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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495977/modelling-the-implications-of-reducing-smoking-prevalence-the-public-health-and-economic-benefits-of-achieving-a-tobacco-free-uk
#1
Daniel Hunt, André Knuchel-Takano, Abbygail Jaccard, Arti Bhimjiyani, Lise Retat, Chit Selvarajah, Katrina Brown, Laura L Webber, Martin Brown
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is still the most preventable cause of cancer, and a leading cause of premature mortality and health inequalities in the UK. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of achieving a 'tobacco-free' ambition (TFA) where, by 2035, less than 5% of the population smoke tobacco across all socioeconomic groups. METHODS: A non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data to create projections to 2035. These projections were used to predict the future incidence and costs of 17 smoking-related diseases using a microsimulation approach...
May 11, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480578/protecting-children-and-families-from-tobacco-and-tobacco-related-ncds-in-the-western-pacific-good-practice-examples-from-malaysia-philippines-and-singapore
#2
A M David, S P Mercado, J D Klein, M S/O K Kaundan, H N Koong, E Garcia
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are generally considered diseases of adulthood, but NCD risk factors like tobacco use often are taken up during childhood and adolescence, and second-hand smoke exposure affects child survival and development. METHODS: At a regional meeting of the Asia Pacific Child and Family Health Alliance for Tobacco Control, members reviewed existing good practices of child-focused tobacco control approaches using health promotion strategies...
May 7, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468861/detection-of-emerging-vaccine-related-polioviruses-by-deep-sequencing
#3
Malaya K Sahoo, Marisa Holubar, ChunHong Huang, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, Yuanyuan Liu, Jesse J Waggoner, Stephanie B Troy, Lourdes Garcia-Garcia, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Yvonne Maldonado, Benjamin A Pinsky
Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) can mutate to regain neurovirulence. To date, evaluation of these mutations has primarily been performed on culture-enriched isolates using conventional Sanger sequencing. We therefore developed a culture-independent, deep sequencing method targeting the 5' untranslated region (UTR) and P1 genomic region to characterize vaccine-related poliovirus variants. Error analysis of the deep sequencing method demonstrated reliable detection of poliovirus mutations at levels <1%, depending on read depth...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437234/poliovirus-vaccination-during-the-endgame-insights-from-integrated-modeling
#4
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M Thompson
Managing the polio endgame requires access to sufficient quantities of poliovirus vaccines. After oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation, outbreaks may occur that require outbreak response using monovalent OPV (mOPV) and/or inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Areas covered: We review the experience and challenges with managing vaccine supplies in the context of the polio endgame. Building on models that explored polio endgame risks and the potential mOPV needs to stop outbreaks from live poliovirus reintroductions, we conceptually explore the potential demands for finished and bulk mOPV doses from a stockpile in the context of limited shelf-life of finished vaccine and time delays to convert bulk to finished vaccine...
May 9, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434691/immunogenicity-to-poliovirus-type-2-following-two-doses-of-fractional-intradermal-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-a-novel-dose-sparing-immunization-schedule
#5
Abhijeet Anand, Natalie A Molodecky, Mark A Pallansch, Roland W Sutter
INTRODUCTION: The polio eradication endgame strategic plan calls for the sequential removal of Sabin poliovirus serotypes from the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV), starting with type 2, and the introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), to maintain an immunity base against poliovirus type 2. The global removal of oral poliovirus type 2 was successfully implemented in May 2016. However, IPV supply constraints has prevented introduction in 21 countries and led to complete stock-out in >20 countries...
May 19, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432335/policy-coherence-integration-and-proportionality-in-tobacco-control-should-tobacco-sales-be-limited-to-government-outlets
#6
Elizabeth A Smith, Patricia A McDaniel, Heikki Hiilamo, Ruth E Malone
Multiple factors, including marijuana decriminalization/legalization, tobacco endgame discourse, and alcohol industry pressures, suggest that the retail regulatory environment for psychoactive or addictive substances is a dynamic one in which new options may be considered. In most countries, the regulation of tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol is neither coherent, nor integrated, nor proportional to the potential harms caused by these substances. We review the possible consequences of restricting tobacco sales to outlets run by government-operated alcohol retail monopolies, as well as the likely obstacles to such a policy...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419938/direct-acting-antivirals-the-endgame-for-hepatitis-c
#7
REVIEW
Roberta D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Degasperi, Massimo Colombo, Alessio Aghemo
Directly-acting antivirals (DAA) have finally allowed all patients to be potentially cured from chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. All-oral, Interferon (IFN)-free regimens are based upon the combination of molecules targeting different sites of the HCV replication process. Three classes of DAA exist: protease inhibitors (anti-NS3/4A), RNA-dependent polymerase inhibitors (anti-NS5B) and anti-NS5A inhibitors, which are characterized by different antiviral potency and barrier to resistance and therefore are usually combined in different treatment schedules...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325162/-active-anti-smoking-policy-is-a-moral-duty-of-government-responsibility-for-reducing-smoking-lies-with-both-the-individual-and-society
#8
M Verweij
Tobacco discouragement, smoking cessation and tobacco endgame policies are sometimes criticised for being unduly paternalistic: governments should respect citizens' freedom and not take over their individual responsibility for healthy behaviour. In this commentary, I argue that very strict tobacco policies can be justified on multiple grounds, including the harm principle, the public good of maintaining a healthy society, and the reduction of health inequities. The moral reasons governments have to protect people against the harms of smoking do not limit or infringe upon the responsibility of each individual to take care of her own health: responsibility for healthy behaviour is not a zero-sum game...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319937/the-race-to-a-tobacco-endgame
#9
EDITORIAL
Ruth E Malone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194449/comparison-of-ipv-to-topv-week-39-boost-of-primary-opv-vaccination-in-indian-infants-an-open-labelled-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Suman Kanungo, Deok Ryun Kim, Bisakha Haldar, Cynthia Snider, Uma Nalavade, Soon Ae Kim, Ju Yeon Park, Anuradha Sinha, Aiyel Haque Mallick, Byomkesh Manna, Dipika Sur, Ranjan Kumar Nandy, Jagadish M Deshpande, Cecil Czerkinsky, Thomas F Wierzba, William A Petri, Mohammad Ali, Ayan Dey
BACKGROUND: The final endgame strategy of global polio eradication initiative includes switching from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). This study compares IPV with tOPV week 39 boost in Indian infants. METHODS: Starting 28 March 2012, we enrolled 372 Indian infant-mother pairs from Kolkata, India in an open-label, block-randomized, controlled trial comparing a 39 week tOPV to an IPV boost among infants immunized with three doses of tOPV...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161421/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-leading-into-the-polio-eradication-endgame-strategic-plan-hangzhou-china-2010-2014
#11
Yan Liu, Jun Wang, Shijun Liu, Jian Du, Liang Wang, Wenwen Gu, Yuyang Xu, Shuyan Zuo, Erping Xu, Zhijie An
BACKGROUND: China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) has provided 4 doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) since the 1970s. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) became available in 2010 in Hangzhou as a private-sector, parent-chosen alternative to OPV. In 2015, WHO recommended that countries with all-OPV vaccination schedules introduce at least one dose of IPV, to mitigate risk associated with the withdrawal of type 2 OPV. We analyzed polio vaccine coverage and utilization in Hangzhou to determine patterns of IPV use and the occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) in the various patterns identified...
February 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141812/the-significant-scale-up-and-success-of-transmission-assessment-surveys-tas-for-endgame-surveillance-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-bangladesh-one-step-closer-to-the-elimination-goal-of-2020
#12
A K M Shamsuzzaman, Rouseli Haq, Mohammad J Karim, Motasim B Azad, A S M Sultan Mahmood, Abul Khair, Muhammad Mujibur Rahman, Israt Hafiz, K D Ramaiah, Charles D Mackenzie, Hayley E Mableson, Louise A Kelly-Hope
BACKGROUND: Bangladesh had one of the highest burdens of lymphatic filariasis (LF) at the start of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) with an estimated 70 million people at risk of infection across 34 districts. In total 19 districts required mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt transmission, and 15 districts were considered low endemic. Since 2001, the National LF Programme has implemented MDA, reduced prevalence, and been able to scale up the WHO standard Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) across all endemic districts as part of its endgame surveillance strategy...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096107/the-polio-endgame-rationale-behind-the-change-in-immunisation
#13
Julie Garon, Manish Patel
The decades long effort to eradicate polio is nearing the final stages and oral polio vaccine (OPV) is much to thank for this success. As cases of wild poliovirus continue to dwindle, cases of paralysis associated with OPV itself have become a concern. As type-2 poliovirus (one of three) has been certified eradicated and a large proportion of OPV-related paralysis is caused by the type-2 component of OPV, the World Health Assembly endorsed the phased withdrawal of OPV and the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into routine immunisation schedules as a crucial step in the polio endgame plan...
April 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057104/-the-role-of-sabin-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-in-the-final-phase-of-global-polio-eradication
#14
S Z Dong, W B Zhu
Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906923/-out-of-the-frying-pan-but-not-into-the-fire-quantifying-commercial-cosmetic-tanning-services-in-new-zealand-to-inform-endgame-regulation
#15
Bronwen M McNoe, Anthony I Reeder
AIMS: In the context of possible regulation, to quantify and describe: (1) indoor tanning businesses in New Zealand; (2) sunbeds available for sale on Trade Me©. METHOD: In January 2016, we conducted a national audit of businesses potentially providing sunbed services (solariums, beauty-salons, hairdressers, gyms and fitness centres) to assess the availability and cost of indoor tanning services (sunbeds and spray tanning). In addition, Trade Me©, New Zealand's largest auction site for second-hand goods, was monitored for one year to determine whether ex-commercial sunbeds were being sold in the domestic market...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869415/a-new-challenge-for-the-world-the-eradication-of-polio
#16
Ángela Gentile, Héctor Abate
Poliovirus infects 100% of susceptible individuals and causes acute flaccid paralysis in one out of200 infections. Type 1 causes epidemic poliomyelitis; type 2 has been eradicated worldwide; and type 3 is close to being eradicated. In this region, the last case of wild poliovirus occurred in Peru in 1991. There are still two endemic countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan, but countries where there is no circulation of the wild poliovirus have also reported imported cases of polio. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and, as a result, developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866483/wild-and-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-circulation-and-implications-for-polio-eradication
#17
REVIEW
P L Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important...
February 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831742/the-potential-benefits-of-a-new-poliovirus-vaccine-for-long-term-poliovirus-risk-management
#18
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M Thompson
AIM: To estimate the incremental net benefits (INBs) of a hypothetical ideal vaccine with all of the advantages and no disadvantages of existing oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared with current vaccines available for future outbreak response. METHODS: INB estimates based on expected costs and polio cases from an existing global model of long-term poliovirus risk management. RESULTS: Excluding the development costs, an ideal poliovirus vaccine could offer expected INBs of US$1...
November 10, 2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812107/improving-coverage-and-compliance-in-mass-drug-administration-for-the-elimination-of-lf-in-two-endgame-districts-in-indonesia-using-micronarrative-surveys
#19
Alison Krentel, Rita Damayanti, Christiana Rialine Titaley, Nugroho Suharno, Mark Bradley, Timothy Lynam
BACKGROUND: As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802280/lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-in-american-samoa-evaluation-of-molecular-xenomonitoring-as-a-surveillance-tool-in-the-endgame
#20
Colleen L Lau, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has made significant progress toward interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). Operational challenges in defining endpoints of elimination programs include the need to determine appropriate post-MDA surveillance strategies. As humans are the only reservoirs of LF parasites, one such strategy is molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes using molecular methods (PCR), to provide an indirect indicator of infected persons nearby...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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