Read by QxMD icon Read


A Fernández-Cruz, E Magira, S T Heo, S Evans, J Tarrand, D P Kontoyiannis
There is a paucity of studies on the yield of Gomori-methenamine-silver (GMS) stain in BAL cytology and its comparison with fluorescent dyes for the diagnosis of IPA in patients with hematologic malignancies. To that end, we analysed the yield of direct fungal visualization in bronchoalveloar lavage (BAL) cytology by GMS stain in a series of culture-positive IPA in 67 patients with hematologic malignancies, and compared it with direct examination with Calcofluor White™ and BAL galactomannan when available...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yuan Fang, Yi Zhang, Zheng-Bin Zhou, Wen-Qi Shi, Shang Xia, Yuan-Yuan Li, Jia-Tong Wu, Qin Liu, Guang-Yi Lin
BACKGROUND: With increases in global travel and trade, the spread of arboviruses is undoubtedly alarming. Pathogen detection in field-caught mosquitoes can provide the earliest possible warning of transmission. Insect-specific flavivirus (ISFV) has been first detected in 1991 and documented worldwide in the latest ten years. Although infection with ISFVs is apparently limited to insects, an increase in the infection rate of mosquito-borne flaviviruses may be able to induce cytopathic effects in vertebrate cells during co-infection with other human pathogens...
July 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Awachana Jiamsakul, Stephen J Kerr, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Iskandar Azwa, Fujie Zhang, Romanee Chaiwarith, Wingwai Wong, Penh Sun Ly, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Rossana Ditangco, Sanjay Pujari, Evy Yunihastuti, Cuong Duy Do, Tuti Parwati Merati, Kinh Van Nguyen, Man Po Lee, Jun Yong Choi, Shinichi Oka, Pacharee Kantipong, Benedict L H Sim, Oon Tek Ng, Jeremy Ross, Matthew Law
Missed clinic visits can lead to poorer treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence has been linked to subsequent missed visits. Knowing the determinants of missed visits in Asian patients will allow for appropriate counselling and intervention strategies to ensure continuous engagement in care. A missed visit was defined as having no assessments within six months. Repeated measures logistic regression was used to analyse factors associated with missed visits...
July 18, 2018: AIDS Care
Louise Dyson, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Background: When tests are used in series to determine individual risk factors and infection status in a mass drug administration (MDA), the diagnostics, test order and subsequent treatment decisions (the testing algorithm) affect population-level treatment coverage and cost, but there is no existing framework for evaluating which algorithm optimizes any given outcome. Methods: We present a mathematical tool (with spreadsheet implementation) to analyse the effect of test ordering, illustrated using treatment for onchocerciasis in an area where high-burden Loa loa co-infections present a known risk factor...
July 18, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sungtaek Oh, Ujvala Deepthi Gadde, David Bravo, Erik P Lillehoj, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Magnolia tree bark has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported investigating the effects of dietary supplementation with magnolia bark extract in chickens. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of chickens with a Magnolia officinalis bark extract would increase growth performance in uninfected and Eimeria maxima / Clostridium perfringens co-infected chickens. Methods: A total of 168 chickens were fed from hatch either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with 0...
April 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Dickson Stuart Tayebwa, Patrick Vudriko, Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Azirwan Guswanto, Arifin Budiman Nugraha, Sambuu Gantuya, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Mariam Komugisha, Jonh Son Bbira, James Okwee-Acai, Robert Tweyongyere, Eddie M Wampande, Joseph Byaruhanga, Paul Franck Adjou Moumouni, Thillaiampalam Sivakumar, Naoaki Yokoyama, Ikuo Igarashi
East Coast fever, babesiosis, and anaplasmosis are the major tick-borne diseases affecting cattle productivity in Uganda. The emergence of acaricide-resistant ticks is suspected to have caused a rise in hemoparasites. This study sought to detect and characterize hemoparasites among farms in acaricide-failure hotspots of central as compared to the acaricide-failure naïve areas in Eastern Uganda. Nested PCR assays were performed to determine the prevalences of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria parva, and Anaplasma marginale in cattle blood samples sourced from randomly selected farms...
June 28, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Hanan T Jaber, Asrat Hailu, Francine Pratlong, Patrick Lami, Patrick Bastien, Charles L Jaffe
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is caused by Leishmania donovani. In addition to fatal VL, these parasites also cause skin diseases in immune-competent and -suppressed people, post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and HIV/VL co-infections, respectively. Genetic polymorphism in 36 Ethiopian and Sudanese L. donovani strains from VL, PKDL and HIV/VL patients was examined using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), kDNA minicircle sequencing and Southern blotting...
July 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Souvik Ghosh, Esteban Soto, Oscar Illanes, Ryan Navarro, Meiji Soe Aung, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Carmen Fuentealba
We report here high rates of detection (50.8%, 31/61 pigs) of Torque teno sus virus (TTSuV) in kidneys of slaughter-age, apparently healthy pigs on St. Kitts island, Lesser Antilles. TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2a were detected in 23 (37.7%) and 13 (21.3%) pigs, respectively, including mixed infection in five animals. By nucleotide sequence identities and phylogenetic analysis, significant genetic diversity was observed among both TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2a on St. Kitts, with TTSuVk2a showing higher genetic diversity than TTSuV1...
July 17, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nhiem Le-Viet, Duc-Tuan Phan, Nho Le-Viet, Sinh Trinh, Muoi To, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
We report a dual genotype Orientia tsutsugamushi infection in Vietnam in 2016. The patient had fever, rash, and an eschar. The Kawasaki genotype was identified in the eschar specimen and Karp genotype in the whole blood specimen. The genotype co-infection rate for scrub typhus is unknown and should be further evaluated.
August 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
J Ranin, D Salemovic, B Brmbolic, J Marinkovic, I Boricic, I Pesic Pavlovic, S Zerjav, M Stanojevic, D Jevtovic
OBJECTIVE: To correlating the status of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with clinical and demographic data prior to starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and assess the impact of hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) co-infections on the natural history of HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study involved a total of 836 treatment naive patients with available serological status for HBV and HCV at the point of therapy initiation...
July 16, 2018: Current HIV Research
Sithembile L Mabila, Kirsten S Almberg, Lee Friedman, Robert Cohen, Ntombizodwa Ndlovu, Naseema Vorajee, Jill Murray
PURPOSE: To determine the associations between exposure duration, measured by employment tenure, and emphysema presence and severity in black and white South African miners at autopsy. METHODS: We examined the association between mining tenure and emphysema presence or severity using the Pathology Automation (PATHAUT) database, 1975-2014. We used logistic regression models adjusted for age, tuberculosis, HIV status, and year of death. The effect of smoking on the presence and severity of emphysema was assessed in a sub-analysis of white miners...
July 16, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Wen-Kuan Liu, Qian Liu, De-Hui Chen, Wei-Ping Tan, Yong Cai, Shu-Yan Qiu, Duo Xu, Chi Li, Xiao Li, Zheng-Shi Lin, Rong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness (ARI), yet the epidemiology and effect of meteorological conditions on infection is not fully understood. To investigate the distribution of HBoV1 and determine the effect of meteorological conditions, hospitalized pediatric patients were studied in a subtropical region of China. METHODS: Samples from 11,399 hospitalized pediatric patients (≤14 years old), with ARI were tested for HBoV1 and other common respiratory pathogens using real-time PCR, between July 2009 and June 2016...
July 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Karla Addesso, Fulya Baysal-Gurel, Jason Oliver, Christopher Ranger, Paul O'Neal
Flooding can increase tree susceptibility to root rot pathogens as well as attacks by ambrosia beetles attracted to stress-induced ethanol emissions. The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of a preventative fungicide treatment and root infection with Phytophthora cinnamomi on ambrosia beetle attacks in flood stressed trees. A fungicide (Pageant® Intrinsic® ) was evaluated in two flood trials using Eastern redbud and tulip poplar trees with treatments including the fungicide with or without pathogen or no fungicide with or without pathogen...
July 14, 2018: Insects
Navaz Karimian Pour, Micheline Piquette-Miller
PURPUSE: Bacterial co-infections and low grade endotoxemia are common in HIV patients. Inflammation due to endotoxin or HIV may influence the expression and activity of transporters. Kidney transporters influence renal drug clearances including many antiretroviral agents. Our objective was to study the effect of endotoxin and HIV on the renal expression of drug transporters in an HIV-transgenic (HIV-Tg) rat model. These rats develop immune dysfunction and AIDS-associated conditions like humans...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Julia Guillebaud, Barivola Bernardson, Tsiry Hasina Randriambolamanantsoa, Laurence Randrianasolo, Jane Léa Randriamampionona, Cesare Augusto Marino, Voahangy Rasolofo, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, Ines Vigan-Womas, Voula Stivaktas, Marietjie Venter, Patrice Piola, Jean-Michel Héraud
BACKGROUND: The increasing use of malaria diagnostic tests reveals a growing proportion of patients with fever but no malaria. Clinicians and health care workers in low-income countries have few tests to diagnose causes of fever other than malaria although several diseases share common symptoms. We propose here to assess etiologies of fever in Madagascar to ultimately improve management of febrile cases. METHODOLOGY: Consenting febrile outpatients aged 6 months and older were recruited in 21 selected sentinel sites throughout Madagascar from April 2014 to September 2015...
July 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sang Il Kim, Joo Hee Yoon, Dong Choon Park, Dong Sup Lee, Seung Ju Lee, Hyun Sop Choe, Jin Hwi Kim, Tae Chul Park, Sung Jong Lee
This study aimed to determine the role of asymptomatic bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis ( Ct ), Mycoplasma genitalium ( Mg ), Mycoplasma hominis (Mh) , and Ureaplasma urealyticum ( Uu ) in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In total, 264 asymptomatic outpatients aged between 21 and 80 years were prospectively enrolled in this study during routine gynecological screening tests. Specimens collected with a Cervex Brush were routinely analyzed with the Hybrid Capture 2 assay for HPV...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Mailan Natarajan, Deepika Kumar, Jharna Mandal, Niranjan Biswal, Selvaraj Stephen
BACKGROUND: Emergence of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and hybrid E. coli (harboring genes of more than one DEC pathotypes) strains have complicated the issue of growing antibiotic resistance in diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This ongoing evolution occurs in nature predominantly via horizontal gene transfers involving the mobile genetic elements like integrons notably class 1 integron. This study was undertaken to determine the virulence pattern and antibiotic resistance among the circulating DEC strains in a tertiary care center in south of India...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
William Worodria, Victor Ssempijja, Coleen Hanrahan, Richard Ssegonja, Abdallah Muhofwa, Doreen Mazapkwe, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Steven J Reynolds, Robert Colebunders, Yukari C Manabe
INTRODUCTION: HIV-tuberculosis (TB) co-infection remains an important cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical trials have reported early (within 2 weeks of TB therapy) antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality among HIV-TB co-infected research participants with low CD4 counts, but this has not been consistently observed. We aimed to evaluate the current WHO recommendations for ART in HIV-TB co-infected patients on mortality in routine clinical settings. METHODS: We compared two cohorts before (2008-2010) and after (2012-2013) policy change on ART timing after TB and examined the effectiveness of early versus delayed ART on mortality in HIV-TB co-infected participants with CD4 100 cells/μl or less...
July 12, 2018: AIDS
Sabina Mugusi, Eliford Ngaimisi, Mohammed Janabi, Ferdinand Mugusi, Omary Minzi, Eric Aris, Muhammad Bakari, Leif Bertilsson, Juergen Burhenne, Eric Sandstrom, Eleni Aklillu
PURPOSE: Efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is associated with neuropsychiatric adverse events. We investigated the time to onset, duration, clinical implications, impact of pharmacogenetic variations, and anti-tuberculosis co-treatment on efavirenz-associated neuropsychiatric manifestations. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of cART naïve HIV patients with or without tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection treated with efavirenz-based cART. Rifampicin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy was initiated 4 weeks prior to efavirenz-based cART in HIV-TB patients...
July 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Arzouma Paul Yooda, Serge Theophile Soubeiga, K Yacouba Nebie, Birama Diarra, Salam Sawadogo, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Albert Theophane Yonli, Issoufou Tao, Pegdwende Abel Sorgho, Honorine Dahourou, Jacques Simpore
Background and Objective: The improved performance of serological tests has significantly reduced the risk of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses transmission by blood transfusion, but there is a persistence of residual risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of multiplex PCR in reducing the risk of residual transmission of these viruses in seronegative blood donors in Burkina Faso. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2017...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"