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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629864/structure-function-relationships-in-human-d-aspartate-oxidase-characterisation-of-variants-corresponding-to-known-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#1
Masumi Katane, Ryo Kanazawa, Risa Kobayashi, Megumi Oishi, Kazuki Nakayama, Yasuaki Saitoh, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Masae Sekine, Hiroshi Homma
D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for the acidic amino acid D-aspartate, an endogenous agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the onset of various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and in chronic pain. Thus, appropriate regulation of the amount of D-aspartate is believed to be important for maintaining proper neural activity in the nervous system. Herein, the effects of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R216Q and S308N on several properties of human DDO were examined...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#2
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629357/xuefuzhuyu-decoction-protected-cardiomyocytes-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-by-inhibiting-autophagy
#3
Xiaowen Shi, Haiyan Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Mingmei Zhou, Danli Tang, Huamin Zhang
BACKGROUND: XuefuZhuyu decoction (XFZY) is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, such as unstable angina pectoris and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the mechanism by which XFZY contributes to the amelioration of cardiac injury remains unclear. METHODS: H9C2 cells were cultured under the hypoxic condition for 10 h and reoxygenated for 2 h. In the presence of various concentrations of XFZY for 12 h, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629148/involvement-of-cd36-in-modulating-the-decrease-of-npy-and-agrp-induced-by-acute-palmitic-acid-stimulation-in-n1e-115-cells
#4
Yan Ma, Xiaoyi Wang, Hongying Yang, Xu Zhang, Nianhong Yang
Central nervous system (CNS) fatty acid sensing plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, and palmitic acid (PA) is the most important long chain fatty acid (LCFA) in the mammalian diet. To explore the effect of PA on central neuropeptide expression and the role of the cluster of the differentiation of 36 (CD36) in the process, N1E-115 cells were cultured with PA in the presence or absence of sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate (SSO), a CD36 inhibitor. Results showed that 10 μmol/L PA significantly reduced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression after 20 min of exposure, while the expression of CD36 was upregulated...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627778/engineering-cho-cells-with-an-oncogenic-kit-improves-cells-growth-resilience-to-stress-and-productivity
#5
Mohamed Mahameed, Boaz Tirosh
An optimized biomanufacturing process in mammalian cells is contingent on the ability of the producing cells to reach high viable cell densities. In addition, at the peak of growth, cells need to continue producing the biological entity at a consistent quality. Thus, engineering cells with robust growth performance and resilience to variable stress conditions is highly desirable. The tyrosine kinase receptor, KIT, plays a key role in cell differentiation and the survival of several immune cell types. Its oncogenic mutant, D816V, endows cells with high proliferation capacity and resistance to kinase inhibitors...
June 19, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625984/indole-induced-reversion-of-intrinsic-multi-antibiotic-resistance-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes
#6
Yong Han, Yan Wang, Yameng Yu, Haotong Chen, Yuemao Shen, Liangcheng Du
Lysobacter are a group of environmental bacteria that are emerging as a new source of antibiotics. One characteristic of Lysobacter is intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics, which had not been studied. To understand the resistant mechanism, we tested the effect of blocking two-component regulator systems (TCS) on antibiotic resistance of L. enzymogenes, a prolific producer of antibiotics. Upon treatment with LED209, an inhibitor of the widespread TCS QseC/QseB, L. enzymogenes produced a large amount of an unknown metabolite that was barely detectable in the untreated culture...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622799/quantitative-nmr-analysis-of-intra-and-extracellular-metabolism-of-mammalian-cells-a-tutorial
#7
REVIEW
Sarantos Kostidis, Ruben D Addie, Hans Morreau, Oleg A Mayboroda, Martin Giera
Metabolomics analysis of body fluids as well as cells is depended on many factors. While several well-accepted standard operating procedures for the analysis of body fluids are available, the NMR based quantitative analysis of cellular metabolites is less well standardized. Experimental designs depend on the cell type, the quenching protocol and the applied post-acquisition workflow. Here, we provide a tutorial for the quantitative description of the metabolic phenotype of mammalian cells using NMR spectroscopy...
August 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621670/analyses-of-a-whole-genome-inter-clade-recombination-map-of-hepatitis-delta-virus-suggest-a-host-polymerase-driven-and-viral-rna-structure-promoted-template-switching-mechanism-for-viral-rna-recombination
#8
Mei Chao, Tzu-Chi Wang, Chia-Chi Lin, Robert Yung-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Lin, Shang-En Lee, Ying-Yu Cheng, Chau-Ting Yeh, Shan-Bei Iang
The genome of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a 1.7-kb single-stranded circular RNA that folds into an unbranched rod-like structure and has ribozyme activity. HDV redirects host RNA polymerase(s) (RNAP) to perform viral RNA-directed RNA transcription. RNA recombination is known to contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of HDV, but its molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we established a whole-genome HDV-1/HDV-4 recombination map using two cloned sequences coexisting in cultured cells. Our functional analyses of the resulting chimeric delta antigens (the only viral-encoded protein) and recombinant genomes provide insights into how recombination promotes the genotypic and phenotypic diversity of HDV...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620589/transcriptomic-profiling-of-high-density-giardia-foci-encysting-in-the-murine-proximal-intestine
#9
Jonathan K Pham, Christopher Nosala, Erica Y Scott, Kristofer F Nguyen, Kari D Hagen, Hannah N Starcevich, Scott C Dawson
Giardia is a highly prevalent, understudied protistan parasite causing significant diarrheal disease worldwide. Its life cycle consists of two stages: infectious cysts ingested from contaminated food or water sources, and motile trophozoites that colonize and attach to the gut epithelium, later encysting to form new cysts that are excreted into the environment. Current understanding of parasite physiology in the host is largely inferred from transcriptomic studies using Giardia grown axenically or in co-culture with mammalian cell lines...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616834/minimizing-bias-in-virally-seeded-water-treatment-studies-evaluation-of-optimal-bacteriophage-and-mammalian-virus-preparation-methodologies
#10
Nathan Dunkin, ShihChi Weng, Joseph G Jacangelo, Kellogg J Schwab
One key assumption impacting data quality in viral inactivation studies is that reduction estimates are not altered by the virus seeding process. However, seeding viruses often involves the inadvertent addition of co-constituents such as cell culture components or additives used during preparation steps which can impact viral reduction estimates by inducing non-representative oxidant demand in disinfection studies and fouling in membrane assessments. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize a mammalian norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), and bacteriophage MS2 at sequential stages of viral purification and to quantify their potential contribution to artificial oxidant demand and non-representative membrane fouling...
June 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615348/jak2-inhibitor-cep-33779-prevents-mouse-oocyte-maturation-in-vitro
#11
Changli Wu, Rong Li, Haibing Luo, Mingfeng Xu, Xiujuan Zhang
The inhibitor CEP-33779 is a specific selective inhibitor of JAK2. In most somatic cells, JAK2 plays essential roles in cellular signal transduction and in the regulation of cell cycle. Little is known regarding the effects of JAK2 on mammalian oocyte maturation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CEP-33779 on mouse oocytes meiosis and possible mechanisms of JAK2 during mouse oocyte maturation. We detected the distribution of JAK2 during mouse oocyte maturation. The results show that JAK2 was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm during maturation...
June 14, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614798/dnmt3a-mediated-inhibition-of-wnt-in-cardiac-progenitor-cells-improves-differentiation-and-remote-remodeling-after-infarction
#12
Aurelia De Pauw, Emilie Andre, Belaid Sekkali, Caroline Bouzin, Hrag Esfahani, Nicolas Barbier, Axelle Loriot, Charles De Smet, Laetitia Vanhoutte, Stéphane Moniotte, Bernhard Gerber, Vittoria di Mauro, Daniele Catalucci, Olivier Feron, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Jean-Luc Balligand
Adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) display a low capacity to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in injured hearts, strongly limiting the regenerative capacity of the mammalian myocardium. To identify new mechanisms regulating CPC differentiation, we used primary and clonally expanded Sca-1+ CPCs from murine adult hearts in homotypic culture or coculture with cardiomyocytes. Expression kinetics analysis during homotypic culture differentiation showed downregulation of Wnt target genes concomitant with increased expression of the Wnt antagonist, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is necessary to stimulate CPC differentiation...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614300/pten-counteracts-fbxl2-to-promote-ip3r3-and-ca-2-mediated-apoptosis-limiting-tumour-growth
#13
Shafi Kuchay, Carlotta Giorgi, Daniele Simoneschi, Julia Pagan, Sonia Missiroli, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Ana Collazo-Lorduy, Mireia Castillo-Martin, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Said M Sebti, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
In response to environmental cues that promote IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) generation, IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) located on the endoplasmic reticulum allow the 'quasisynaptical' feeding of calcium to the mitochondria to promote oxidative phosphorylation. However, persistent Ca(2+) release results in mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and consequent apoptosis. Among the three mammalian IP3Rs, IP3R3 appears to be the major player in Ca(2+)-dependent apoptosis. Here we show that the F-box protein FBXL2 (the receptor subunit of one of 69 human SCF (SKP1, CUL1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes) binds IP3R3 and targets it for ubiquitin-, p97- and proteasome-mediated degradation to limit Ca(2+) influx into mitochondria...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609289/adverse-eff-ects-of-polymeric-nanoparticle-poly-ethylene-glycol-block-polylactide-methyl-ether-peg-b-pla-on-steroid-hormone-secretion-by-porcine-granulosa-cells
#14
Sona Scsukova, Mlynarcikova A Bujnakova, A Kiss, E Rollerova
OBJECTIVES: Development of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery, is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. Diverse effects of different type NPs relating to mammalian reproductive tissues have been demonstrated. Th e objective of this study was to explore the in vitro effects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol)-blockpolylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA NPs) on functional state and viability of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), which play an important role in maintaining ovarian function and female fertility...
April 25, 2017: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605387/a-simple-fractionated-extraction-method-for-the-comprehensive-analysis-of-metabolites-lipids-and-proteins-from-a-single-sample
#15
Mohamed Salem, Michal Bernach, Krzysztof Bajdzienko, Patrick Giavalisco
Understanding of complex biological systems requires the measurement, analysis and integration of multiple compound classes of the living cell, usually determined by transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics and lipidomic measurements. In this protocol, we introduce a simple method for the reproducible extraction of metabolites, lipids and proteins from biological tissues using a single aliquot per sample. The extraction method is based on a methyl tert-butyl ether: methanol: water system for liquid: liquid partitioning of hydrophobic and polar metabolites into two immiscible phases along with the precipitation of proteins and other macromolecules as a solid pellet...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603486/comparison-of-sirtuin-3-levels-in-als-and-huntington-s-disease-differential-effects-in-human-tissue-samples-vs-transgenic-mouse-models
#16
Eva Buck, Hanna Bayer, Katrin S Lindenberg, Johannes Hanselmann, Noemi Pasquarelli, Albert C Ludolph, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by distinct patterns of neuronal loss. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) upper and lower motoneurons degenerate whereas in Huntington's disease (HD) medium spiny neurons in the striatum are preferentially affected. Despite these differences the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are remarkably similar. In addition, non-neuronal features, such as weight loss implicate a dysregulation in energy metabolism. Mammalian sirtuins, especially the mitochondrial NAD+ dependent sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), regulate mitochondrial function and aging processes...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602611/dna-methyltransferases-modulate-hepatogenic-lineage-plasticity-of%C3%A2-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#17
Chien-Wei Lee, Wei-Chih Huang, Hsien-Da Huang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Jennifer H Ho, Muh-Hwa Yang, Vincent W Yang, Oscar K Lee
The irreversibility of developmental processes in mammalian cells has been challenged by rising evidence that de-differentiation of hepatocytes occurs in adult liver. However, whether reversibility exists in mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived hepatocytes (dHeps) remains elusive. In this study, we find that hepatogenic differentiation (HD) of MSCs is a reversible process and is modulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). DNMTs are regulated by transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), which in turn controls hepatogenic differentiation and de-differentiation...
June 1, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597057/an-l-glutamine-transporter-isoform-for-neurogenesis-facilitated-by-l-theanine
#18
REVIEW
Yukio Yoneda
L-Theanine (=γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid ingredient in green tea with a structural analogy to L-glutamine (L-GLN) rather than L-glutamic acid (L-GLU), with regards to the absence of a free carboxylic acid moiety from the gamma carbon position. L-theanine markedly inhibits [(3)H]L-GLN uptake without affecting [(3)H]L-GLU uptake in cultured neurons and astroglia. In neural progenitor cells with sustained exposure to L-theanine, upregulation of the L-GLN transporter isoform Slc38a1 expression and promotion of both proliferation and neuronal commitment are seen along with marked acceleration of the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and relevant downstream proteins...
June 9, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595837/application-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-nematode-and-danio-rerio-embryo-zebrafish-as-model-systems-to-screen-for-developmental-and-reproductive-toxicity-of-piperazine-compounds
#19
Peter I Racz, Marjolein Wildwater, Martijn Rooseboom, Engelien Kerkhof, Raymond Pieters, Elena Santidrian Yebra-Pimentel, Ron P Dirks, Herman P Spaink, Chantal Smulders, Graham F Whale
To enable selection of novel chemicals for new processes, there is a recognized need for alternative toxicity screening assays to assess potential risks to man and the environment. For human health hazard assessment these screening assays need to be translational to humans, have high throughput capability, and from an animal welfare perspective be harmonized with the principles of the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement). In the area of toxicology a number of cell culture systems are available but while these have some predictive value, they are not ideally suited for the prediction of developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART)...
June 5, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594817/a-shifting-mutational-landscape-in-6-nutritional-states-stress-induced-mutagenesis-as-a-series-of-distinct-stress-input-mutation-output-relationships
#20
Ram P Maharjan, Thomas Ferenci
Environmental stresses increase genetic variation in bacteria, plants, and human cancer cells. The linkage between various environments and mutational outcomes has not been systematically investigated, however. Here, we established the influence of nutritional stresses commonly found in the biosphere (carbon, phosphate, nitrogen, oxygen, or iron limitation) on both the rate and spectrum of mutations in Escherichia coli. We found that each limitation was associated with a remarkably distinct mutational profile...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
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