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S Z Dong, W B Zhu
Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Bronwen M McNoe, Anthony I Reeder
AIMS: In the context of possible regulation, to quantify and describe: (1) indoor tanning businesses in New Zealand; (2) sunbeds available for sale on Trade Me©. METHOD: In January 2016, we conducted a national audit of businesses potentially providing sunbed services (solariums, beauty-salons, hairdressers, gyms and fitness centres) to assess the availability and cost of indoor tanning services (sunbeds and spray tanning). In addition, Trade Me©, New Zealand's largest auction site for second-hand goods, was monitored for one year to determine whether ex-commercial sunbeds were being sold in the domestic market...
December 2, 2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Ángela Gentile, Héctor Abate
Poliovirus infects 100% of susceptible individuals and causes acute flaccid paralysis in one out of200 infections. Type 1 causes epidemic poliomyelitis; type 2 has been eradicated worldwide; and type 3 is close to being eradicated. In this region, the last case of wild poliovirus occurred in Peru in 1991. There are still two endemic countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan, but countries where there is no circulation of the wild poliovirus have also reported imported cases of polio. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and, as a result, developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
P L Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Kimberly M Thompson
AIM: To estimate the incremental net benefits (INBs) of a hypothetical ideal vaccine with all of the advantages and no disadvantages of existing oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared with current vaccines available for future outbreak response. METHODS: INB estimates based on expected costs and polio cases from an existing global model of long-term poliovirus risk management. RESULTS: Excluding the development costs, an ideal poliovirus vaccine could offer expected INBs of US$1...
November 10, 2016: Future Microbiology
Alison Krentel, Rita Damayanti, Christiana Rialine Titaley, Nugroho Suharno, Mark Bradley, Timothy Lynam
BACKGROUND: As the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) approaches its 2020 goal, an increasing number of districts will enter the endgame phase where drug coverage rates from mass drug administration (MDA) are used to assess whether MDA can be stopped. As reported, the gap between reported and actual drug coverage in some contexts has overestimated the true rates, thus causing premature administration of transmission assessment surveys (TAS) that detect ongoing LF transmission...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Colleen L Lau, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has made significant progress toward interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). Operational challenges in defining endpoints of elimination programs include the need to determine appropriate post-MDA surveillance strategies. As humans are the only reservoirs of LF parasites, one such strategy is molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes using molecular methods (PCR), to provide an indirect indicator of infected persons nearby...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Alan M Hyde, Zhijian Liu, Birgit Kosjek, Lushi Tan, Artis Klapars, Eric R Ashley, Yong-Li Zhong, Oscar Alvizo, Nicholas J Agard, Guiquan Liu, Xiuyan Gu, Nobuyoshi Yasuda, John Limanto, Mark A Huffman, David M Tschaen
A scalable and efficient synthesis of the GPR40 agonist MK-8666 was developed from a simple pyridine building block. The key step to set the stereochemistry at two centers relied on an enzymatic dynamic kinetic reduction of an unactivated ketone. Directed evolution was leveraged to generate an optimized ketoreductase that provided the desired trans alcohol in >30:1 dr and >99% ee. Further, it was demonstrated that all four diastereomers of this hydroxy-ester could be prepared in high yield and selectivity...
November 18, 2016: Organic Letters
Minetaro Arita
Since the start of Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, poliomyelitis cases caused by wild poliovirus (PV) were drastically reduced to only 74 cases in 2 endemic countries in 2015. With established vaccine campaign, current limited PV transmission suggested the endgame of the polio eradication program. In the endgame, we have emerging challenges specific to the endgame; tight budget, switching of the vaccines, and changes in the biorisk management. To overcome these challenges, several projects of PV study attract attention in the eradication program...
October 31, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Janet Hoek, Jude Ball, Rebecca Gray, El-Shadan Tautolo
OBJECTIVE: Tobacco companies often assert that adults should be free to make an 'informed choice' about smoking; this argument influences public perceptions and shapes public health policy agendas by promoting educative interventions ahead of regulation. Critically analysing 'informed choice' claims is pivotal in countries that have set endgame goals and require new, more effective policies to achieve their smoke-free aims. METHODS: In-depth interviews with 15 New Zealand politicians, policy analysts and tobacco control advocates examined how they interpreted 'informed choice' arguments...
October 24, 2016: Tobacco Control
Pradeep Haldar, Pankaj Agrawal
Global Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-18 calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs across the world. The phased globally synchronized withdrawal would begin with type 2 serotype in 2016 through a switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) and is associated with small but real risk of Vaccine Derived Polio Virus (VDPV) outbreaks. To mitigate this risk, efforts across the world, including India, are underway that comprise of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) introduction, containment of type 2 wild and vaccine strains, securing bOPV supplies, and surveillance and response protocols for any outbreaks after switch...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Mohammad Ahmad, Sunil Bahl, Abhishek Kunwar
Evidence generated through research studies has guided programmatic actions and fine-tuned strategies for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). However, many gaps still persist in the understanding of a risk-free implementation of the polio endgame. Immediate concerns relate to the introduction of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in routine immunization schedule. A comprehensive understanding of mucosal immunity in populations and best response options against circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks in post tOPV-bOPV switch is essential to mitigate the risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus importations and emergence of cVDPVs in polio-free countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Manish Patel, Lisa Menning, Pankaj Bhatnagar
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988, the number of polio-endemic countries has decreased from 125 to 2 (Afghanistan and Pakistan). To secure the gains and to address the remaining challenges, the GPEI developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan, 2013-2018 (the Plan), endorsed by all Member States at the WHA in May 2013. One of the major elements that distinguishes this Plan from previous GPEI strategies is the approach to ending all polioviruses, both wild and vaccine-derived...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Vipin M Vashishtha, Sachidanand Kamath
Poliomyelitis, a dreaded disease of the last century that had already crippled millions of people across the globe, is now on the verge of eradication thanks mainly to two polio vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Ever since their development in late 1950s and early 1960s, the journey of their early development process, clinical trials, licensure and ultimately widespread clinical use in different countries provide a fascinating tale of events. Oral polio vaccine has been the mainstay of global polio eradication initiative (GPEI) in most of the countries...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Julie Garon, Walter Orenstein, T Jacob John
As the polio endgame progresses, the world will increasingly rely on inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for protection against polio (wild and vaccine-related) and for risk mitigation during the phased removal of oral polio vaccine (OPV). IPV has already been introduced in most countries and strategies are underway to ensure the remaining OPV-only using countries succeed in introducing IPV in light of operational challenges. Questions remain as to the ideal dosing schedule for IPV in developing countries as well as the length of time for IPV to be administered beyond certification of eradication of wild polioviruses and total OPV withdrawal...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Ahd Hamidi, Wilfried A M Bakker, Roland W Sutter
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has seen significant progress since it began in 1988, largely due to the worldwide use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In order to achieve polio eradication the global cessation of OPV is necessary because OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, which in rare circumstances could re-gain wild poliovirus (WPV) characteristics with potential to establish transmission. The GPEI endgame strategy for the period 2013-2018 recommends the globally synchronised sequential cessation of the Sabin strains contained in the OPV, starting with type 2 Sabin...
November 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Elizabeth Miller, T Jacob John
In a Perspective linked to the research article by Isobel Blake and colleagues, Elizabeth Miller and T. Jacob John discuss the path towards global polio eradication and the challenges, strategies, and necessary precautions around oral polio vaccine cessation.
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Lindsay Robertson, Phil Gendall, Janet Hoek, Claire Cameron, Louise Marsh, Rob McGee
INTRODUCTION: Reducing the widespread retail availability of tobacco could help realize tobacco endgame strategies. We assessed New Zealand smokers' perceptions of five potential policies designed to reduce the retail supply of tobacco, relative to a "benchmark" policy of annual tobacco tax increases. METHODS: A sample of 623 smokers was recruited from an internet panel. Participants evaluated one of six randomly assigned policy scenarios that would reduce tobacco outlet density: (1) no tobacco sold at alcohol on-licensed premises, (2) no tobacco sold within 500 m of a high school, (3) no tobacco sold within 1 km of any school, (4) tobacco sold only at pharmacies, and (5) tobacco sold only at half the existing liquor stores...
July 27, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
W de Kanter
In the Netherlands, every day some 100 adolescents become addicted to cigarettes. These new smokers fill the gap left by the 25% of smokers who die before reaching retirement age. The State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport in the Netherlands, the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG), and the Dutch Cancer Society, Lung Foundation and Heart Foundation all support the concept of a tobacco-free generation. The concept is that, by applying public health interventions and restriction of tobacco accessibility through price hikes, in the near future none of the children in the Netherlands born in 2017 and beyond will take up smoking...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Caiyun Chang, Ji Zhang, Jingwen Zhou, Ruoming Cao, Kaijun Song, Chong Liu, Xianhui Zhang, Xingyi Geng, Xiaoxue Liu, Chuanbin Li
BACKGROUND: Use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in Jinan during the polio eradication endgame has not been previously documented. Two IPV-containing vaccines were made available as an option for Jinan parents in 2009. We describe coverage levels and patterns of use of IPV over time using data from the Jinan Childhood Immunization Information Management System (JNCIIMS). METHODS: Children born between January 2010 and December 2014 who were registered in JNCIIMS were included in this study...
November 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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