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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323639/the-polio-endgame-securing-a-world-free-of-all-polioviruses
#1
Michel Zaffran, Michael McGovern, Reza Hossaini, Rebecca Martin, Jay Wenger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240729/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-and-impact-on-vaccine-associated-paralytic-poliomyelitis-beijing-china-2014-2016
#2
Dan Zhao, Rui Ma, Tao Zhou, Fan Yang, Jin Wu, Hao Sun, Fang Liu, Li Lu, Xiaomei Li, Shuyan Zuo, Wei Yao, Jian Yin
When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2)...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194883/total-synthesis-of-sarcophytin
#3
Erick Moran Carreira, Leonardo J Nannini, Suren J Nemat
A total synthesis of the cembranoid (+)-sarcophytin is presented, featuring a Diels-Alder cycloaddition of an enone as the dienophile with an ester derived dienoate. The study highlights a peculiar geometric preference for the Z dienoate to furnish the cycloadduct. The endgame involves a reaction cascade, including lactone opening, alcohol oxidation and ketone epimerization to complete an efficient synthesis. A salient feature of the synthesis is the resulting reassignment of the absolute configuration, correcting the previously reported nominal structure...
November 30, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048454/are-the-school-prevention-programmes-aimed-at-de-normalizing-smoking-among-youths-beneficial-in-the-long-term-an-example-from-the-smoke-free-class-competition-in-italy
#4
V Zagà, F Giordano, P Gremigni, D L Amram, A De Blasi, M Amendola, J F Osborn, M S Cattaruzza
Tobacco smoking by young people is of great concern because it usually leads to regular smoking, nicotine addiction and quitting difficulties. Young people "hooked" by tobacco maintain the profits of the tobacco industry by replacing smokers who quit or die. If new generations could be tobacco-free, as supported by tobacco endgame strategies, the tobacco epidemic could end within decades. Smoking prevention programmes for teens are offered by schools with the aim to prevent or delay smoking onset. Among these, the Smoke Free Class Competition (SFC) was widely implemented in Europe...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952612/patients-with-primary-immunodeficiencies-are-a-reservoir-of-poliovirus-and-a-risk-to-polio-eradication
#5
Asghar Aghamohammadi, Hassan Abolhassani, Necil Kutukculer, Steve G Wassilak, Mark A Pallansch, Samantha Kluglein, Jessica Quinn, Roland W Sutter, Xiaochuan Wang, Ozden Sanal, Tatiana Latysheva, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Ewa Bernatowska, Irina A Tuzankina, Beatriz T Costa-Carvalho, Jose Luis Franco, Raz Somech, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Surjit Singh, Liliana Bezrodnik, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Anna Shcherbina, Yu-Lung Lau, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Fred Modell, Vicki Modell, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Mark A McKinlay
Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928321/opening-gambit-strategic-options-to-initiate-the-tobacco-endgame
#6
Pranay Lal, Rana J Singh, Ashish Kumar Pandey
Endgame strategies to rapidly hasten the decline of tobacco are already well within reach; a few plausible policy options are outlined herein for policy practitioners, tobacco control advocates, and public health specialists. The implementation of these measures which already exist within the gamut of existing legislation requires the galvanization of political will. The options we essay include liquidating existing public investments in tobacco, holding tobacco companies accountable within the jurisdictions of their operations, fixing liability for injury and the imposition of realistic costs on insurance providers...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926080/polio-n%C3%A3-rmar-sig-utrotning
#7
Erling Norrby, Ingrid Uhnoo, Mia Brytting, Katherina Zakikhany, Tiia Lepp, Patrick Olin
Polio close to eradication The WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been highly successful. With a dramatic decrease in polio since it started in 1988, the number of globally reported cases reached a record low of 37 in 2016. This article describes the WHO Endgame Strategic Plan including milestones that have been reached and challenges that have to be overcome in order to reach the goal of polio eradication by 2020. Efforts to strengthen immunizations systems and to detect and interrupt polio virus transmission focus on the three remaining endemic countries, namely Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria...
September 19, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878428/elimination-of-guinea-worm-disease-in-ethiopia-current-status-of-the-disease-s-eradication-strategies-and-challenges-to-the-end-game
#8
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Abyot Bekele, Amanu Shifara, Yehenew A Ebstie, Zelalem Desalegn, Zeyede Kebede, Abate Mulugeta, Kebede Deribe, Zerihun Tadesse, Tamrat Abebe, Biruck Kebede, Getaneh Abrha, Daddi Jima
Dracunculiasis, also named Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) caused by a parasitic nematode known as Dracunculus medinensis and has been known since antiquity as 'fiery serpent' from Israelites. It is transmitted to humans via drinking contaminated water containing infective copepods. Given, its feasibility for eradication, the Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was launched in 1980 with the aim of eradicating the disease. Since its inception, GWEP has made an extraordinary progress in interrupting transmission...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838203/lessons-learned-from-managing-the-planning-and-implementation-of-inactivated-polio-vaccine-introduction-in-support-of-the-polio-endgame
#9
Simona Zipursky, Manish Patel, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez Gonzalez, Tasleem Kachra, Yann Folly, Feyrouz Kurji, Chantal Laroche Veira, Emily Wootton, Lee M Hampton
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established as a time-limited entity, responsible for the management and coordination of Objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan. This objective called for the introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into the routine immunization programs of all countries using oral polio vaccine (OPV) only. Despite global vaccine shortages, which limited countries' abilities to access IPV in a timely manner, 105 of 126 countries using OPV only introduced IPV within a 2...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838199/introduction-of-inactivated-polio-vaccine-withdrawal-of-type-2-oral-polio-vaccine-and-routine-immunization-strengthening-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#10
Kamal Fahmy, Lee M Hampton, Houda Langar, Manish Patel, Tahir Mir, Chandrasegarar Soloman, Andreas Hasman, Nasir Yusuf, Nadia Teleb
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Endgame Plan) was developed to end polio disease. Key elements of the endgame plan include strengthening immunization systems using polio assets, introducing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and replacing trivalent oral polio vaccine with bivalent oral polio vaccine ("the switch"). Although coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) with the third dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (DTP3) was ≥90% in 14 countries in 2015, DTP3 coverage in EMR dropped from 86% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 due to civil disorder in multiple countries...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838198/lessons-from-globally-coordinated-cessation-of-serotype-2-oral-poliovirus-vaccine-for-the-remaining-serotypes
#11
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV containing serotypes 1 and 3 (OPV13). Methods: We compare the expected post-OPV2-cessation OPV2-related viruses from models with the evidence available approximately 6 months after OPV2 cessation. We also model the trade-offs of use vs nonuse of monovalent OPV (mOPV) for outbreak response considering all 3 serotypes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838196/addressing-the-challenges-and-opportunities-of-the-polio-endgame-lessons-for-the-future
#12
Manish Patel, Stephen Cochi
The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis certified the eradication of type 2 poliovirus in September 2015, making type 2 poliovirus the first human pathogen to be eradicated since smallpox. The eradication of type 2 poliovirus, the absence of detection of type 3 poliovirus worldwide since November 2012, and cornering type 1 poliovirus to only a few geographic areas of 3 countries has enabled implementation of the endgame of polio eradication which calls for a phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine beginning with the type 2 component, introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, strengthening of routine immunization in countries with extensive polio resources, and initiating activities to transition polio resources, program experience, and lessons learned to other global health initiatives...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838194/lessons-from-the-polio-endgame-overcoming-the-failure-to-vaccinate-and-the-role-of-subpopulations-in-maintaining-transmission
#13
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Recent detections of circulating serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in northern Nigeria (Borno and Sokoto states) and Pakistan (Balochistan Province) and serotype 1 wild poliovirus in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria (Borno) represent public health emergencies that require aggressive response. Methods: We demonstrate the importance of undervaccinated subpopulations, using an existing dynamic poliovirus transmission and oral poliovirus vaccine evolution model...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838189/communications-immunization-and-polio-vaccines-lessons-from-a-global-perspective-on-generating-political-will-informing-decision-making-and-planning-and-engaging-local-support
#14
Lisa Menning, Gaurav Garg, Deepa Pokharel, Elizabeth Thrush, Margaret Farrell, Frederic Kunjbe Kodio, Chantal Laroche Veira, Sarah Wanyoike, Suleman Malik, Manish Patel, Oliver Rosenbauer
The requirements under objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018-to introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV); withdraw oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), starting with the type 2 component; and strengthen routine immunization programs-set an ambitious series of targets for countries. Effective implementation of IPV introduction and the switch from trivalent OPV (containing types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus) to bivalent OPV (containing types 1 and 3 poliovirus) called for intense global communications and coordination on an unprecedented scale from 2014 to 2016, involving global public health technical agencies and donors, vaccine manufacturers, World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund regional offices, and national governments...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838187/experiences-and-lessons-from-polio-eradication-applied-to-immunization-in-10-focus-countries-of-the-polio-endgame-strategic-plan
#15
Maya M V X van den Ent, Apoorva Mallya, Hardeep Sandhu, Blanche-Philomene Anya, Nasir Yusuf, Marcelline Ntakibirora, Andreas Hasman, Kamal Fahmy, John Agbor, Melissa Corkum, Kyandindi Sumaili, Anisur Rahman Siddique, Jane Bammeke, Fiona Braka, Rija Andriamihantanirina, Antoine-Marie C Ziao, Clement Djumo, Moise Desire Yapi, Stephen Sosler, Rudolf Eggers
Nine polio areas of expertise were applied to broader immunization and mother, newborn and child health goals in ten focus countries of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan: policy & strategy development, planning, management and oversight (accountability framework), implementation & service delivery, monitoring, communications & community engagement, disease surveillance & data analysis, technical quality & capacity building, and partnerships. Although coverage improvements depend on multiple factors and increased coverage cannot be attributed to the use of polio assets alone, 6 out of the 10 focus countries improved coverage in three doses of diphtheria tetanus pertussis containing vaccine between 2013 and 2015...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838180/monitoring-results-in-routine-immunization-development-of-routine-immunization-dashboard-in-selected-african-countries-in-the-context-of-the-polio-eradication-endgame-strategic-plan
#16
Alain Poy, Maya M V X van den Ent, Stephen Sosler, Alan R Hinman, Sidney Brown, Samir Sodha, Daniel C Ehlman, Aaron S Wallace, Richard Mihigo
Background: To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. Methods: A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838178/introduction-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-and-trivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-bivalent-oral-polio-vaccine-switch-in-the-african-region
#17
Carol Tevi-Benissan, Joseph Okeibunor, Gaël Maufras du Châtellier, Afework Assefa, Joseph Nsiari-Muzenyi Biey, Dah Cheikh, Messeret Eshetu, Blanche-Philomene Anya, Halima Dao, Yusuf Nasir, Bartholomew Dicky Akanmori, Richard Mihigo
The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic plan outlines the phased removal of oral polio vaccines (OPVs), starting with type 2 poliovirus-containing vaccine and introduction of inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization to mitigate against risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus. The objective includes strengthening routine immunization as the primary pillar to sustaining high population immunity. After 2 years without reporting any wild poliovirus (July 2014-2016), the region undertook the synchronized switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) as recommended by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838176/the-role-of-national-immunization-technical-advisory-groups-nitags-in-the-introduction-of-inactivated-polio-vaccine-experience-of-the-indonesia-and-uganda-nitags
#18
Antoinette Ba-Nguz, Alex Adjagba, Toto Wisnu Hendrarto, Nelson K Sewankambo, Celia Nalwadda, Annette Kisakye
Background: National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) are established by national authorities to provide them with independent, bias-free, objective, and evidence-based advice on vaccines and immunization challenges. As of December 2015, 125 countries have reported having set up an NITAG. The Health Policy and Institutional Development Center at the Agence de Médecine Préventive, a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Center for evidence-informed immunization, through its Supporting Independent Immunization and Vaccine Advisory Committees (SIVAC) Initiative project, provides assistance to low- and middle-income countries in the establishment and strengthening of their NITAGs...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838174/polio-endgame-lessons-learned-from-the-immunization-systems-management-group
#19
Simona Zipursky, Jos Vandelaer, Alan Brooks, Vance Dietz, Tasleem Kachra, Margaret Farrell, Ann Ottosen, John L Sever, Michel J Zaffran
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established to coordinate and oversee objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018, namely, (1) introduction of ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in all 126 countries using oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) only as of 2012, (2) full withdrawal of OPV, starting with the withdrawal of its type 2 component, and (3) using polio assets to strengthen immunization systems in 10 priority countries. The IMG's inclusive, transparent, and partnership-focused approach proved an effective means of leveraging the comparative and complementary strengths of each IMG member agency...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838169/exceptional-financial-support-for-introduction-of-inactivated-polio-vaccine-in-middle-income-countries
#20
Anne-Line Blankenhorn, Tania Cernuschi, Michel J Zaffran
In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 was developed in response to this call and demands that all countries using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) only introduce at least 1 dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In November 2013, the Board of Gavi (the Vaccine Alliance) approved the provision of support for IPV introduction in the 72 Gavi-eligible countries...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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