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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534996/ginsenoside-rd-regulates-the-akt-mtor-p70s6k-signaling-cascade-and-suppresses-angiogenesis-and-breast-tumor-growth
#1
Eryun Zhang, Hailian Shi, Li Yang, Xiaojun Wu, Zhengtao Wang
Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rd (Rd) on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that Rd inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration, tube formation and proliferation of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) dose‑dependently. Furthermore, Rd abrogated VEGF-induced sprouting of the vessels from aortic rings, and inhibited vascular formation in the Matrigel plug assay in vivo...
May 19, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#2
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532456/mechanisms-of-tanshinone-ii-a-inhibits-malignant-melanoma-development-through-blocking-autophagy-signal-transduction-in-a375-cell
#3
Xiaojing Li, Zhifeng Li, Xianping Li, Baoguo Liu, Zhijun Liu
BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the high degree of malignancy and early prone to blood and lymph node metastasis. There is not cured for MM. Tan II A has been reported to reduce cancer cell proliferation. But the mechanism by which Tan II A inhibited melanoma growth are not well characterized. We sought to explore the possible mechanism by which Tan II A regulated cell proliferation through autophagy signaling pathway in A375 cells. METHODS: We tested the effects of Tan II A on melanoma A375, MV3, M14, and other human cell lines including Hacat and HUVEC cells in cell culture model...
May 22, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531555/microbial-detoxification-of-carvedilol-a-%C3%AE-adrenergic-antagonist-by-the-filamentous-fungus-cunninghamella-echinulata
#4
Katarzyna Zawadzka, Przemysław Bernat, Aleksandra Felczak, Katarzyna Lisowska
Beta adrenergic antagonists like carvedilol are typical environmental pollutants detected in wastewater and surface water. Human metabolism of carvedilol is well investigated, while its environmental fates are still unknown. In recent years, there have been appearing reports on high toxicity of β-blockers toward aquatic organisms. In this paper the ability of the filamentous fungus C. echinulata to eliminate the β-blocker has been described for the first time. An 83% loss of carvedilol was observed after 120 h incubation of the tested fungus with the compound, where hydroxylated carvedilol metabolites were identified as the major biotransformation products...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530246/short-single-stranded-dna-degradation-products-augment-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-9
#5
Jelka Pohar, Duško Lainšček, Karolina Ivičak-Kocjan, Miša-Mojca Cajnko, Roman Jerala, Mojca Benčina
Toll-like receptors encounter a diversity of degradation products in endosomes. TLR7 and TLR8 have been shown to be activated by RNA degradation products. Here we show that although TLR9 requires single-stranded DNA longer than 20 nucleotides for a robust response, TLR9 activation is augmented by CpG-containing oligodeoxyribonucleotides (sODNs) as short as 2 nucleotides, which, by themselves, do not induce activation in cell cultures, as well as in mice. sODNs also activate human TLR9 in combination with ODNs containing a single CpG motif that by themselves do not activate human TLR9...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528817/tracing-and-characterizing-the-development-of-transplanted-female-germline-stem-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo
#6
Changqing Wu, Bo Xu, Xiaoyong Li, Wenzhi Ma, Ping Zhang, Xuejin Chen, Ji Wu
It has long been believed that most female mammalian species lose the ability to generate oocytes in postnatal ovaries. Recent evidence has demonstrated the isolation and culture of female germline stem cells (FGSCs) from adult mice and humans. However, the process and mechanisms of FGSC differentiation in vivo following transplantation have not yet been studied. Here, we isolated and characterized FGSCs from a single EGFP-transgenic mouse, and traced the development and behavior of transplanted FGSCs (F-TFs) in vivo...
May 6, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528544/the-new-chemical-reporter-6-alkynyl-6-deoxy-glcnac-6alkglcnac-reveals-o-glcnac-modification-of-the-apoptotic-caspases-that-can-block-the-cleavage-activation-of-caspase-8
#7
Kelly N Chuh, Anna R Batt, Balyn W Zaro, Narek Darabedian, Nicholas P Marotta, Caroline K Brennan, Arya Amirhekmat, Matthew R Pratt
O-GlcNAc modification (O-GlcNAcylation) is required for survival in mammalian cells. Genetic and biochemical experiments have found that increased modification inhibits apoptosis in tissues and cell culture and that lowering O-GlcNAcylation induces cell death. However, the molecular mechanisms by which O-GlcNAcylation might inhibit apoptosis are still being elucidated. Here, we first synthesize a new metabolic chemical reporter, 6AlkGlcNAc, for the identification of O-GlcNAc modified proteins. Subsequent characterization of 6AlkGlcNAc shows that this probe is selectively incorporated into O-GlcNAcylated proteins over cell-surface glycoproteins...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527417/fate-of-the-sunscreen-compound-oxybenzone-in-cyperus-alternifolius-based-hydroponic-culture-uptake-biotransformation-and-phytotoxicity
#8
Feiran Chen, Christian Huber, Peter Schröder
Oxybenzone (OBZ), a common ingredient in sunscreens and personal care products, has been frequently detected in effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants and also in surface waters. OBZ is an emerging contaminant due to its adverse impacts on marine/aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the removal and degradation capacity of phytotreatment for OBZ, the common wetland plant species Cyperus alternifolius L. was exposed to this compound at 5, 25 and 50 μM for 120 h, respectively. Continuous uptake by roots and accumulation in plant tissues was observed over the exposure time, and depletion of spiked OBZ from the aqueous medium exceeded 73...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526588/adam10-and-%C3%AE-secretase-regulate-sensory-regeneration-in-the-avian-vestibular-organs
#9
Mark E Warchol, Jennifer Stone, Matthew Barton, Jeffrey Ku, Rose Veile, Nicolas Daudet, Michael Lovett
The loss of sensory hair cells from the inner ear is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders. The mammalian ear has a very limited ability to replace lost hair cells, but the inner ears of non-mammalian vertebrates can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after injury. Prior studies have shown that replacement hair cells are derived from epithelial supporting cells and that the differentiation of new hair cells is regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. The present study examined molecular influences on regeneration in the avian utricle, which has a particularly robust regenerative ability...
May 16, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525535/sexual-dimorphism-and-aging-differentially-regulate-adaptive-homeostasis
#10
Laura C D Pomatto, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
External and internal stimuli cause modifications to gene and biochemical pathways. In turn, demonstrating that biological systems continuously make short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of "normal" capacity, due to mild conditional changes, or to subtoxic, nondamaging levels of chemical agents. This is termed as "Adaptive Homeostasis," defined with the following: "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, nondamaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events...
May 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522593/small-gtpase-rab1b-is-associated-with-atg9a-vesicles-and-regulates-autophagosome-formation
#11
Soichiro Kakuta, Junji Yamaguchi, Chigure Suzuki, Mitsuho Sasaki, Saiko Kazuno, Yasuo Uchiyama
ATG9 is a membrane protein that is essential for autophagy and is considered to be directly involved in the early steps of autophagosome formation. Yeast Atg9 is mainly localized to small vesicles (Atg9 vesicles), whereas mammalian ATG9A is reportedly localized to the trans-Golgi network, the endosomal compartment, and other unidentified membrane structures. To dissect the ATG9A-containing membranes, we examined the subcellular localization of ATG9A and performed immunoisolation of those membranes. ATG9A-green fluorescent protein in human culture cells was observed as numerous puncta that move rapidly throughout the cytoplasm...
May 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509918/generation-and-manipulation-of-hydrogel-microcapsules-by-droplet-based-microfluidics-for-mammalian-cell-culture
#12
REVIEW
Haishui Huang, Yin Yu, Yong Hu, Xiaoming He, O Berk Usta, Martin L Yarmush
Hydrogel microcapsules provide miniaturized and biocompatible niches for three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell culture. They can be easily generated by droplet-based microfluidics with tunable size, morphology, and biochemical properties. Therefore, microfluidic generation and manipulation of cell-laden microcapsules can be used for 3D cell culture to mimic the in vivo environment towards applications in tissue engineering and high throughput drug screening. In this review of recent advances mainly since 2010, we will first introduce general characteristics of droplet-based microfluidic devices for cell encapsulation with an emphasis on the fluid dynamics of droplet breakup and internal mixing as they directly influence microcapsule's size and structure...
May 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508891/joint-morphogenetic-cells-in-the-adult-mammalian-synovium
#13
Anke J Roelofs, Janja Zupan, Anna H K Riemen, Karolina Kania, Sharon Ansboro, Nathan White, Susan M Clark, Cosimo De Bari
The stem cells that safeguard synovial joints in adulthood are undefined. Studies on mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have mainly focused on bone marrow. Here we show that lineage tracing of Gdf5-expressing joint interzone cells identifies in adult mouse synovium an MSC population largely negative for the skeletal stem cell markers Nestin-GFP, Leptin receptor and Gremlin1. Following cartilage injury, Gdf5-lineage cells underpin synovial hyperplasia through proliferation, are recruited to a Nestin-GFP(high) perivascular population, and contribute to cartilage repair...
May 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508247/in-human-cell-cultures-everolimus-is-inferior-to-tacrolimus-in-inhibiting-cellular-alloimmunity-but-equally-effective-as-regards-humoral-alloimmunity
#14
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Georgia Antoniadi, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
PURPOSE: Acute cellular rejection is the major cause of immune-mediated graft failure early in the course of kidney transplantation, whereas chronic antibody-mediated rejection is a major contributor to graft loss in the late post-transplant phase. Based mainly on the results of short-term studies, the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus prevails over the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors. However, the toxicity profile of the two drug categories differs, making the interchange between them appealing...
May 15, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507940/cord-blood-cells-responses-to-il2-il7-and-il15-cytokines-for-mtor-expression
#15
Anahita Mohammadian, Elahe Naderali, Seyedeh Momeneh Mohammadi, Aliakbar Movasaghpour, Behnaz Valipour, Mohammad Nouri, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)is important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34(+) cells) in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs) from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient...
April 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#16
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505124/structure-activity-relationships-of-bioengineered-heparin-heparan-sulfates-produced-in-different-bioreactors
#17
Ha Na Kim, John M Whitelock, Megan S Lord
Heparin and heparan sulfate are structurally-related carbohydrates with therapeutic applications in anticoagulation, drug delivery, and regenerative medicine. This study explored the effect of different bioreactor conditions on the production of heparin/heparan sulfate chains via the recombinant expression of serglycin in mammalian cells. Tissue culture flasks and continuously-stirred tank reactors promoted the production of serglycin decorated with heparin/heparan sulfate, as well as chondroitin sulfate, while the serglycin secreted by cells in the tissue culture flasks produced more highly-sulfated heparin/heparan sulfate chains...
May 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504198/rapamycin-suppresses-a%C3%AE-25-35-or-lps-induced-neuronal-inflammation-via-modulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#18
Ying-Chun Liu, Xiao-Xiao Gao, Ling Chen, Xiao-Qing You
Rapamycin (RAPA), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), exhibits a high neuroprotective action against neurodegenerative diseases in mouse models. Since neuroinflammation has been shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression, the aim of this study was to examine the anti-inflammatory role of RAPA in AD in vivo and in vitro, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. We found that amyloid-β (Aβ) induced neuronal inflammation and a remarkable increase in mTOR activity in in-vivo and in-vitro models of inflammation, suggesting the critical role of mTOR signaling in neuronal inflammation...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503134/aquaporin-4-mediated-glutamate-induced-astrocyte-swelling-is-partially-mediated-through-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-activation
#19
Zhongfang Shi, Wei Zhang, Yang Lu, Yi Lu, Lixin Xu, Qing Fang, Min Wu, Mei Jia, Yujiao Wang, Liping Dong, Xu Yan, Shaohua Yang, Fang Yuan
Astrocytes are one of the most abundant cell types in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), and astrocyte swelling is the primary event associated with brain edema. Glutamate, the principal excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the CNS, is released at high levels after brain injury including cerebral ischemia. This leads to astrocyte swelling, which we previously demonstrated is related to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the predominant water channel in the brain, is expressed in astrocyte endfeet and plays an important role in brain edema following ischemia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502957/1-methoxypyrrole-2-carboxamide-a-new-pyrrole-compound-isolated-from-streptomyces-griseocarneus-sww368
#20
Watsapon Wattanasuepsin, Bungonsiri Intra, Jirayut Euanorasetr, Yoshihiro Watanabe, Ratchanee Mingma, Wataru Fukasawa, Mihoko Mori, Atsuko Matsumoto, Kazuro Shiomi, Watanalai Panbangred
A new pyrrole compound, 1-methoxypyrrole-2-carboxamide, was obtained from a culture broth of Streptomyces griseocarneus SWW368, which was isolated from the rhizospheric soil under a Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). The chemical structure was elucidated by 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and MS, as a pyrrole ring with a N-methoxy group and a primary amide group. It exhibited antibacterial properties against Kocuria rhizophila, Staphylococcus aureus and Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae; however, cytotoxicity of the compound at 714 μM against several mammalian tumor cell lines, i...
May 15, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
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