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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684543/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-carriage-and-association-of-its-pathogenicity-to-prevalent-toxic-genes
#1
Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman, Ayesha Mateen, Rabbani Syed, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
BACKGROUND: There are reports of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains from asymptomatic carriers are increasing source of transmission. Asymptomatic carriage transmission in the hospital or community settings might have changed over the years. Therefore, we initiated a prospective epidemiological study to define the risk factors and pathogenicity of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage. METHODS: Stools sample from 188 subjects with diarrhoea due to C. difficile toxin and colonization without diarrhoea was subjected to routine microbial culture, molecular characterization for identification of toxin genes and mechanisms of resistance in C...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604338/high-prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotype-078-in-pigs-in-korea
#2
Ha-Young Kim, Ara Cho, Jong Wan Kim, Heejung Kim, Bumseok Kim
Clostridium difficile can cause neonatal enteritis, but has been isolated from both diseased and healthy pigs. C. difficile shedding by pigs is a potential source of zoonotic transmission to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the prevalence and genotype of C. difficile with respect to age and health status in the pig industry for the first time in Korea. Fecal samples of 910 pigs were analyzed for the presence of C. difficile. In total, 176 (19.3%) C. difficile strains were isolated. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0...
March 28, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330183/campylobacter-jejuni-colonization-in-the-crow-gut-involves-many-deletions-within-the-cytolethal-distending-toxin-gene-cluster
#3
Keya Sen, Jingrang Lu, Piyali Mukherjee, Tanner Berglund, Eunice Varughese, Asish K Mukhopadhyay
Campylobacter spp. are major causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virulence potential of Campylobacter shed in crow feces obtained from a roost area in Bothell, Washington, was studied and compared with that from isolates from other parts of Washington and from a different crow species 7,000 miles away in Kolkata, India. Campylobacter organisms were isolated from 61% and 69% of the fecal samples obtained from Washington and Kolkata, respectively, and were confirmed to be C. jejuni The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) gene cluster from these isolates revealed a truncated sequence of approximately 1,350 bp...
March 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229729/cdtc-induced-processing-of-membrane-bound-cdta-is-a-crucial-step-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cytolethal-distending-toxin-holotoxin-formation
#5
Keiko Tsuruda, Oranart Matangkasombut, Masaru Ohara, Motoyuki Sugai
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is an oral pathogen causing periodontal disease and bacterial endocarditis. It produces cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) that could damage mammalian cells and tissues. CDT is a tripartite protein toxin composed of CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. We have previously indicated that CdtA is a lipoprotein and that the proteolytic processing of CdtA is important for biogenesis and secretion of CDT holotoxin. Here, we established an in vitro processing assay of CdtA and investigated the interactions of CdtA with other Cdt subunits...
March 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167675/boron-deficiency-in-trifoliate-orange-induces-changes-in-pectin-composition-and-architecture-of-components-in-root-cell-walls
#6
Xiuwen Wu, Muhammad Riaz, Lei Yan, Chenqing Du, Yalin Liu, Cuncang Jiang
Boron (B) is a micronutrient indispensable for citrus and B deficiency causes a considerable loss of productivity and quality in China. However, studies on pectin composition and architecture of cell wall components in trifoliate orange roots under B deficiency condition are not sufficient. In this study, we investigated the alteration in pectin characteristics and the architecture of cell wall components in trifoliate orange [ Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] roots under B starvation. The results showed that B-deficient roots resulted in a significant enlargement of root tips and an obvious decrease in cell wall B and uronic acid content in Na2 CO3 -soluble pectin compared with B-adequate roots...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151897/community-acquired-infection-with-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-isolates-that-carry-different-toxin-and-antibiotic-resistance-loci-a-case-report
#7
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro, Paula Gómez, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Juan David Ramírez
Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) leads to the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and a wide range of gastrointestinal pathologies. Currently, CDI is one of the most important opportunistic infections at the intrahospital level and an exponential increase in community-acquired infections has been reported. Herein, we evaluated the relationships (at phylogenetic and genetic population structure levels), as well as the molecular toxigenic and antibiotic resistance profiles of a set of isolates established from a case of community acquired-CDI...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149023/antibiotic-susceptibility-genetic-diversity-and-the-presence-of-toxin-producing-genes-in-campylobacter-isolates-from-poultry
#8
Jeeyeon Lee, Jiyeon Jeong, Heeyoung Lee, Jimyeong Ha, Sejeong Kim, Yukyung Choi, Hyemin Oh, Kunho Seo, Yohan Yoon, Soomin Lee
This study examined antibiotic susceptibility, genetic diversity, and characteristics of virulence genes in Campylobacter isolates from poultry. Chicken ( n = 152) and duck ( n = 154) samples were collected from 18 wet markets in Korea. Campylobacter spp. isolated from the carcasses were identified by PCR. The isolated colonies were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to chloramphenicol, amikacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and enrofloxacin. The isolates were also used to analyze genetic diversity using the DiversiLabTM system and were tested for the presence of cytolethal distending toxin ( cdt ) genes...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118940/frequency-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-caused-by-clostridium-difficile-among-hospitalized-patients-in-intensive-care-unit-kerman-iran
#9
Ebrahim Rezazadeh Zarandi, Shahla Mansouri, Nouzar Nakhaee, Farhad Sarafzadeh, Zahra Iranmanesh, Mohammad Moradi
Aim: This study evaluated the frequency of C. difficile and CDAD in the ICU of Shahid Bahonhar Hospital, Kerman, Iran. Background: Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile ) is the most important antibiotic associated diarrhea agent in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on its toxin producing ability, C .difficile is divided to toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains. Methods: A total of 233 diarrheal samples were collected from ICU patients...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074149/detection-and-molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-st-1-in-buenos-aires-argentina
#10
Daniela Cejas, Néstor Raúl Ríos Osorio, Rodolfo Quirós, Roxana Sadorin, María Alejandra Berger, Gabriel Gutkind, Liliana Fernández Canigia, Marcela Radice
Thirty one C. difficile isolates recovered in 2015 were characterized. Nineteen/31 were positive for tcdA/B, among them, 4 isolates were also positive for CDT coding genes. Two/4 cdtA/B positives isolates corresponded to ST 1 resembling BI/NAP1/027/ST 1 strain, while the others corresponded to ST 226 and ST 377.
October 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058256/simultaneous-detection-and-characterization-of-toxigenic-clostridium-difficile-directly-from-clinical-stool-specimens
#11
Hanjiang Lai, Chen Huang, Jian Cai, Julian Ye, Jun She, Yi Zheng, Liqian Wang, Yelin Wei, Weijia Fang, Xianjun Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Yun Luo, Dazhi Jin
We employed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with capillary electrophoresis (mPCR-CE) targeting six Clostridium difficile genes, including tpi, tcdA, tcdB, cdtA, cdtB, and a deletion in tcdC for simultaneous detection and characterization of toxigenic C. difficile directly from fecal specimens. The mPCR-CE had a limit of detection of 10 colony-forming units per reaction with no cross-reactions with other related bacterial genes. Clinical validation was performed on 354 consecutively collected stool specimens from patients with suspected C...
October 17, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968179/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotypic-characteristic-of-campylobacter-spp-isolates-from-free-living-birds-in-poland
#12
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
November 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955942/functional-significance-of-active-site-residues-in-the-enzymatic-component-of-the-clostridium-difficile-binary-toxin
#13
Abigail H Davies, Joanna McGlashan, Mareike G Posner, April K Roberts, Clifford C Shone, K Ravi Acharya
Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase which is linked to enhanced pathogenesis of C. difficile strains. CDT has dual function: domain a (CDTa) catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of actin (enzymatic component), whereas domain b (CDTb) transports CDTa into the cytosol (transport component). Understanding the molecular mechanism of CDT is necessary to assess its role in C. difficile infection. Identifying amino acids that are essential to CDTa function may aid drug inhibitor design to control the severity of C...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#14
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906158/prevalence-of-putative-virulence-genes-in-campylobacter-and-arcobacter-species-isolated-from-poultry-and-poultry-by-products-in-tunisia
#15
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902923/molecular-microbiological-and-clinical-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-colombia
#16
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita María Correa, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Emma Best, Warren N Fawley, Mark Wilcox, Ángel González
In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780742/is-there-a-relationship-between-the-presence-of-the-binary-toxin-genes-in-clostridium-difficile-strains-and-the-severity-of-c-difficile-infection-cdi
#17
C E Berry, K A Davies, D W Owens, M H Wilcox
Some strains of Clostridium difficile produce a binary toxin, in addition to the main C. difficile virulence factors (toxins A and B). There have been conflicting reports regarding the role of binary toxin and its relationship to the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). Samples, isolates and clinical data were collected as part of a prospective multicentre diagnostic study. Clostridium difficile isolates (n = 1259) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect binary toxin genes cdtA and cdtB...
December 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736259/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army-general-hospital-in-china
#18
Rui Wang, Lin Suo, Hui Xia Chen, Lin Jian Song, Yue Yun Shen, Yan Ping Luo
Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhoea, toxic megacolon, and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to have an understanding of molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China...
February 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691828/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-campylobacter-spp-in-the-czech-republic
#19
J Bardoň, V Pudová, I Koláčková, R Karpíšková, M Röderová, M Kolář
OBJECTIVE: Thermotolerant species of the genus Campy-lobacter are the important agents causing human foodborne infections throughout the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of nine putative virulence genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients and from foods (poultry meat, pork liver), to determine the resistance of Campylobacter isolates to eight antibiotic agents and to detect four resistance genes.Matherial and methods: The presence of the virulence genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, virB11, ciaB, wlaN, iam, dnaJ and racR was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 94 Campylobacter spp...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650621/novel-cdta-based-bifunctional-chelators-for-stable-and-inert-mn-ii-complexation-synthesis-and-physicochemical-characterization
#20
Christian Vanasschen, Enikő Molnár, Gyula Tircsó, Ferenc K Kálmán, Éva Tóth, Marie Brandt, Heinz H Coenen, Bernd Neumaier
In the search for MnII MR and PET/MR imaging agents with optimal balance between thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness, and relaxivity, two novel bifunctional MnII chelators (BFMnCs) based on CDTA (trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) were synthesized. A six-step synthesis, involving the buildup of a functionalized trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane core, provided CuAAC-reactive 6a and 6b bearing an alkyne or azide substituent on the cyclohexane ring, respectively (CuAAC = CuI -catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition)...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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