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Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Ahd Hamidi, Wilfried A M Bakker, Roland W Sutter
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has seen significant progress since it began in 1988, largely due to the worldwide use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In order to achieve polio eradication the global cessation of OPV is necessary because OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, which in rare circumstances could re-gain wild poliovirus (WPV) characteristics with potential to establish transmission. The GPEI endgame strategy for the period 2013-2018 recommends the globally synchronised sequential cessation of the Sabin strains contained in the OPV, starting with type 2 Sabin...
October 5, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Elizabeth Miller, T Jacob John
In a Perspective linked to the research article by Isobel Blake and colleagues, Elizabeth Miller and T. Jacob John discuss the path towards global polio eradication and the challenges, strategies, and necessary precautions around oral polio vaccine cessation.
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Lindsay Robertson, Phil Gendall, Janet Hoek, Claire Cameron, Louise Marsh, Rob McGee
INTRODUCTION: Reducing the widespread retail availability of tobacco could help realize tobacco endgame strategies. We assessed New Zealand smokers' perceptions of five potential policies designed to reduce the retail supply of tobacco, relative to a "benchmark" policy of annual tobacco tax increases. METHODS: A sample of 623 smokers was recruited from an internet panel. Participants evaluated one of six randomly assigned policy scenarios that would reduce tobacco outlet density: (1) no tobacco sold at alcohol on-licensed premises, (2) no tobacco sold within 500 m of a high school, (3) no tobacco sold within 1 km of any school, (4) tobacco sold only at pharmacies, and (5) tobacco sold only at half the existing liquor stores...
July 27, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
W de Kanter
In the Netherlands, every day some 100 adolescents become addicted to cigarettes. These new smokers fill the gap left by the 25% of smokers who die before reaching retirement age. The State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport in the Netherlands, the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG), and the Dutch Cancer Society, Lung Foundation and Heart Foundation all support the concept of a tobacco-free generation. The concept is that, by applying public health interventions and restriction of tobacco accessibility through price hikes, in the near future none of the children in the Netherlands born in 2017 and beyond will take up smoking...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Caiyun Chang, Ji Zhang, Jingwen Zhou, Ruoming Cao, Kaijun Song, Chong Liu, Xianhui Zhang, Xingyi Geng, Xiaoxue Liu, Chuanbin Li
BACKGROUND: Use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in Jinan during the polio eradication endgame has not been previously documented. Two IPV-containing vaccines were made available as an option for Jinan parents in 2009. We describe coverage levels and patterns of use of IPV over time using data from the Jinan Childhood Immunization Information Management System (JNCIIMS). METHODS: Children born between January 2010 and December 2014 who were registered in JNCIIMS were included in this study...
July 20, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
William Mwenge, Leon Kinuam Mbulu, Joseph Okeibunor, Peter Nsubuga, Mbaye Salla, Richard Mihigo, Pascal Mkanda
INTRODUCTION: Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988, there has been a tremendous progress in the reduction of cases of poliomyelitis. The world is on the verge of achieving global polio eradication and in May 2013, the 66th World Health Assembly endorsed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (PEESP) 2013-2018. The plan provides a timeline for the completion of the GPEI by eliminating all paralytic polio due to both wild and vaccine-related polioviruses...
July 4, 2016: Vaccine
Margarita Pons-Salort, Cara C Burns, Hil Lyons, Isobel M Blake, Hamid Jafari, M Steven Oberste, Olen M Kew, Nicholas C Grassly
Reversion and spread of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) to cause outbreaks of poliomyelitis is a rare outcome resulting from immunisation with the live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs). Global withdrawal of all three OPV serotypes is therefore a key objective of the polio endgame strategic plan, starting with serotype 2 (OPV2) in April 2016. Supplementary immunisation activities (SIAs) with trivalent OPV (tOPV) in advance of this date could mitigate the risks of OPV2 withdrawal by increasing serotype-2 immunity, but may also create new serotype-2 VDPV (VDPV2)...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Richard Edwards, Danny Tu, Rhiannon Newcombe, Kate Holland, Darren Walton
INTRODUCTION: The hardening hypothesis proposes that as smoking prevalence declines the proportion of 'hardcore' or 'hardened' smokers will increase. The possible constructs of hardening include reduced motivation to quit, increased levels of addiction, increased levels of disadvantage and reduced quit rates among continuing smokers. Most previous studies have investigated only a single facet of the hypothesis. We used data from a national population monitor to test the hypothesis using measures across all four hardening constructs...
July 5, 2016: Tobacco Control
Ed Clarke, Yauba Saidu, Jane U Adetifa, Ikechukwu Adigweme, Mariama Badjie Hydara, Adedapo O Bashorun, Ngozi Moneke-Anyanwoke, Ama Umesi, Elishia Roberts, Pa Modou Cham, Michael E Okoye, Kevin E Brown, Matthias Niedrig, Panchali Roy Chowdhury, Ralf Clemens, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Jenny Mueller, David J Jeffries, Beate Kampmann
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) represents a crucial step in the polio eradication endgame. This trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of IPV given alongside the measles-rubella and yellow fever vaccines at 9 months and when given as a full or fractional dose using needle and syringe or disposable-syringe jet injector. METHODS: We did a phase 4, randomised, non-inferiority trial at three periurban government clinics in west Gambia...
August 2016: Lancet Global Health
Elizabeth Tangel Chehab, Blanche-Philomene Melanga Anya, Adelheid Werimo Onyango, Mable Carole Tevi-Benissan, Joseph Okeibunor, Pascal Mkanda, Richard Mihigo
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem that affects children across the WHO African Region. Countries have integrated vitamin A supplementation in different child health interventions, most notably with polio campaigns. The integration of vitamin A in polio campaigns was documented as a best practice in Angola, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Tanzania, and Togo. There are potential risks to vitamin A supplementation associated with the polio endgame and certification in the African Region...
June 27, 2016: Vaccine
Sung-Mi Kim, YongQiang Wang, Noushin Nabavi, Yi Liu, Maria Almira Correia
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450s) are enzymes that metabolize endo- and xenobiotics i.e. drugs, carcinogens, toxins, natural and chemical products. These agents modulate liver P450 content through increased synthesis or reduction via inactivation and/or proteolytic degradation, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions. P450 proteolytic degradation occurs via ER-associated degradation (ERAD) involving either of two distinct routes: Ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26S proteasomal degradation (ERAD/UPD) or autophagic lysosomal degradation (ERAD/ALD)...
August 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Sanjeet Bagcchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Andreas T Schmidt
Is it a stronger interference with people's freedom to withdraw options they currently have than to withhold similar options they do not have? Drawing on recent theorizing about sociopolitical freedom, this article identifies considerations that often make this the case for public policy. However, when applied to tobacco control, these considerations are shown to give us at best only very weak freedom-based reason to prioritize the status quo. This supports a popular argument for so-called "endgame" tobacco control measures: If we believe that cigarettes would and should be withheld from entering markets in hypothetical scenarios in which they do not yet exist, then we also have reason to seek their abolition in situations, such as ours, in which cigarettes do exist-if necessary by banning their sale...
July 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Lee M Hampton, Kimberly M Thompson
BACKGROUND: The endgame for polio eradication includes coordinated global cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), starting with the cessation of vaccine containing OPV serotype 2 (OPV2) by switching all trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV). The logistics associated with this global switch represent a significant undertaking, with some possibility of inadvertent tOPV use after the switch. METHODS: We used a previously developed poliovirus transmission and OPV evolution model to explore the relationships between the extent of inadvertent tOPV use, the time after the switch of the inadvertent tOPV use and corresponding population immunity to serotype 2 poliovirus transmission, and the ability of the inadvertently introduced viruses to cause a serotype 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) outbreak in a hypothetical population...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Lee M Hampton, Kimberly M Thompson
BACKGROUND: The endgame for polio eradication involves coordinated global cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) with cessation of serotype 2 OPV (OPV2 cessation) implemented in late April and early May 2016 and cessation of serotypes 1 and 3 OPV (OPV13 cessation) currently planned for after 2018. The logistics associated with globally switching all use of trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV) represent a significant undertaking, which may cause some complications, including delays that lead to different timing of the switch across shared borders...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Edwin J Asturias, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay, Steve Self, Luis Rivera, Xavier Saez-Llorens, Eduardo Lopez, Mario Melgar, James T Gaensbauer, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Bhavesh R Borate, Chris Gast, Ralf Clemens, Walter Orenstein, Miguel O'Ryan G, José Jimeno, Sue Ann Costa Clemens, Joel Ward, Ricardo Rüttimann
BACKGROUND: Replacement of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) with bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV) and global introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) are major steps in the polio endgame strategy. In this study, we assessed humoral and intestinal immunity in Latin American infants after three doses of bOPV combined with zero, one, or two doses of IPV. METHODS: This open-label randomised controlled multicentre trial was part of a larger study...
July 9, 2016: Lancet
Vipin M Vashishtha, Jaydeep Choudhary, Sangeeta Yadav, Jeeson C Unni, Pramod Jog, Sachidanand S Kamath, Anupam Sachdeva, Sanjay Srirampur, Baldev Prajapati, Bakul J Parekh
The World Health Organization declared India among other 10 countries in South East Region as polio-free in 2014. Since then, the Government of India (GoI) has scaled up its initiatives against polio endgame which targets virus eradication and sequential withdrawal of type 2 virus from oral polio vaccine (OPV). However, prior to choosing the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (b OPV), it was suggested to include inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in the national immunization schedule to protect vaccine naive population against type 2 poliovirus...
April 23, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Rupert Mazzucco, Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A J Metz
Despite modern medical interventions, infectious diseases continue to generate huge socio-economic losses. The benefits of eradicating a disease are therefore high. While successful with smallpox and rinderpest, many other eradication attempts have failed. Eradications require huge and costly efforts, which can be sustained only if sufficient progress can be achieved. While initial successes are usually obtained more easily, progress often becomes harder as a disease becomes rare in the eradication endgame...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A Pallansch, Steven G F Wassilak, Stephen L Cochi, Kimberly M Thompson
BACKGROUND: Following successful eradication of wild polioviruses and planned globally-coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), national and global health leaders may need to respond to outbreaks from reintroduced live polioviruses, particularly vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Preparing outbreak response plans and assessing potential vaccine needs from an emergency stockpile require consideration of the different national risks and conditions as they change with time after OPV cessation...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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