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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917710/molecular-identification-of-vermamoeba-vermiformis-from-freshwater-fish-in-lake-taal-philippines
#1
Giovanni D Milanez, Frederick R Masangkay, Rey C Thomas, Ma Olive Grace O Ordona, Gabriel Q Bernales, Vyanna Camille M Corpuz, Hannah Selina V Fortes, Charezze Margarette S Garcia, Larra Camille Nicolas, Veeranoot Nissapatorn
Free Living Amoebae (FLA) are considered ubiquitous. FLAs may infect various biological organisms which act as reservoir hosts. Infected freshwater fishes can pose a public health concern due to possible human consumption. This study aims to identify possible pathogenic FLAs present in freshwater fishes. Seventy five (75) Oreochromis niloticus were studied for the presence of FLAs. Fish organs were suspended in physiologic saline pelleted and cultured in non-nutrient agar (NNA) lawned with Escherichia coli and were incubated in 33 °C for 14 days...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916723/fibroblast-growth-factor-2-fgf2-regulates-cytoglobin-expression-and-activation-of-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-via-jnk-signaling
#2
Misako Sato-Matsubara, Tsutomu Matsubara, Atsuko Daikoku, Yoshinori Okina, Lisa Longato, Krista Rombouts, Le Thi Thanh Thuy, Jun Adachi, Takeshi Tomonaga, Kazuo Ikeda, Katsutoshi Yoshizato, Massimo Pinzani, Norifumi Kawada
Cytoglobin (CYGB) belongs to the mammalian globin family and is exclusively expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in the liver. In addition to its gas-binding ability, CYGB is relevant to hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer because of its antioxidative properties; however, the regulation of CYGB gene expression remains unknown. Here, we sought to identify factors that induce CYGB expression in HSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism involved. We used the human HSC cell line HHSteC and primary human HSCs isolated from intact human liver tissues...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906582/mammalian-msc-from-selected-species-features-and-applications
#3
REVIEW
Christiane Uder, Sandra Brückner, Sandra Winkler, Hans-Michael Tautenhahn, Bruno Christ
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for cellular therapy of different diseases in humans and in animals. Following the guidelines of the International Society for Cell Therapy, human MSC may be identified by expression of a specific panel of cell surface markers (CD105+, CD73+, CD90+, CD34-, CD14-, or CD11b-, CD79- or CD19-, HLA-DR-). In addition, multiple differentiation potential into at least the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineage is a main criterion for MSC definition...
September 14, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904991/bioelectrospray-methodology-for-dissection-of-the-host-pathogen-interaction-in-human-tuberculosis
#4
Liku B Tezera, Magdalena K Bielecka, Paul T Elkington
Standard cell culture models have been used to investigate disease pathology and to test new therapies for over fifty years. However, these model systems have often failed to mimic the changes occurring within three-dimensional (3-D) space where pathology occurs in vivo. To truthfully represent this, an emerging paradigm in biology is the importance of modelling disease in a physiologically relevant 3-D environment. One of the approaches for 3-D cell culture is bioelectrospray technology. This technique uses an alginate-based 3-D environment as an inert backbone within which mammalian cells and extracellular matrix can be incorporated...
July 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904368/polycystin-1-inhibits-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-and-cell-apoptosis-through-a-pkr-eif2%C3%AE-pathway
#5
Yan Tang, Zuocheng Wang, JungWoo Yang, Wang Zheng, Di Chen, Guanqing Wu, Richard Sandford, Jingfeng Tang, Xing-Zhen Chen
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 which encodes polycystin-1 (PC1) and polycystin-2, respectively. PC1 was previously shown to slow cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive or controversial. Here we showed in cultured mammalian cells and Pkd1 knockout mouse kidney epithelial cells that PC1 and its truncation mutant comprising the last five transmembrane segments and the intracellular C-terminus (PC1-5TMC) down-regulate the phosphorylation of protein kinase R (PKR) and its substrate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α)...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901763/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-antibacterial-metabolites-from-emericella-sp-tj29
#6
Yan He, Zhengxi Hu, Qin Li, Jinfeng Huang, Xiao-Nian Li, Hucheng Zhu, Junjun Liu, Jianping Wang, Yongbo Xue, Yonghui Zhang
Bioassay-guided isolation of metabolites from cultures of the plant-derived fungus Emericella sp. TJ29 yielded three new terpene-polyketide hybrid meroterpenoids, emervaridones A-C (1-3), two new polyketides, varioxiranediols A and B (5 and 6), and three known analogues (4, 7, and 8). The structures and absolute configurations of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Mo2(OAc)4-induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and ECD calculations. To date, only one compound (4) bearing the emervaridone-type carbocyclic skeleton has been reported...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900022/binding-of-nad-glycohydrolase-to-streptolysin-o-stabilizes-both-toxins-and-promotes-virulence-of-group-a-streptococcus
#7
Jorge J Velarde, Maghnus O'Seaghdha, Buket Baddal, Benedicte Bastiat-Sempe, Michael R Wessels
The globally dominant, invasive M1T1 strain of group A Streptococcus (GAS) harbors polymorphisms in the promoter region of an operon that contains the genes encoding streptolysin O (SLO) and NAD(+)-glycohydrolase (NADase), resulting in high-level expression of these toxins. While both toxins have been shown experimentally to contribute to pathogenesis, many GAS isolates lack detectable NADase activity. DNA sequencing of such strains has revealed that reduced or absent enzymatic activity can be associated with a variety of point mutations in nga, the gene encoding NADase; a commonly observed polymorphism associated with near-complete abrogation of activity is a substitution of aspartic acid for glycine at position 330 (G330D)...
September 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899780/hydrogen-peroxide-production-is-affected-by-oxygen-levels-in-mammalian-cell-culture
#8
Lucas A Maddalena, Shehab M Selim, Joao Fonseca, Holt Messner, Shannon McGowan, Jeffrey A Stuart
Although oxygen levels in the extracellular space of most mammalian tissues are just a few percent, under standard cell culture conditions they are not regulated and are often substantially higher. Some cellular sources of reactive oxygen species, like NADPH oxidase 4, are sensitive to oxygen levels in the range between 'normal' physiological (typically 1-5%) and standard cell culture (up to 18%). Hydrogen peroxide in particular participates in signal transduction pathways via protein redox modifications, so the potential increase in its production under standard cell culture conditions is important to understand...
September 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898905/taguchi-experimental-design-for-optimization-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-production-in-cho-cell-lines-and-comparing-its-biological-activity-with-prokaryotic-growth-hormone
#9
Zahra Sadat Aghili, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani
Growth hormone deficiency results in growth retardation in children and the GH deficiency syndrome in adults and they need to receive recombinant-GH in order to rectify the GH deficiency symptoms. Mammalian cells have become the favorite system for production of recombinant proteins for clinical application compared to prokaryotic systems because of their capability for appropriate protein folding, assembly, post-translational modification and proper signal. However, production level in mammalian cells is generally low compared to prokaryotic hosts...
September 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898525/analyses-of-n-linked-glycans-of-prp-s-c-revealed-predominantly-2-6-linked-sialic-acid-residues
#10
Elizaveta Katorcha, Ilia V Baskakov
Mammalian prions (PrP(S)(c) ) consist of misfolded, conformationally altered, self-replicating states of the sialoglycoprotein called prion protein or PrP(C) . Recent studies revealed that the sialylation status of PrP(S)(c) plays a major role in evading innate immunity and infecting a host. Establishing the type of linkage by which sialic acid residues are attached to galactose is important, as it helps to identify the sialyltransferases responsible for sialylating PrP(C) and outline strategies for manipulating the sialyation status of PrP(S)(c) ...
September 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893919/antigen-localisation-influences-the-magnitude-and-kinetics-of-the-endogenous-adaptive-immune-response-to-recombinant-salmonella-vaccines
#11
Yanina R Sevastsyanovich, David R Withers, Claire L Marriott, Faye C Morris, Timothy J Wells, Douglas F Browning, Irene Beriotto, Ewan Ross, Hossam Omar Ali, Catherine A Wardius, Adam F Cunningham, Ian R Henderson, Amanda E Rossiter
The use of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine (RASV) strains is a promising strategy to present heterologous antigens to the mammalian immune system to induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. However, studies on RASV development differ in where heterologous antigens are expressed and localised within the bacterium and it is unclear how antigen localisation modulates the immune response. Previously, we exploited the plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) autotransporter system for accumulation of heterologous antigens in the cell culture supernatant...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888757/single-step-purification-of-recombinant-gaussia-luciferase-from-serum-containing-culture-medium-of-mammalian-cells
#12
Satoshi Inouye
A dihydrofolate reductase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1/dhfr(-)) cell line stably expressing Gaussia luciferase with a histidine-tag sequence at the carboxyl terminus (GLase-His) was established. Recombinant GLase-His was purified from serum-containing culture medium by single-step Ni-chelate column chromatography in the presence of 2 M NaCl and 0.01% Tween 20. The protein yield of GLase-His with over 95% purity was 0.5 mg from 0.9 L of the cultured medium. The enzymatic properties of purified GLase-His were characterized...
September 6, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888665/fish-scale-derived-collagen-patch-promotes-growth-of-blood-and-lymphatic-vessels-in-vivo
#13
Jun Kit Wang, Kim Pin Yeo, Yong Yao Chun, Timothy Thatt Yang Tan, Nguan Soon Tan, Véronique Angeli, Cleo Choong
In this study, Type I collagen was extracted from fish scales as a potential alternative source of collagen for tissue engineering applications. Since unmodified collagen typically has poor mechanical and degradation stability both in vitro and in vivo, additional methylation modification and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDE) crosslinking steps were used to improve the physicochemical properties of fish scale-derived collagen. Subsequently, in vivo studies using a murine model demonstrated the biocompatibility of the different fish scale-derived collagen patches...
September 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887418/expression-of-chitinases-in-listeria-monocytogenes-is-influenced-by-lmo0327-that-encodes-an-internalin-like-protein
#14
Dafni Katerina Paspaliari, Vicky Gaedt Kastbjerg, Hanne Ingmer, Magdalena Popowska, Marianne Halberg Larsen
The chitinolytic system of Listeria monocytogenes thus far comprises two chitinases, ChiA and ChiB, and a lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, Lmo2467. The role of the system in the bacterium appears to be pleiotropic, as besides mediating hydrolysis of chitin, the second most ubiquitous carbohydrate in nature, the chitinases have been deemed important for colonization of unicellular moulds, as well as mammalian hosts. In order to identify additional components of the chitinolytic system, we screened a transposon mutant library for mutants exhibiting impaired chitin hydrolysis...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887303/dynamic-nuclear-polarization-facilitates-monitoring-of-pyruvate-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#15
You Zhuo, Ciro D Cordeiro, S Khan Hekmatyar, Roberto Docampo, James H Prestegard
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) provides sensitivity improvements that make NMR a viable method for following metabolic conversions in real time. There are now many in vivo applications to animal systems and even to diagnosis of human disease. However, application to microbial systems is rare. Here we demonstrate its application to the pathogenic protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei, using hyperpolarized (13)C1- pyruvate as a substrate and compare the parasite metabolism to that of commonly cultured mammalian cell lines, HEK-293 and Hep-G2...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885847/regulation-of-reduced-folate-carrier-rfc-by-vitamin-d-receptor-at-the-blood-brain-barrier
#16
Camille Alam, Md Tozammel Hoque, Richard H Finnell, I David Goldman, Reina Bendayan
Folates are essential for brain development and function. Folate transport in mammalian tissues is mediated by three major folate transport systems, i.e., reduced folate carrier (RFC), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and folate receptor alpha (FRα), known to be regulated by ligand-activated nuclear receptors such as vitamin D receptor (VDR). Folate uptake at the choroid plexus, which requires the actions of both FRα and PCFT, is critical to cerebral folate delivery. Inactivating FRα or PCFT mutations cause severe cerebral folate deficiency resulting in early childhood neurodegeneration...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885140/xenogenic-rolling-circle-replication-of-a-synthetic-beak-and-feather-disease-virus-genomic-clone-in-293tt-mammalian-cells-and-nicotiana-benthamiana
#17
Guy L Regnard, Warren R J de Moor, Inga I Hitzeroth, Anna-Lise Williamson, Edward P Rybicki
The preparation of infectious beak and feather disease circovirus virions (BFDV) has until now relied on the extraction of virus from whole tissue of deceased or euthanized parrots known to be infected with the virus. Extraction from diseased tissue is necessary, as the virus has yet to be grown in vitro using tissue-cultured cells from any source. While infectious DNA clones have been synthesized for porcine and duck circoviruses, and both replicate in host cells and result in active viral infection in animals, this has not been shown for BFDV...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880225/silver-oxide-coatings-with-high-silver-ion-elution-rates-and-characterization-of-bactericidal-activity
#18
Sarah S Goderecci, Eric Kaiser, Michael Yanakas, Zachary Norris, Jeffrey Scaturro, Robert Oszust, Clarence D Medina, Fallon Waechter, Min Heon, Robert R Krchnavek, Lei Yu, Samuel E Lofland, Renee M Demarest, Gregory A Caputo, Jeffrey D Hettinger
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of silver oxide films for use as bactericidal coatings. Synthesis parameters, dissolution/elution rate, and bactericidal efficacy are reported. Synthesis conditions were developed to create AgO, Ag₂O, or mixtures of AgO and Ag₂O on surfaces by reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings demonstrate strong adhesion to many substrate materials and impede the growth of all bacterial strains tested. The coatings are effective in killing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, demonstrating a clear zone-of-inhibition against bacteria growing on solid media and the ability to rapidly inhibit bacterial growth in planktonic culture...
September 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874606/bacterial-d-amino-acids-suppress-sinonasal-innate-immunity-through-sweet-taste-receptors-in-solitary-chemosensory-cells
#19
Robert J Lee, Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Laurel Doghramji, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Peihua Jiang, Robert F Margolskee, Noam A Cohen
In the upper respiratory epithelium, bitter and sweet taste receptors present in solitary chemosensory cells influence antimicrobial innate immune defense responses. Whereas activation of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) stimulates surrounding epithelial cells to release antimicrobial peptides, activation of the sweet taste receptor (T1R) in the same cells inhibits this response. This mechanism is thought to control the magnitude of antimicrobial peptide release based on the sugar content of airway surface liquid...
September 5, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872141/derivation-of-stem-cell-lines-from-mouse-preimplantation-embryos
#20
Marta Vila-Cejudo, Elena Ibañez, Josep Santalo
Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) derivation is the process by which pluripotent cell lines are established from preimplantation embryos. These lines retain the ability to either self-renew or differentiate under specific conditions. Due to these properties, mESC are a useful tool in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and tissue engineering studies. This article describes a simple protocol to obtain mESC lines with high derivation efficiencies (60-80%) by culturing blastocysts from permissive mouse strains on feeder cells in defined medium supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor...
August 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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