older individuals. Identifying social factors for vaccine uptake enables targeted interventions to reduce health inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise and quantify social factors associated with vaccine uptake amongst individuals aged ≥60years from Europe. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase from inception to 24/02/2016...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
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