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Srinuan Somroop, Noritoshi Hatanaka, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Kentaro Okuno, Masahiro Asakura, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) consisting of CdtA, CdtB and CdtC has been reported to be a possible virulence factor of campylobacters including C. upsaliensis. In our previous study, the cdtB gene-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) assay for detection and differentiation of 7 Campylobacter species yielded 3 different RFLP patterns (Cu-I to Cu-III). In this study, entire cdt (Cucdt) genes of each pattern were sequenced to see whether there are any differences in cdt genes, its amino acid sequences and biological activity of CuCDT...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Susan Secore, Su Wang, Julie Doughtry, Jinfu Xie, Matt Miezeiewski, Richard R Rustandi, Melanie Horton, Rachel Xoconostle, Bei Wang, Catherine Lancaster, Adam Kristopeit, Sheng-Ching Wang, Sianny Christanti, Salvatore Vitelli, Marie-Pierre Gentile, Aaron Goerke, Julie Skinner, Erica Strable, David S Thiriot, Jean-Luc Bodmer, Jon H Heinrichs
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the developed world. The main virulence factors of the bacterium are the large clostridial toxins (LCTs), TcdA and TcdB, which are largely responsible for the symptoms of the disease. Recent outbreaks of CDI have been associated with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, such as NAP1/BI/027, many strains of which also produce a third toxin, binary toxin (CDTa and CDTb). These hypervirulent strains have been associated with increased morbidity and higher mortality...
2017: PloS One
Jae-Young Oh, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Bai Wei, Hyung-Kwan Jang, Suk-Kyung Lim, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Suk-Chan Jung, Min-Su Kang
Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Estela T Méndez-Olvera, Jaime A Bustos-Martínez, Yolanda López-Vidal, Antonio Verdugo-Rodríguez, Daniel Martínez-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea worldwide. The distending cytolethal toxin (CDT) of Campylobacter spp. interferes with normal cell cycle progression. This toxic effect is considered a result of DNase activity that produces chromosomal DNA damage. To perform this event, the toxin must be endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton in the translocation of CDT to the nucleus...
October 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Bo-Yang Tsai, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Jen-Chieh Lee, Yi-Hui Wu, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Ribotypes and toxin genotypes of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan are rarely reported. A prospective surveillance study from January 2011 to January 2013 was conducted at the medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan. Of the first toxigenic isolates from 120 patients, 68 (56.7%) of 120 isolates possessed both tcdA and tcdB. Of 52 (43.3%) with tcdB and truncated tcdA (tcdA-/tcdB+), all were ribotype 017 and none had binary toxin or tcdC deletion. Eighteen (15%) toxigenic isolates harbored binary toxins (cdtA and cdtB) and all had tcdC deletion, including Δ39 (C184T) deletion (14 isolates), Δ18 in-frame deletion (3 isolates), and Δ18 (Δ117A) deletion (1 isolate)...
2016: PloS One
Kathryn J Hammer, Eve M Segal, Laura Alwan, Shan Li, Amila M Patel, Melinda Tran, Helen M Marshall
PURPOSE: The use of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) by oncology pharmacists in a comprehensive pain clinic is described. SUMMARY: Recognizing the complex clinical services required by patients with cancer, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance began offering cancer pain management through a specialized pain service. Initially, the clinic was staffed by one attending physician; however, as the volume of patient referrals increased, the clinic expanded into an interprofessional team that includes physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, and pharmacists...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Roger Woolf, Amanda Locke, Catherine Potts
PURPOSE: Pharmacist prescribing as part of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) within an integrated health system in Washington is described. SUMMARY: Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) in Seattle, Washington, uses a team-based care model with broad-based CDTAs to provide quality patient care. The majority of patients are referred to the pharmacist after a diagnosis has been made and a clinical care plan has been started. The pharmacist manages the patient's care within his or her scope of practice as defined by state laws and further detailed by VMMC internal protocols...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Isfaqul Hussain, P Borah, R K Sharma, S Rajkhowa, M Rupnik, D P Saikia, D Hasin, Iftikar Hussain, N K Deka, L M Barkalita, Y Nishikawa, T Ramamurthy
A total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C. difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C. difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic...
August 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Desiree Alexander, Mensur Dlakić, Bruce J Shenker
The multifunctional role of lipids as structural components of membranes, signaling molecules, and metabolic substrates makes them an ideal partner for pathogens to hijack host cell processes for their own survival. The properties and composition of unique membrane micro-domains such as membrane rafts make these regions a natural target for pathogens as it affords them an opportunity to hijack cell signaling and intracellular trafficking pathways. Cytolethal distending toxins (Cdts), members of the AB2 family of toxins are comprised of three subunits, the active, CdtB unit, and the binding, CdtA-CdtC unit...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
M Krutova, O Nyc, J Matejkova, F Allerberger, M H Wilcox, E J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is a leading nosocomial pathogen and molecular typing is a crucial part of monitoring its occurrence and spread. Over a three-year period (2013-2015), clinical C. difficile isolates from 32 Czech hospitals were collected for molecular characterisation. Of 2201 C. difficile isolates, 177 (8%) were non-toxigenic, 2024 (92%) were toxigenic (tcdA and tcdB) and of these, 677 (33.5%) carried genes for binary toxin production (cdtA, cdtB). Capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping of the 2201 isolates yielded 166 different CE-ribotyping profiles, of which 53 were represented by at least two isolates for each profile...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Davor Obradović, Rok Gašperšič, Simon Caserman, Adrijana Leonardi, Maja Jamnik, Zdravko Podlesek, Katja Seme, Gregor Anderluh, Igor Križaj, Peter Maček, Matej Butala
The periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans synthesizes several virulence factors, including cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The active CDT holoenzyme is an AB-type tripartite genotoxin that affects eukaryotic cells. Subunits CdtA and CdtC (B-components) allow binding and intracellular translocation of the active CdtB (A-component), which elicits nuclear DNA damage. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans have diverse virulence genotypes, which results in varied pathogenic potential and disease progression...
2016: PloS One
Hana Titouhi, Jamel-Eddine Belgaied
The aim of this work is to study the heterogeneous oxidative degradation of ofloxacin antibiotic using a composite material prepared from sodium alginate and cyclohexane dinitrilo tetraacetic acid (CDTA). The characterization tests indicated the successful incorporation of metal chelator and iron. It was also demonstrated that the synthesized beads are mesoporous. The influence of several experimental parameters (i.e.: H2O2 dose, working temperature, beads loading and initial drug concentration) on the process performances was evaluated...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Braden M Roth, Kristen M Varney, Richard R Rustandi, David J Weber
Once considered a relatively harmless bacterium, Clostridium difficile has become a major concern for healthcare facilities, now the most commonly reported hospital-acquired pathogen. C. difficile infection (CDI) is usually contracted when the normal gut microbiome is compromised by antibiotic therapy, allowing the opportunistic pathogen to grow and produce its toxins. The severity of infection ranges from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis, or death. The past decade has seen a marked increase in the frequency and severity of CDI among industrialized nations owing directly to the emergence of a highly virulent C...
October 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Helmut Hotzel, Hosny El-Adawy, Hanh Thi Tran, Minh Thi Hong Le, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez Mohamed Hafez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. In this study nine Campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in Hanoi, Vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: The nine isolates (eight C. jejuni and one C. coli) were identified by multiplex PCR, and tested for the presence or absence of 29 gene loci associated with virulence, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis and further functions...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Hajar Yaghoobi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a secreted tripartite genotoxin produced by many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. It is composed of three subunits, CdtA, CdtB and CdtC, and CdtB-associated deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity is essential for the CDT toxicity. In the present study, to design a novel potentially antitumor drug against lung cancer, the possible mechanisms of cdtB anticancer properties were explored in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/cdtB was constructed expressing CdtB of human periodontal bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and investigated for toxic properties in A549 cells and possible mechanisms...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rachel Miller, Martin Wiedmann
The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a well characterized bacterial genotoxin encoded by several Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica (S. enterica). The CDT produced by Salmonella (S-CDT) differs from the CDT produced by other bacteria, as it utilizes subunits with homology to the pertussis and subtilase toxins, in place of the traditional CdtA and CdtC subunits. Previously, S-CDT was thought to be a unique virulence factor of S. enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi, lending to its classification as the "typhoid toxin...
2016: Toxins
Natacha Laprade, Michel Cloutier, David R Lapen, Edward Topp, Graham Wilkes, Richard Villemur, Izhar U H Khan
Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water...
May 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Matthew DeMaere, Toni Chapman, Paul Worden, Ian G Charles, Aaron E Darling, Steven P Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a significant health problem to humans and food animals. Clostridial toxins ToxA and ToxB encoded by genes tcdA and tcdB are located on a pathogenicity locus known as the PaLoc and are the major virulence factors of C. difficile. While toxin-negative strains of C. difficile are often isolated from faeces of animals and patients suffering from CDI, they are not considered to play a role in disease. Toxin-negative strains of C. difficile have been used successfully to treat recurring CDI but their propensity to acquire the PaLoc via lateral gene transfer and express clinically relevant levels of toxins has reinforced the need to characterise them genetically...
March 12, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Ying-Chen Wu, Jen-Jie Lee, Bo-Yang Tsai, Yi-Fen Liu, Chih-Ming Chen, Ni Tien, Pei-Jane Tsai, Ter-Hsin Chen
Clostridium difficile is a human and animal pathogen. Recently, the incidence of community-acquired C. difficile infection has increased, and many studies have indicated that C. difficile might be food-borne. The correlation between C. difficile infection in humans and in animals has been a topic of debate. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of C. difficile from human and pigs in Taiwan. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in healthy humans and pigs from 2011 to 2015...
February 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Cheng-Kuo Lai, Yu-An Chen, Chun-Jung Lin, Hwai-Jeng Lin, Min-Chuan Kao, Mei-Zi Huang, Yu-Hsin Lin, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Chih-Jung Chen, U-Ging Lo, Li-Chiung Lin, Ho Lin, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Chih-Ho Lai
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), a genotoxin produced by Campylobacter jejuni, is composed of three subunits: CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. CdtB is a DNase that causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in the nucleus resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage and apoptosis. CdtA and CdtC bind to cholesterol-rich microdomains on the cytoplasmic membrane, a process required for the delivery of CdtB to cells. Although a unique motif associated with cholesterol-binding activity has been identified in other pathogens, the mechanism underlying the interaction between the CdtA and CdtC subunits and membrane cholesterol remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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