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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968179/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-genotypic-characteristic-of-campylobacter-spp-isolates-from-free-living-birds-in-poland
#1
Marta Krawiec, Anna Woźniak-Biel, Michał Bednarski, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6...
October 2, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955942/functional-significance-of-active-site-residues-in-the-enzymatic-component-of-the-clostridium-difficile-binary-toxin
#2
Abigail H Davies, Joanna McGlashan, Mareike G Posner, April K Roberts, Clifford C Shone, K Ravi Acharya
Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase which is linked to enhanced pathogenesis of C. difficile strains. CDT has dual function: domain a (CDTa) catalyses the ADP-ribosylation of actin (enzymatic component), whereas domain b (CDTb) transports CDTa into the cytosol (transport component). Understanding the molecular mechanism of CDT is necessary to assess its role in C. difficile infection. Identifying amino acids that are essential to CDTa function may aid drug inhibitor design to control the severity of C...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929960/-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-and-molecular-characterization-of-toxin-positive-clostridium-difficile-isolates-the-first-report-on-the-presence-of-hypervirulent-strains-from-turkey
#3
Emrah Salman, Belkıs Levent, Zeynep Ceren Karahan
Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most important hospital-acquired infections. Infections caused by hypervirulent C.difficile strains which produce toxins at high levels, have higher morbidity and mortality rates, more complications and relapses. They are characterized by higher sporulation ratios and resistance rates for fluoroquinolones. In order to prevent serious morbidities, mortalities and remarkable increase in health costs, highly pathogenic C.difficile strains must be identified before causing severe outbreaks...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906158/prevalence-of-putative-virulence-genes-in-campylobacter-and-arcobacter-species-isolated-from-poultry-and-poultry-by-products-in-tunisia
#4
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
October 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902923/molecular-microbiological-and-clinical-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-tertiary-care-hospitals-in-colombia
#5
Clara Lina Salazar, Catalina Reyes, Santiago Atehortua, Patricia Sierra, Margarita María Correa, Daniel Paredes-Sabja, Emma Best, Warren N Fawley, Mark Wilcox, Ángel González
In Colombia, the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of Clostridium difficile have not yet been described. Therefore, we molecularly characterized clinical isolates of C.difficile from patients with suspicion of C.difficile infection (CDI) in three tertiary care hospitals. C.difficile was isolated from stool samples by culture, the presence of A/B toxins were detected by enzyme immunoassay, cytotoxicity was tested by cell culture and the antimicrobial susceptibility determined. After DNA extraction, tcdA, tcdB and binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb) genes were detected by PCR, and PCR-ribotyping performed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780742/is-there-a-relationship-between-the-presence-of-the-binary-toxin-genes-in-clostridium-difficile-strains-and-the-severity-of-c-difficile-infection-cdi
#6
C E Berry, K A Davies, D W Owens, M H Wilcox
Some strains of Clostridium difficile produce a binary toxin, in addition to the main C. difficile virulence factors (toxins A and B). There have been conflicting reports regarding the role of binary toxin and its relationship to the severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). Samples, isolates and clinical data were collected as part of a prospective multicentre diagnostic study. Clostridium difficile isolates (n = 1259) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect binary toxin genes cdtA and cdtB...
August 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736259/molecular-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army-general-hospital-in-china
#7
Rui Wang, Hui Xia Chen, Lin Jian Song, Yue Yun Shen, Yan Ping Luo
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Its virulence is associated with the production of endotoxins A and B and endospores, which can cause symptoms, such as diarrhea, toxic megacolon and pseudomembranous colitis. Given the increasing elderly population and the well-recognized problem of over-prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics, it is critical to understand molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility in China...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691828/virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-campylobacter-spp-in-the-czech-republic
#8
J Bardoň, V Pudová, I Koláčková, R Karpíšková, M Röderová, M Kolář
OBJECTIVE: Thermotolerant species of the genus Campy-lobacter are the important agents causing human foodborne infections throughout the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of nine putative virulence genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from patients and from foods (poultry meat, pork liver), to determine the resistance of Campylobacter isolates to eight antibiotic agents and to detect four resistance genes.Matherial and methods: The presence of the virulence genes cdtA, cdtB, cdtC, virB11, ciaB, wlaN, iam, dnaJ and racR was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 94 Campylobacter spp...
2017: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650621/novel-cdta-based-bifunctional-chelators-for-stable-and-inert-mn-ii-complexation-synthesis-and-physicochemical-characterization
#9
Christian Vanasschen, Enikő Molnár, Gyula Tircsó, Ferenc K Kálmán, Éva Tóth, Marie Brandt, Heinz H Coenen, Bernd Neumaier
In the search for Mn(II) MR and PET/MR imaging agents with optimal balance between thermodynamic stability, kinetic inertness, and relaxivity, two novel bifunctional Mn(II) chelators (BFMnCs) based on CDTA (trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid) were synthesized. A six-step synthesis, involving the buildup of a functionalized trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane core, provided CuAAC-reactive 6a and 6b bearing an alkyne or azide substituent on the cyclohexane ring, respectively (CuAAC = Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition)...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642840/cytolethal-distending-toxin-enhances-radiosensitivity-in-prostate-cancer-cells-by-regulating-autophagy
#10
Hwai-Jeng Lin, Hsin-Ho Liu, Chia-Der Lin, Min-Chuan Kao, Yu-An Chen, Chuan Chiang-Ni, Zhi-Pei Jiang, Mei-Zi Huang, Chun-Jung Lin, U-Ging Lo, Li-Chiung Lin, Cheng-Kuo Lai, Ho Lin, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chih-Ho Lai
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) produced by Campylobacter jejuni contains three subunits: CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC. Among these three toxin subunits, CdtB is the toxic moiety of CDT with DNase I activity, resulting in DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and, consequently, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage and apoptosis. Radiation therapy is an effective modality for the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, patients often develop radioresistance. Owing to its particular biochemical properties, we previously employed CdtB as a therapeutic agent for sensitizing radioresistant PCa cells to ionizing radiation (IR)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619057/polysaccharide-compositions-of-collenchyma-cell-walls-from-celery-apium-graveolens-l-petioles
#11
Da Chen, Philip J Harris, Ian M Sims, Zoran Zujovic, Laurence D Melton
BACKGROUND: Collenchyma serves as a mechanical support tissue for many herbaceous plants. Previous work based on solid-state NMR and immunomicroscopy suggested collenchyma cell walls (CWs) may have similar polysaccharide compositions to those commonly found in eudicotyledon parenchyma walls, but no detailed chemical analysis was available. In this study, compositions and structures of cell wall polysaccharides of peripheral collenchyma from celery petioles were investigated. RESULTS: This is the first detailed investigation of the cell wall composition of collenchyma from any plant...
June 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618373/structural-changes-in-cell-wall-pectins-during-strawberry-fruit-development
#12
Candelas Paniagua, Nieves Santiago-Doménech, Andrew R Kirby, A Patrick Gunning, Victor J Morris, Miguel A Quesada, Antonio J Matas, José A Mercado
Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit...
June 2, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545143/haemophilus-parasuis-cytolethal-distending-toxin-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-p53-dependent-apoptosis
#13
Gang Li, Hui Niu, Yanhe Zhang, Yanling Li, Fang Xie, Paul R Langford, Siguo Liu, Chunlai Wang
Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glasser's disease in pigs. Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is an important virulence factor of H. parasuis. It is composed of three subunits: CdtA, CdtB and CdtC and all were successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli when the signal peptides were removed. Purified CdtB had DNase activity, i.e. caused DNA double strand damage, in vitro and in vivo prior to cell arrest and apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis showed CdtB alone could induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PK-15 porcine kidney and pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells, which could be enhanced by CdtA or/and CdtC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447385/ultrasound-enhances-calcium-absorption-of-jujube-fruit-by-regulating-the-cellular-calcium-distribution-and-metabolism-of-cell-wall-polysaccharides
#14
Huanhuan Zhi, Qiqi Liu, Juan Xu, Yu Dong, Mengpei Liu, Wei Zong
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound has been applied in fruit pre-washing processes. However, it is not sufficient to protect fruit from pathogenic infection throughout the entire storage period, and sometimes ultrasound causes tissue damage. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium chloride (10 g L(-1) ) and ultrasound (350 W at 40 kHz), separately and in combination, on fruit quality, antioxidant status, tissue Ca(2+) content and distribution along with cell wall metabolism at 20 °C for six days...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441827/-colonization-rate-of-clostridium-difficile-in-healthy-children
#15
Y Wang, S Guo, C N Zhao, X W Xu
Objective: To learn the colonization of Clostridium difficile in local healthy children and to investigate the colonization rate and toxin types of Clostridium difficile at different ages. Method: From September 2014 to January 2015 in a case observational study, healthy children's fecal specimens from the health care department of Beijing Children's Hospital were collected. The children were divided into four groups according to age: <1 year old(n=53), 1-<3 years old(n=50), 3-<6 years old(n=50) and 6-<14 years old(n=50) respectively...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366569/development-of-a-dose-assay-for-a-clostridium-difficile-vaccine-using-a-tandem-ion-exchange-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method
#16
Feng Wang, Sha Ha, Richard R Rustandi
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive intestine bacterium that causes a severe diarrhea and could eventually be lethal. The main virulence factor is related to the release of two major exotoxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Recent C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) outbreaks have been caused by hypervirulent strains which secrete an additional binary toxin (CDTa/CDTb). Vaccination against these toxins is considered the best way to combat the CDAD. Recently, a novel tetravalent C. difficile vaccine candidate containing all four toxins produced from a baculovirus expression system has been developed...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317494/pathogenic-potential-and-genotypic-diversity-of-campylobacter-jejuni-a-neglected-food-borne-pathogen-in-brazil
#17
Miliane Rodrigues Frazão, Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Sheila da Silva Duque, Juliana Pfrimer Falcão
Purpose and methodology.Campylobacter jejuni is a major zoonotic pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. However, there are only a few studies available that have molecularly characterized C. jejuni strains isolated in Brazil. The aim of this study was to genotype 111 C. jejuni strains isolated from sick humans (43), monkey faeces (19), chicken faeces (14), chicken meat (33) and sewage (2) between 1996 and 2016 in Brazil using flaA-SVR (short variable region) sequencing and PFGE. Furthermore, the presence of 16 virulence genes was analysed by PCR...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260494/hemoglobin-and-myoglobin-as-reducing-agents-in-biological-systems-redox-reactions-of-globins-with-copper-and-iron-salts-and-complexes
#18
REVIEW
G B Postnikova, E A Shekhovtsova
In addition to reversible O2 binding, respiratory proteins of the globin family, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), participate in redox reactions with various metal complexes, including biologically significant ones, such as those of copper and iron. HbO2 and MbO2 are present in cells in large amounts and, as redox agents, can contribute to maintaining cell redox state and resisting oxidative stress. Divalent copper complexes with high redox potentials (E0, 200-600 mV) and high stability constants, such as [Cu(phen)2](2+), [Cu(dmphen)2](2+), and CuDTA oxidize ferrous heme proteins by the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism through overlapping π-orbitals of the heme and the copper complex...
December 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247205/the-mechanism-of-jurkat-cells-apoptosis-induced-by-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-cytolethal-distending-toxin
#19
Hui-Ping Chen, Lu Li, Xu Chen, Mi-Fang Yang, Yu Ye, Xiao-Qian Wang, Yan Xu
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) which is produced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans causes apoptosis in lymphocytes. But the specific mechanism is not clear. The aim of our research was to investigate the effect and mechanism during this process. The wild-type CdtA, CdtB, CdtC (CdtA(W), CdtB(W), CdtC(W)) and mutant CdtB (CdtB(M)) were expressed and purified respectively and the purity of each subunit was examined by BandScan software. And the type I deoxyribonuclease and PI-3,4,5-triphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P3, PIP3) phosphatase activity were detected by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively...
June 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216085/occurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-ribotype-027-in-hospitals-of-silesia-poland
#20
Małgorzata Aptekorz, Anna Szczegielniak, Barbara Wiechuła, Celine Harmanus, Ed Kuijper, Gayane Martirosian
Clostridium difficile is an important healthcare-associated pathogen, responsible for a broad spectrum of diarrheal diseases. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the occurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI), to characterize cultured C. difficile strains and to investigate the association of fecal lactoferrin with CDI. Between January 2013 and June 2014, 148 stool samples were obtained from adult diarrheal patients (C. difficile as a suspected pathogen) hospitalized in different healthcare facilities of 15 Silesian hospitals...
June 2017: Anaerobe
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