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Jessica L F Teh, Andrew E Aplin
Treatments for melanoma are of two main types: targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, both are only effective in a subset of patients and are limited by acquired resistance.  Here, the authors present the preclinical basis to broadly target different forms of therapy-resistant melanoma.
May 16, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Andrew M Colman, Briony D Pulford, Eva M Krockow
In the finite-horizon repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, a compelling backward induction argument shows that rational players will defect in every round, following the uniquely optimal Nash equilibrium path. It is frequently asserted that cooperation gradually declines when a Prisoner's Dilemma is repeated multiple times by the same players, but the evidence for this is unconvincing, and a classic experiment by Rapoport and Chammah in the 1960s reported that cooperation eventually recovers if the game is repeated hundreds of times...
May 1, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Silvano Gallus, Maria Sofia Cattaruzza, Giuseppe Gorini, Fabrizio Faggiano
'The Holy See cannot be cooperating with a practice that is clearly harming the health of people'. This is the reason behind Pope Francis banning the sale of tobacco products inside the Vatican in January 2018. Just outside the Holy See, in Italy, cigarette sales produce around €13 billion of fiscal revenues every year. In Italy, proposals to increase tobacco taxation are systematically rejected and new tobacco company plants have been officially inaugurated in recent years by representatives of State. The national branch of the Red Cross also shows ambivalent attitudes towards the tobacco industry, from which it has accepted significant funding in disregard of the recommendations of the International Federation of Red Cross...
April 25, 2018: Tobacco Control
Tracy T Smith, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Neal L Benowitz, Suzanne M Colby, F Joseph McClernon, Andrew A Strasser, Jennifer W Tidey, Cassidy M White, Eric C Donny
Combustible cigarettes remain the most harmful and addictive tobacco product, and reducing the prevalence of smoking continues to be a critical public health goal. While nicotine is the constituent primarily responsible for addiction to cigarettes, most of the harm associated with smoking comes from byproducts of tobacco combustion. Recently, two different approaches for reducing the harms of smoking have emerged, both of which focus on breaking the link between the addiction to nicotine and the harms caused by smoking...
March 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Elizabeth A Smith, Patricia A McDaniel, Ruth E Malone
OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspectives of key stakeholders regarding advancement of the tobacco endgame in California. DESIGN: Interviews and focus groups exploring participants' knowledge of the tobacco endgame concept, their reactions to 4 endgame policy proposals (banning tobacco sales, registering smokers, retailer reduction, and permanently prohibiting tobacco sales to all those born after a certain year ["tobacco-free generation"]), and policy priorities and obstacles...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Eva M Krockow, Andrew M Colman, Briony D Pulford
Experimental games have previously been used to study principles of human interaction. Many such games are characterized by iterated or repeated designs that model dynamic relationships, including reciprocal cooperation. To enable the study of infinite game repetitions and to avoid endgame effects of lower cooperation toward the final game round, investigators have introduced random termination rules. This study extends previous research that has focused narrowly on repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games by conducting a controlled experiment of two-player, random termination Centipede games involving probabilistic reinforcement and characterized by the longest decision sequences reported in the empirical literature to date (24 decision nodes)...
March 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
Frederieke Sanne Petrović-van der Deen, Nick Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Nika AnŽiček, Simon Williams, Michael P Housden, Ian Paterson
The aplyronines are a family of antimitotic marine macrolides that disrupt cytoskeletal dynamics by dual targeting of both actin and tubulin. Given their picomolar cytotoxicity profile and unprecedented mode of action, the aplyronines represent an excellent candidate as a novel payload for the development of next-generation antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) for cancer chemotherapy. Enabled by an improved second-generation synthesis of the macrolactone core 5, we have achieved the first total synthesis of the most potent congener aplyronine D together with a highly stereocontrolled synthesis of aplyronine A...
February 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Michel Zaffran, Michael McGovern, Reza Hossaini, Rebecca Martin, Jay Wenger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Lancet
Dan Zhao, Rui Ma, Tao Zhou, Fan Yang, Jin Wu, Hao Sun, Fang Liu, Li Lu, Xiaomei Li, Shuyan Zuo, Wei Yao, Jian Yin
When included in a sequential polio vaccination schedule, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) reduces the risk for vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP), a rare adverse event associated with receipt of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). During January 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended introduction of at least 1 IPV dose into routine immunization schedules in OPV-using countries (1). The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 recommended completion of IPV introduction in 2015 and globally synchronized withdrawal of OPV type 2 in 2016 (2)...
December 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Leonardo J Nannini, Suren J Nemat, Erick M Carreira
A total synthesis of the cembranoid (+)-sarcophytin is presented, featuring a Diels-Alder cycloaddition of an enone as the dienophile with an ester-derived dienoate. The study highlights a peculiar geometric preference for the Z dienoate to furnish the cycloadduct. The endgame involves a reaction cascade, including lactone opening, alcohol oxidation, and ketone epimerization to complete an efficient synthesis. A salient feature of the synthesis is the resulting reassignment of the absolute configuration, which corrects the previously reported nominal structure...
January 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
V Zagà, F Giordano, P Gremigni, D L Amram, A De Blasi, M Amendola, J F Osborn, M S Cattaruzza
Tobacco smoking by young people is of great concern because it usually leads to regular smoking, nicotine addiction and quitting difficulties. Young people "hooked" by tobacco maintain the profits of the tobacco industry by replacing smokers who quit or die. If new generations could be tobacco-free, as supported by tobacco endgame strategies, the tobacco epidemic could end within decades. Smoking prevention programmes for teens are offered by schools with the aim to prevent or delay smoking onset. Among these, the Smoke Free Class Competition (SFC) was widely implemented in Europe...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Asghar Aghamohammadi, Hassan Abolhassani, Necil Kutukculer, Steve G Wassilak, Mark A Pallansch, Samantha Kluglein, Jessica Quinn, Roland W Sutter, Xiaochuan Wang, Ozden Sanal, Tatiana Latysheva, Aydan Ikinciogullari, Ewa Bernatowska, Irina A Tuzankina, Beatriz T Costa-Carvalho, Jose Luis Franco, Raz Somech, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Surjit Singh, Liliana Bezrodnik, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Anna Shcherbina, Yu-Lung Lau, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Fred Modell, Vicki Modell, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Mark A McKinlay
Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Pranay Lal, Rana J Singh, Ashish Kumar Pandey
Endgame strategies to rapidly hasten the decline of tobacco are already well within reach; a few plausible policy options are outlined herein for policy practitioners, tobacco control advocates, and public health specialists. The implementation of these measures which already exist within the gamut of existing legislation requires the galvanization of political will. The options we essay include liquidating existing public investments in tobacco, holding tobacco companies accountable within the jurisdictions of their operations, fixing liability for injury and the imposition of realistic costs on insurance providers...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
Erling Norrby, Ingrid Uhnoo, Mia Brytting, Katherina Zakikhany, Tiia Lepp, Patrick Olin
Polio close to eradication The WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been highly successful. With a dramatic decrease in polio since it started in 1988, the number of globally reported cases reached a record low of 37 in 2016. This article describes the WHO Endgame Strategic Plan including milestones that have been reached and challenges that have to be overcome in order to reach the goal of polio eradication by 2020. Efforts to strengthen immunizations systems and to detect and interrupt polio virus transmission focus on the three remaining endemic countries, namely Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria...
September 19, 2017: Läkartidningen
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Abyot Bekele, Amanu Shifara, Yehenew A Ebstie, Zelalem Desalegn, Zeyede Kebede, Abate Mulugeta, Kebede Deribe, Zerihun Tadesse, Tamrat Abebe, Biruck Kebede, Getaneh Abrha, Daddi Jima
Dracunculiasis, also named Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) caused by a parasitic nematode known as Dracunculus medinensis and has been known since antiquity as 'fiery serpent' from Israelites. It is transmitted to humans via drinking contaminated water containing infective copepods. Given, its feasibility for eradication, the Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was launched in 1980 with the aim of eradicating the disease. Since its inception, GWEP has made an extraordinary progress in interrupting transmission...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
Simona Zipursky, Manish Patel, Margaret Farrell, Alejandro Ramirez Gonzalez, Tasleem Kachra, Yann Folly, Feyrouz Kurji, Chantal Laroche Veira, Emily Wootton, Lee M Hampton
The Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) was established as a time-limited entity, responsible for the management and coordination of Objective 2 of the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan. This objective called for the introduction of at least 1 dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into the routine immunization programs of all countries using oral polio vaccine (OPV) only. Despite global vaccine shortages, which limited countries' abilities to access IPV in a timely manner, 105 of 126 countries using OPV only introduced IPV within a 2...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kamal Fahmy, Lee M Hampton, Houda Langar, Manish Patel, Tahir Mir, Chandrasegarar Soloman, Andreas Hasman, Nasir Yusuf, Nadia Teleb
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has reduced the global incidence of polio by 99% and the number of countries with endemic polio from 125 to 3 countries. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (Endgame Plan) was developed to end polio disease. Key elements of the endgame plan include strengthening immunization systems using polio assets, introducing inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and replacing trivalent oral polio vaccine with bivalent oral polio vaccine ("the switch"). Although coverage in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) with the third dose of a vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis antigens (DTP3) was ≥90% in 14 countries in 2015, DTP3 coverage in EMR dropped from 86% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 due to civil disorder in multiple countries...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kimberly M Thompson, Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens
Background: Comparing model expectations with the experience of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) containing serotype 2 (OPV2) cessation can inform risk management for the expected cessation of OPV containing serotypes 1 and 3 (OPV13). Methods: We compare the expected post-OPV2-cessation OPV2-related viruses from models with the evidence available approximately 6 months after OPV2 cessation. We also model the trade-offs of use vs nonuse of monovalent OPV (mOPV) for outbreak response considering all 3 serotypes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Manish Patel, Stephen Cochi
The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis certified the eradication of type 2 poliovirus in September 2015, making type 2 poliovirus the first human pathogen to be eradicated since smallpox. The eradication of type 2 poliovirus, the absence of detection of type 3 poliovirus worldwide since November 2012, and cornering type 1 poliovirus to only a few geographic areas of 3 countries has enabled implementation of the endgame of polio eradication which calls for a phased withdrawal of oral polio vaccine beginning with the type 2 component, introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine, strengthening of routine immunization in countries with extensive polio resources, and initiating activities to transition polio resources, program experience, and lessons learned to other global health initiatives...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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