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Kathryn J Hammer, Eve M Segal, Laura Alwan, Shan Li, Amila M Patel, Melinda Tran, Helen M Marshall
PURPOSE: The use of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) by oncology pharmacists in a comprehensive pain clinic is described. SUMMARY: Recognizing the complex clinical services required by patients with cancer, the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance began offering cancer pain management through a specialized pain service. Initially, the clinic was staffed by one attending physician; however, as the volume of patient referrals increased, the clinic expanded into an interprofessional team that includes physicians, advanced practice providers, nurses, and pharmacists...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Roger Woolf, Amanda Locke, Catherine Potts
PURPOSE: Pharmacist prescribing as part of a collaborative drug therapy agreement (CDTA) within an integrated health system in Washington is described. SUMMARY: Virginia Mason Medical Center (VMMC) in Seattle, Washington, uses a team-based care model with broad-based CDTAs to provide quality patient care. The majority of patients are referred to the pharmacist after a diagnosis has been made and a clinical care plan has been started. The pharmacist manages the patient's care within his or her scope of practice as defined by state laws and further detailed by VMMC internal protocols...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Isfaqul Hussain, P Borah, R K Sharma, S Rajkhowa, M Rupnik, D P Saikia, D Hasin, Iftikar Hussain, N K Deka, L M Barkalita, Y Nishikawa, T Ramamurthy
A total of 1034 samples were collected from different sources and C. difficile was isolated from 18 (9.04%) of 199 human, 9 (4.89%) of 184 cattle, 29 (12.44%) of 233 pig, and from 23 (13.94%) of 165 poultry samples. Variations were observed on the rate of isolation according to age and clinical conditions (diarrhoea). None of the samples from cow, sheep, goat, local chicken, and wild animals yielded any C. difficile. Out of those isolates, 8, 2, 19 and 6 isolates from human, cattle, pig and poultry, respectively were toxigenic...
August 25, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Desiree Alexander, Mensur Dlakić, Bruce J Shenker
The multifunctional role of lipids as structural components of membranes, signaling molecules, and metabolic substrates makes them an ideal partner for pathogens to hijack host cell processes for their own survival. The properties and composition of unique membrane micro-domains such as membrane rafts make these regions a natural target for pathogens as it affords them an opportunity to hijack cell signaling and intracellular trafficking pathways. Cytolethal distending toxins (Cdts), members of the AB2 family of toxins are comprised of three subunits, the active, CdtB unit, and the binding, CdtA-CdtC unit...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
M Krutova, O Nyc, J Matejkova, F Allerberger, M H Wilcox, E J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is a leading nosocomial pathogen and molecular typing is a crucial part of monitoring its occurrence and spread. Over a three-year period (2013-2015), clinical C. difficile isolates from 32 Czech hospitals were collected for molecular characterisation. Of 2201 C. difficile isolates, 177 (8%) were non-toxigenic, 2024 (92%) were toxigenic (tcdA and tcdB) and of these, 677 (33.5%) carried genes for binary toxin production (cdtA, cdtB). Capillary-electrophoresis (CE) ribotyping of the 2201 isolates yielded 166 different CE-ribotyping profiles, of which 53 were represented by at least two isolates for each profile...
August 5, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Davor Obradović, Rok Gašperšič, Simon Caserman, Adrijana Leonardi, Maja Jamnik, Zdravko Podlesek, Katja Seme, Gregor Anderluh, Igor Križaj, Peter Maček, Matej Butala
The periodontopathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans synthesizes several virulence factors, including cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). The active CDT holoenzyme is an AB-type tripartite genotoxin that affects eukaryotic cells. Subunits CdtA and CdtC (B-components) allow binding and intracellular translocation of the active CdtB (A-component), which elicits nuclear DNA damage. Different strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans have diverse virulence genotypes, which results in varied pathogenic potential and disease progression...
2016: PloS One
Hana Titouhi, Jamel-Eddine Belgaied
The aim of this work is to study the heterogeneous oxidative degradation of ofloxacin antibiotic using a composite material prepared from sodium alginate and cyclohexane dinitrilo tetraacetic acid (CDTA). The characterization tests indicated the successful incorporation of metal chelator and iron. It was also demonstrated that the synthesized beads are mesoporous. The influence of several experimental parameters (i.e.: H2O2 dose, working temperature, beads loading and initial drug concentration) on the process performances was evaluated...
July 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Braden M Roth, Kristen M Varney, Richard R Rustandi, David J Weber
Once considered a relatively harmless bacterium, Clostridium difficile has become a major concern for healthcare facilities, now the most commonly reported hospital-acquired pathogen. C. difficile infection (CDI) is usually contracted when the normal gut microbiome is compromised by antibiotic therapy, allowing the opportunistic pathogen to grow and produce its toxins. The severity of infection ranges from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis, or death. The past decade has seen a marked increase in the frequency and severity of CDI among industrialized nations owing directly to the emergence of a highly virulent C...
October 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Tuan Ngoc Minh Nguyen, Helmut Hotzel, Hosny El-Adawy, Hanh Thi Tran, Minh Thi Hong Le, Herbert Tomaso, Heinrich Neubauer, Hafez Mohamed Hafez
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are recognized as the most common cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. In this study nine Campylobacter strains isolated from chicken meat and pork in Hanoi, Vietnam, were characterized using molecular methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. RESULTS: The nine isolates (eight C. jejuni and one C. coli) were identified by multiplex PCR, and tested for the presence or absence of 29 gene loci associated with virulence, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis and further functions...
2016: Gut Pathogens
Hajar Yaghoobi, Mojgan Bandehpour, Bahram Kazemi
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a secreted tripartite genotoxin produced by many pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. It is composed of three subunits, CdtA, CdtB and CdtC, and CdtB-associated deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activity is essential for the CDT toxicity. In the present study, to design a novel potentially antitumor drug against lung cancer, the possible mechanisms of cdtB anticancer properties were explored in the A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/cdtB was constructed expressing CdtB of human periodontal bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and investigated for toxic properties in A549 cells and possible mechanisms...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Rachel Miller, Martin Wiedmann
The cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is a well characterized bacterial genotoxin encoded by several Gram-negative bacteria, including Salmonella enterica (S. enterica). The CDT produced by Salmonella (S-CDT) differs from the CDT produced by other bacteria, as it utilizes subunits with homology to the pertussis and subtilase toxins, in place of the traditional CdtA and CdtC subunits. Previously, S-CDT was thought to be a unique virulence factor of S. enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi, lending to its classification as the "typhoid toxin...
2016: Toxins
Natacha Laprade, Michel Cloutier, David R Lapen, Edward Topp, Graham Wilkes, Richard Villemur, Izhar U H Khan
Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. This twofold study was sought to: i) develop and optimize four single-tube multiplex PCR (mPCR) assays for the detection of six virulence (ciaB, dnaJ, flaA, flaB, pldA and racR), three toxin (cdtA, cdtB and cdtC) and one antibiotic resistance tet(O) genes in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and ii) apply and evaluate the developed mPCR assays by testing 470 previously identified C. jejuni, C. coli and C. lari isolates from agricultural water...
May 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Piklu Roy Chowdhury, Matthew DeMaere, Toni Chapman, Paul Worden, Ian G Charles, Aaron E Darling, Steven P Djordjevic
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are a significant health problem to humans and food animals. Clostridial toxins ToxA and ToxB encoded by genes tcdA and tcdB are located on a pathogenicity locus known as the PaLoc and are the major virulence factors of C. difficile. While toxin-negative strains of C. difficile are often isolated from faeces of animals and patients suffering from CDI, they are not considered to play a role in disease. Toxin-negative strains of C. difficile have been used successfully to treat recurring CDI but their propensity to acquire the PaLoc via lateral gene transfer and express clinically relevant levels of toxins has reinforced the need to characterise them genetically...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Ying-Chen Wu, Jen-Jie Lee, Bo-Yang Tsai, Yi-Fen Liu, Chih-Ming Chen, Ni Tien, Pei-Jane Tsai, Ter-Hsin Chen
Clostridium difficile is a human and animal pathogen. Recently, the incidence of community-acquired C. difficile infection has increased, and many studies have indicated that C. difficile might be food-borne. The correlation between C. difficile infection in humans and in animals has been a topic of debate. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of C. difficile from human and pigs in Taiwan. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in healthy humans and pigs from 2011 to 2015...
February 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Cheng-Kuo Lai, Yu-An Chen, Chun-Jung Lin, Hwai-Jeng Lin, Min-Chuan Kao, Mei-Zi Huang, Yu-Hsin Lin, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Chih-Jung Chen, U-Ging Lo, Li-Chiung Lin, Ho Lin, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Chih-Ho Lai
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), a genotoxin produced by Campylobacter jejuni, is composed of three subunits: CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. CdtB is a DNase that causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in the nucleus resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage and apoptosis. CdtA and CdtC bind to cholesterol-rich microdomains on the cytoplasmic membrane, a process required for the delivery of CdtB to cells. Although a unique motif associated with cholesterol-binding activity has been identified in other pathogens, the mechanism underlying the interaction between the CdtA and CdtC subunits and membrane cholesterol remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Braden M Roth, Raquel Godoy-Ruiz, Kristen M Varney, Richard R Rustandi, David J Weber
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen and is the most commonly reported source of nosocomial infection in industrialized nations. Symptoms of C. difficile infection (CDI) include antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis and death. Over the last decade, rates and severity of hospital infections in North America and Europe have increased dramatically and correlate with the emergence of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile characterized by the presence of a binary toxin, CDT (C...
April 2016: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Naayil Rajabally, Brian Kullin, Kaleemuddeen Ebrahim, Tunehafo Brock, Andrej Weintraub, Andrew Whitelaw, Colleen Bamford, Gillian Watermeyer, Sandie Thomson, Valerie Abratt, Sharon Reid
Accurate diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection is essential for disease management. A clinical and molecular analysis of C. difficile isolated from symptomatic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital, South Africa, was conducted to establish the most suitable clinical test for the diagnosis and characterisation of locally prevalent strains. C. difficile was detected in stool samples using enzyme-based immunoassays (EIA) and nucleic acid amplification methods, and their performance was compared to C. difficile isolation using direct selective culture combined with specific PCR to detect the C...
February 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Lisette Lapierre, María A Gatica, Víctor Riquelme, Constanza Vergara, José Manuel Yañez, Betty San Martín, Leonardo Sáenz, Maricel Vidal, María Cristina Martínez, Pamela Araya, Roberto Flores, Oscar Duery, Roberto Vidal
The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline...
July 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Leonard Koolman, Paul Whyte, Catherine Burgess, Declan Bolton
Studies were undertaken to investigate the effect of oxidative stress conditions (exposure to hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) on [1] the expression of 14 Campylobacter jejuni virulence-associated genes associated with motility and/or invasion (flaA, flaB, flhA, flhB, ciaB, iamA), adhesion (cadF), cytotoxin production (cdtA, cdtB, cdtC) as well as some of the regulators of these genes (rpoN, fliA, luxS, cj1000), in 10 C. jejuni strains (5 poultry and 5 human) and [2] the ability of these cells to adhere to and invade Caco-2 cells...
March 2, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
István Tóth, György Schneider
Cytolethal distending toxins (CDT) represent an emerging toxin family, widely distributed among pathogenic bacteria. The cdtABC genes in E. coli are either part of the genome of prophages, plasmid or pathogenicity island. In order to investigate the stability and the transfer potential of cdt-IV genes cdtB gene was replaced by chloramphenicol (Cm) resistance encoding cat gene in the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain E250. After consecutive passages in non-selective medium at 37 °C 7.6% (219/2900) of the investigated colonies of E250::cat strain became Cm-sensitive (Cm(S))...
December 2015: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
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