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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092625/adrenergic-control-of-pinealocyte-chondriome-an-in-vitro-study
#1
B Przybylska-Gornowicz, B Lewczuk, N Ziółkowska, M Prusik
Norepinephrine released from sympathetic innervation plays the main role in the regulation of melatonin secretion in mammalian pinealocytes. The present study was conducted for the following reasons: 1) to establish whether the pinealocyte chondriome is controlled by norepinephrine, 2) to determine the effect of adrenergic stimulation on mitochondria, and 3) to characterize adrenoceptors involved in the regulation of the chondriome. The static organ culture of the pineal gland was used. The explants were incubated for 5 consecutive days in control medium and between 20:00 and 08:00 in medium with the presence of 10 μM norepinephrine - adrenergic agonist; isoproterenol - beta-adrenoceptor agonist; cirazoline, methoxamine, M-6364 - alfa1 - adrenoceptors agonists or PMA - activator of PKC...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090771/differential-adhesive-bioactive-properties-of-polymeric-surface-coated-with-graphene-oxide-thin-film
#2
Sudhin Thampi, A Maya Nandkumar, Vignesh Muthuvijayan, Ramesh Parameswaran
Surface engineering of implantable devices involving polymeric biomaterials has become an essential aspect for medical implants. Surface enhancement technique can provide an array of unique surface properties that improves its biocompatibility and functionality as an implant. Polyurethane based implants that have found extensively acclaimed usage as an implant in biomedical applications, especially in the area of cardiovascular devices still lacks any mechanism to ward off bacterial or platelet adhesion. To bring out such a defense mechanism we are proposing a surface modification technique...
January 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090567/the-rna-polymerase-iii-subunit-polr3b-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-small-intestinal-crypts-in-mice
#3
Julia Kieckhaefer, Sabina Lukovac, Diana Z Ye, Dolim Lee, Danielle J Beetler, Michael Pack, Klaus H Kaestner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The continuously self-renewing mammalian intestinal epithelium, with high cellular turnover, depends on adequate protein synthesis for its proliferative capacity. RNA polymerase III activity is closely related to cellular growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the role of Polr3b, a large RNA polymerase III subunit, in the mammalian intestinal epithelium. METHODS: We derived mice with an intestinal epithelium-specific hypomorphic mutation of the Polr3b gene, using VillinCre-mediated gene ablation...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088685/a-semi-interpenetrating-network-of-polyacrylamide-and-recombinant-basement-membrane-allows-pluripotent-cell-culture-in-a-soft-ligand-rich-microenvironment
#4
Andrew J Price, Eva Y Huang, Vittorio Sebastiano, Alexander R Dunn
The physical properties of the extracellular matrix play an essential role in guiding stem cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. Existing work to investigate the role of matrix mechanics in directing stem cell proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation has been limited by the poor attachment and survival of human pluripotent cells cultured on soft matrices (Young's modulus E ≲ 1000 Pa). To address this limitation we developed a protocol for generating semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and recombinant basement membrane...
December 9, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073973/human-foetal-ovary-shares-meiotic-preventing-factors-with-the-developing-testis
#5
Nelly Frydman, Marine Poulain, Brahim Arkoun, Clotilde Duquenne, Sophie Tourpin, Sébastien Messiaen, René Habert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, Alexandra Benachi, Gabriel Livera
STUDY QUESTION: How can pre-meiotic germ cells persist in the human foetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: Numerous oogonia escaping meiotic entry were retrieved throughout human ovarian development simultaneously with the expression of signalling pathways preventing meiosis, typically described in the rodent embryonic testis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a key event in female germ cells that remains poorly documented in research on the human ovary...
January 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073536/microelectrode-array-mea-platform-as-a-sensitive-tool-to-detect-and-evaluate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-toxicity
#6
Susanna Alloisio, Valentina Giussani, Mario Nobile, Mariachiara Chiantore, Antonio Novellino
In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069833/clasp2-ensures-mitotic-fidelity-and-prevents-differentiation-of-epidermal-keratinocytes
#7
Marta N Shahbazi, Daniel Peña-Jimenez, Francesca Antonucci, Matthias Drosten, Mirna Perez-Moreno
Epidermal homeostasis is tightly controlled by a balancing act of self-renewal or terminal differentiation of proliferating basal keratinocytes. An increase in DNA content as a consequence of a mitotic block is a recognized mechanism underlying keratinocyte differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not yet fully understood. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, here we report that the expression of the mammalian Microtubule and Kinetochore-associated protein Clasp2 is intimately associated to the basal proliferative makeup of keratinocytes, and its deficiency leads to premature differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068944/the-acceleration-of-glucose-accumulation-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-assessed-by-fdg-pet-ct-demonstrated-acquisition-of-resistance-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy
#8
Noboru Nakaigawa, Keiichi Kondo, Daiki Ueno, Kazuhiro Namura, Kazuhide Makiyama, Kazuki Kobayashi, Koichi Shioi, Ichiro Ikeda, Takeshi Kishida, Tomohiro Kaneta, Ryogo Minamimoto, Ukihide Tateishi, Tomio Inoue, Masahiro Yao
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting angiogenesis improves the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but its effect is temporary. In order to understand the mechanism by which RCC acquires resistance to TKI, we investigated the change of glucose accumulation in RCC by FDG PET/CT when they demonstrated progression disease (PD) against TKI. METHODS: We monitored the FDG accumulation in RCC of 38 patients treated with TKI by 162 PET/CT sequentially until they were judged to demonstrate PD...
January 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066829/the-multifaceted-role-of-nrf2-in-mitochondrial-function
#9
REVIEW
Kira M Holmström, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 target genes comprise of a large network of antioxidant enzymes, proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins, inhibition of inflammation, as well as other transcription factors. In recent years it has emerged that as part of its role as a regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, Nrf2 impacts mitochondrial function. Increased Nrf2 activity defends against mitochondrial toxins...
December 2016: Curr Opin Toxicol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060407/mammalian-cell-tissue-culture-techniques
#10
Katy Phelan, Kristin M May
Cultured mammalian cells are used extensively in molecular biology studies. A number of special skills are required in order to preserve the structure, function, behavior, and biology of cells in culture. This appendix describes the basic skills required to maintain and preserve cell cultures: maintaining aseptic technique, preparing media with the appropriate characteristics, passaging, freezing and storage, recovering frozen stocks, and counting viable cells. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057259/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-history-value-in-basic-research-and-current-perspectives-for-vaccine-development
#11
A Volz, G Sutter
Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046204/electroporation-in-the-rodent-embryonic-brain-using-whole-embryo-culture-system
#12
Takako Kikkawa, Masanori Takahashi, Noriko Osumi
This unit describes basic methods for mammalian whole embryo culture (WEC) using embryonic day 10.5 mouse embryos, including the preparation of high-quality immediately centrifuged (IC) rat serum that is commonly used for WEC and is essential for normal growth and development of cultured mouse and rat embryos in vitro. An alternative protocol for different stages of rodent embryos is also introduced. Since embryos for WEC are dissected out of the uterus and manipulated under the microscope, one can overcome many of the difficulties of gene delivery encountered using in utero electroporation...
January 3, 2017: Current Protocols in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046113/effects-of-exposure-to-ozone-on-the-ocular-surface-in-an-experimental-model-of-allergic-conjunctivitis
#13
Hun Lee, Eung Kweon Kim, Hee Young Kim, Tae-Im Kim
Based on previous findings that ozone can induce an inflammatory response in the ocular surface of an animal model and in cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells, we investigated whether exposure to ozone exacerbates symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. We evaluated the effects of exposure to ozone on conjunctival chemosis, conjunctival injection, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, production of inflammatory cytokines in tears, and aqueous tear production in a mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042416/which-stage-of-mouse-embryos-is-more-appropriate-for-vitrification
#14
Nasibeh Ghandy, Abbas Ali Karimpur Malekshah
BACKGROUND: Vitrification has been shown as one of the most effective methods of cryopreservation for mammalian embryos. However, there is no consensus which stage of embryonic development is the most appropriate for vitrification with subsequent maximal development after thawing. This study was carried out to explore and compare the effect(s) of vitrification on mouse 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stage embryos and subsequent blast formation and hatching after thawing...
January 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038954/design-of-lipid-nanoparticles-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-delivery-of-plasmid-dna
#15
Jayesh A Kulkarni, J Layne Myhre, Sam Chen, Yuen Yi C Tam, Adrian Danescu, Joy M Richman, Pieter R Cullis
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) containing distearolyphosphatidlycholine (DSPC), and ionizable amino-lipids such as (6Z,9Z,28Z,31Z)-heptatriaconta-6,9,28,31-tetraen-19-yl-4-(dimethylamino)butanoate (DLin-MC3-DMA) are potent siRNA delivery vehicles in vivo. Here we explore the utility of similar LNP systems as transfection reagents for plasmid DNA (pDNA). It is shown that replacement of DSPC by unsaturated PCs and DLin-MC3-DMA by the related lipid DLin-KC2-DMA resulted in highly potent transfection reagents for HeLa cells in vitro...
December 28, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035937/mtorc2-rictor-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-reversal-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-expression-induced-insulin-resistance-and-toxicity-in-rat-primary-cortical-neurons
#16
Han-Kyu Lee, Bumsup Kwon, Cynthia A Lemere, Suzanne de la Monte, Kyohei Itamura, Austin Y Ha, Henry W Querfurth
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a nutrient sensor and central controller of cell growth and proliferation, is altered in various models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Even less studied or understood in AD is mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) that influences cellular metabolism, in part through the regulations of Akt/PKB and SGK. Dysregulation of insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling is another important feature of AD pathogenesis. We found that both total mTORC1 and C2 protein levels and individual C1 and C2 enzymatic activities were decreased in human AD brain samples...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034456/biotransformation-of-an-africanane-sesquiterpene-by-the-fungus-mucor-plumbeus
#17
Braulio M Fraga, Carmen E Díaz, Leonardo J Amador, Matías Reina, Matías López-Rodriguez, Azucena González-Coloma
Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate...
December 26, 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033107/genotoxic-effects-of-the-carbamate-insecticide-pirimor-50%C3%A2-in-vicia-faba-root-tip-meristems-and-human-lymphocyte-culture-after-direct-application-and-treatment-with-its-metabolic-extracts
#18
Rafael Valencia-Quintana, Sandra Gómez-Arroyo, Juana Sánchez-Alarcón, Mirta Milić, José Luis Gómez Olivares, Stefan M Waliszewski, Josefina Cortés-Eslava, Rafael Villalobos-Pietrini, María Elena Calderón-Segura
The aim of the study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of Pirimor-50®, a pirimicarb-based formulation (50 % active ingredient), in human lymphocyte cultures and Vicia faba root meristems. Furthermore, the objective was to examine a combined influence of insecticide treatment with mammalian microsomal S9 and vegetal S10 metabolic fractions or S10 mix metabolic transformation extracts (after Vicia faba primary roots treatment with Pirimor-50®). We used sister chromatid exchange assay-SCE and measured cell cycle progression and proliferation (proportion of M1-M3 metaphases and replication index ratio-RI)...
December 1, 2016: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028873/development-of-a-qualitative-real-time-pcr-for-microbiological-quality-control-testing-in-mammalian-cell-culture-production
#19
Kerstin Kleinschmidt, Erik Wilkens, Stefanie P Glaeser, Peter Kämpfer, Alexandra Staerk, David Roesti
AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a real-time PCR technology for microbiological control methods to examine individualized cell therapeutics, an emerging class of pharmaceutical formulations. METHODS AND RESULTS: Oligonucleotide primers and hybridization probe for bacterial detection targeting the 16S rRNA gene and were adapted based on Nadkarni et al.; 2002. For detection of yeast and molds, primers and probe were designed from conserved sequences of the 18S rRNA gene in this study...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027303/olfactory-sensory-neurons-control-dendritic-complexity-of-mitral-cells-via-notch-signaling
#20
Yuko Muroyama, Atsushi Baba, Motoo Kitagawa, Tetsuichiro Saito
Mitral cells (MCs) of the mammalian olfactory bulb have a single primary dendrite extending into a single glomerulus, where they receive odor information from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Molecular mechanisms for controlling dendritic arbors of MCs, which dynamically change during development, are largely unknown. Here we found that MCs displayed more complex dendritic morphologies in mouse mutants of Maml1, a crucial gene in Notch signaling. Similar phenotypes were observed by conditionally misexpressing a dominant negative form of MAML1 (dnMAML1) in MCs after their migration...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
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