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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441827/-colonization-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-in-healthy-children
#1
Y Wang, S Guo, C N Zhao, X W Xu
Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: <1 year old(n=53), 1-<3 years old(n=50), 3-<6 years old(n=50) and 6-<14 years old(n=50) respectively...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366569/development-of-a-dose-assay-for-a-clostridium-difficile-vaccine-using-a-tandem-ion-exchange-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method
#2
Feng Wang, Sha Ha, Richard R Rustandi
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive intestine bacterium that causes a severe diarrhea and could eventually be lethal. The main virulence factor is related to the release of two major exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Recent C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) outbreaks have been caused by hypervirulent strains which secrete an additional binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb). Vaccination against these toxins is considered the best way to combat the CDAD. Recently, a novel tetravalent C. difficile vaccine candidate containing all four toxins produced from a baculovirus expression system has been developed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317494/pathogenic-potential-and-genotypic-diversity-of-campylobacter-jejuni-a-neglected-food-borne-pathogen-in-brazil
#3
Miliane Rodrigues Frazão, Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Sheila da Silva Duque, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
Purpose and methodology.Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. However, there are only a few studies available that have molecularly characterized C. jejuni strains isolated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to genotype 111 C. jejuni strains isolated from sick humans (43), monkey faeces (19), chicken faeces (14), chicken meat (33) and sewage (2) between 1996 and 2016 in Brazil using flaA-SVR (short variable region) sequencing and PFGE. Furthermore, the presence of 16 virulence genes was analysed by PCR...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260494/hemoglobin-and-myoglobin-as-reducing-agents-in-biological-systems-redox-reactions-of-globins-with-copper-and-iron-salts-and-complexes
#4
REVIEW
G B Postnikova, E A Shekhovtsova
In addition to reversible O2 binding, respiratory proteins of the globin family, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), participate in redox reactions with various metal complexes, including biologically significant ones, such as those of copper and iron. HbO2 and MbO2 are present in cells in large amounts and, as redox agents, can contribute to maintaining cell redox state and resisting oxidative stress. Divalent copper complexes with high redox potentials (E0, 200-600 mV) and high stability constants, such as [Cu(phen)2](2+), [Cu(dmphen)2](2+), and CuDTA oxidize ferrous heme proteins by the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism through overlapping π-orbitals of the heme and the copper complex...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247205/the-mechanism-of-jurkat-cells-apoptosis-induced-by-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cytolethal-distending-toxin
#5
Hui-Ping Chen, Lu Li, Xu Chen, Mi-Fang Yang, Yu Ye, Xiao-Qian Wang, Yan Xu
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) which is produced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans causes apoptosis in lymphocytes. But the specific mechanism is not clear. The aim of our research was to investigate the effect and mechanism during this process. The wild-type CdtA, CdtB, CdtC (CdtA(W), CdtB(W), CdtC(W)) and mutant CdtB (CdtB(M)) were expressed and purified respectively and the purity of each subunit was examined by BandScan software. And the type I deoxyribonuclease and PI-3,4,5-triphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P3, PIP3) phosphatase activity were detected by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively...
June 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216085/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-in-hospitals-of-silesia-poland
#6
Małgorzata Aptekorz, Anna Szczegielniak, Barbara Wiechuła, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Gayane Martirosian
Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals...
February 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202878/campylobacter-upsaliensis-isolated-from-dogs-produces-high-titer-of-cytolethal-distending-toxin
#7
Srinuan Somroop, Noritoshi Hatanaka, Sharda Prasad Awasthi, Kentaro Okuno, Masahiro Asakura, Atsushi Hinenoya, Shinji Yamasaki
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) consisting of CdtA, CdtB and CdtC has been reported to be a possible virulence factor of campylobacters including Campylobacter upsaliensis. In our previous study, the cdtB gene-based PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay for detection and differentiation of 7 Campylobacter species yielded 3 different RFLP patterns (Cu-I to Cu-III). In this study, entire cdt (Cucdt) genes of each pattern were sequenced to see whether there are any differences in cdt genes, its amino acid sequences and biological activity of CuCDT...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125650/development-of-a-novel-vaccine-containing-binary-toxin-for-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-disease-with-enhanced-efficacy-against-nap1-strains
#8
Susan Secore, Su Wang, Julie Doughtry, Jinfu Xie, Matt Miezeiewski, Richard R Rustandi, Melanie Horton, Rachel Xoconostle, Bei Wang, Catherine Lancaster, Adam Kristopeit, Sheng-Ching Wang, Sianny Christanti, Salvatore Vitelli, Marie-Pierre Gentile, Aaron Goerke, Julie Skinner, Erica Strable, David S Thiriot, Jean-Luc Bodmer, Jon H Heinrichs
Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the developed world. The main virulence factors of the bacterium are the large clostridial toxins (LCTs), TcdA and TcdB, which are largely responsible for the symptoms of the disease. Recent outbreaks of CDI have been associated with the emergence of hypervirulent strains, such as NAP1/BI/027, many strains of which also produce a third toxin, binary toxin (CDTa and CDTb). These hypervirulent strains have been associated with increased morbidity and higher mortality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035601/epidemiological-relationships-of-campylobacter-jejuni-strains-isolated-from-humans-and-chickens-in-south-korea
#9
Jae-Young Oh, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Bai Wei, Hyung-Kwan Jang, Suk-Kyung Lim, Cheon-Hyeon Kim, Suk-Chan Jung, Min-Su Kang
Thirty-nine human isolates of Campylobacter jejuni obtained from a national university hospital during 2007-2010 and 38 chicken isolates of C. jejuni were collected from poultry farms during 2009-2010 in South Korea were used in this study. Campylobacter genomic species and virulence-associated genes were identified by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to compare their genetic relationships. All isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942359/cytolethal-distending-toxin-from-campylobacter-jejuni-requires-the-cytoskeleton-for-toxic-activity
#10
Estela T Méndez-Olvera, Jaime A Bustos-Martínez, Yolanda López-Vidal, Antonio Verdugo-Rodríguez, Daniel Martínez-Gómez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of infectious diarrhea worldwide. The distending cytolethal toxin (CDT) of Campylobacter spp. interferes with normal cell cycle progression. This toxic effect is considered a result of DNase activity that produces chromosomal DNA damage. To perform this event, the toxin must be endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the cytoskeleton in the translocation of CDT to the nucleus...
October 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861606/predominance-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-017-and-078-among-toxigenic-clinical-isolates-in-southern-taiwan
#11
Yuan-Pin Hung, I-Hsiu Huang, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Bo-Yang Tsai, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Jen-Chieh Lee, Yi-Hui Wu, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
Ribotypes and toxin genotypes of clinical C. difficile isolates in Taiwan are rarely reported. A prospective surveillance study from January 2011 to January 2013 was conducted at the medical wards of a district hospital in southern Taiwan. Of the first toxigenic isolates from 120 patients, 68 (56.7%) of 120 isolates possessed both tcdA and tcdB. Of 52 (43.3%) with tcdB and truncated tcdA (tcdA-/tcdB+), all were ribotype 017 and none had binary toxin or tcdC deletion. Eighteen (15%) toxigenic isolates harbored binary toxins (cdtA and cdtB) and all had tcdC deletion, including Δ39 (C184T) deletion (14 isolates), Δ18 in-frame deletion (3 isolates), and Δ18 (Δ117A) deletion (1 isolate)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605322/collaborative-practice-model-for-management-of-pain-in-patients-with-cancer
#12
Kathryn J Hammer, Eve M Segal, Laura Alwan, Shan Li, Amila M Patel, Melinda Tran, Helen M Marshall
PURPOSE: The use of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) by oncology pharmacists in a comprehensive pain clinic is described. SUMMARY: Recognizing the complex clinical services required by patients with cancer, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance began offering cancer pain management through a specialized pain service. Initially, the clinic was staffed by one attending physician; however, as the volume of patient referrals increased, the clinic expanded into an interprofessional team that includes physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, and pharmacists...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605320/pharmacist-prescribing-within-an-integrated-health-system-in-washington
#13
Roger Woolf, Amanda Locke, Catherine Potts
PURPOSE: Pharmacist prescribing as part of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) within an integrated health system in Washington is described. SUMMARY: Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) in Seattle, Washington, uses a team-based care model with broad-based CDTAs to provide quality patient care. The majority of patients are referred to the pharmacist after a diagnosis has been made and a clinical care plan has been started. The pharmacist manages the patient's care within his or her scope of practice as defined by state laws and further detailed by VMMC internal protocols...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569848/molecular-characteristics-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-human-and-animals-in-the-north-eastern-region-of-india
#14
Isfaqul Hussain, P Borah, R K Sharma, S Rajkhowa, M Rupnik, D P Saikia, D Hasin, Iftikar Hussain, N K Deka, L M Barkalita, Y Nishikawa, T Ramamurthy
A total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C. difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C. difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic...
August 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559534/a-journey-of-cytolethal-distending-toxins-through-cell-membranes
#15
REVIEW
Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Desiree Alexander, Mensur Dlakić, Bruce J Shenker
The multifunctional role of lipids as structural components of membranes, signaling molecules, and metabolic substrates makes them an ideal partner for pathogens to hijack host cell processes for their own survival. The properties and composition of unique membrane micro-domains such as membrane rafts make these regions a natural target for pathogens as it affords them an opportunity to hijack cell signaling and intracellular trafficking pathways. Cytolethal distending toxins (Cdts), members of the AB2 family of toxins are comprised of three subunits, the active, CdtB unit, and the binding, CdtA-CdtC unit...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519407/molecular-characterisation-of-czech-clostridium-difficile-isolates-collected-in-2013-2015
#16
M Krutova, O Nyc, J Matejkova, F Allerberger, M H Wilcox, E J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is a leading nosocomial pathogen and molecular typing is a crucial part of monitoring its occurrence and spread. Over a three-year period (2013-2015), clinical C. difficile isolates from 32 Czech hospitals were collected for molecular characterisation. Of 2201 C. difficile isolates, 177 (8%) were non-toxigenic, 2024 (92%) were toxigenic (tcdA and tcdB) and of these, 677 (33.5%) carried genes for binary toxin production (cdtA, cdtB). Capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping of the 2201 isolates yielded 166 different CE-ribotyping profiles, of which 53 were represented by at least two isolates for each profile...
November 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414641/a-cytolethal-distending-toxin-variant-from-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-with-an-aberrant-cdtb-that-lacks-the-conserved-catalytic-histidine-160
#17
Davor Obradović, Rok Gašperšič, Simon Caserman, Adrijana Leonardi, Maja Jamnik, Zdravko Podlesek, Katja Seme, Gregor Anderluh, Igor Križaj, Peter Maček, Matej Butala
The periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans synthesizes several virulence factors, including cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The active CDT holoenzyme is an AB-type tripartite genotoxin that affects eukaryotic cells. Subunits CdtA and CdtC (B-components) allow binding and intracellular translocation of the active CdtB (A-component), which elicits nuclear DNA damage. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans have diverse virulence genotypes, which results in varied pathogenic potential and disease progression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372121/removal-of-ofloxacin-antibiotic-using-heterogeneous-fenton-process-over-modified-alginate-beads
#18
Hana Titouhi, Jamel-Eddine Belgaied
The aim of this work is to study the heterogeneous oxidative degradation of ofloxacin antibiotic using a composite material prepared from sodium alginate and cyclohexane dinitrilo tetraacetic acid (CDTA). The characterization tests indicated the successful incorporation of metal chelator and iron. It was also demonstrated that the synthesized beads are mesoporous. The influence of several experimental parameters (i.e.: H2O2 dose, working temperature, beads loading and initial drug concentration) on the process performances was evaluated...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351891/-1-h-n-13-c-and-15-n-resonance-assignments-of-the-cdtb-interacting-domain-cdtabid-from-the-clostridium-difficile-binary-toxin-catalytic-component-cdta-residues-1-221
#19
Braden M Roth, Kristen M Varney, Richard R Rustandi, David J Weber
Once considered a relatively harmless bacterium, Clostridium difficile has become a major concern for healthcare facilities, now the most commonly reported hospital-acquired pathogen. C. difficile infection (CDI) is usually contracted when the normal gut microbiome is compromised by antibiotic therapy, allowing the opportunistic pathogen to grow and produce its toxins. The severity of infection ranges from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis, or death. The past decade has seen a marked increase in the frequency and severity of CDI among industrialized nations owing directly to the emergence of a highly virulent C...
October 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175218/genotyping-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-thermophilic-campylobacter-isolated-from-chicken-and-pig-meat-in-vietnam
#20
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Helmut Hotzel, Hosny El-Adawy, Hanh Thi Tran, Minh Thi Hong Le, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez Mohamed Hafez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. In this study nine Campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in Hanoi, Vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: The nine isolates (eight C. jejuni and one C. coli) were identified by multiplex PCR, and tested for the presence or absence of 29 gene loci associated with virulence, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis and further functions...
2016: Gut Pathogens
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