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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792293/the-opioid-epidemic-challenges-of-sustained-remission
#1
Nitin Chopra, Lauren H Marasa
Opioid use disorder is a growing epidemic, with an alarming number of associated deaths. In 2014, in the United States, 18,893 lethal overdoses were related to prescription opioids and 10,574 due to heroin. Despite the growing number of treatment options for substance use disorders, which are chronic, relapsing-remitting conditions, relapse rates remain as high as 91%. In the United States, 7.5 million children reside with at least one patient who abuses drugs or alcohol. Mothers are twice as likely to lose custody of their children...
March 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780380/the-association-between-parental-history-and-delay-discounting-among-individuals-in-recovery-from-addiction
#2
Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Amanda J Quisenberry, Derek Pope, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Family history of addiction is a risk factor for substance use disorders. Delay discounting (DD) is associated with the risk of substance use and dependence, and is predictive of the likelihood of successful abstinence and treatment outcomes; thus, we investigated the extent to which having parents with addiction (parental history of addiction) and number of addicted parents affect DD among individuals in recovery from addiction. METHODS: Data from 177 individuals in recovery from addiction from The International Quit and Recovery Registry (IQRR), an ongoing online data collection program that aims to understand addiction and how people succeed in recovery, were included in the analysis...
July 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767537/addressing-stigma-in-medication-treatment-of-adolescents-with-opioid-use-disorder
#3
Sarah M Bagley, Scott E Hadland, Brittany L Carney, Richard Saitz
: In September 2016, the American Academic of Pediatrics released a policy statement that adolescents with opioid use disorder should be offered pharmacotherapy with buprenorphine/naloxone, methadone, or naltrexone. In our clinical practice, however, we have encountered the perception among patients, families, and clinicians alike that medications should be used as a last resort. That we should wait until things get worse is a discarded approach. As addiction specialists, it is imperative that we prevent and identify risky use and use disorders, then intervene early and offer timely, evidence-based treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757154/the-central-serotonin2b-receptor-as-a-new-pharmacological-target-for-the-treatment-of-dopamine-related-neuropsychiatric-disorders-rationale-and-current-status-of-research
#4
REVIEW
Céline Devroye, Adeline Cathala, Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Umberto Spampinato
The serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR), which was first cloned and characterized in the rat stomach fundus, is the most recent addition to the 5-HT2R family. While its involvement in the regulation of gastrointestinal, vascular, pulmonary and cardiac physiology has been widely investigated, its functional role within the central nervous system (CNS) has received much less attention. Nevertheless, when considering the data available in the literature with regards to the regulatory control exerted by the central 5-HT2BR on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity, a very interesting picture emerges and highlights the key role of these receptors for future therapeutic strategies of DA-related neuropsychiatric disorders...
July 27, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755776/the-mental-health-parity-and-addiction-equity-act-evaluation-study-impact-on-specialty-behavioral-healthcare-utilization-and-spending-among-enrollees-with-substance-use-disorders
#5
Sarah Friedman, Haiyong Xu, Jessica M Harwood, Francisca Azocar, Brian Hurley, Susan L Ettner
BACKGROUND: The federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) sought to eliminate historical disparities between behavioral health and medical health insurance benefits among the commercially insured. This study determines whether MHPAEA was associated with increased BH expenditures and utilization among a population with substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses. METHODS: Claims and eligibility data from 5,987,776 enrollees, 2008-2013, were obtained from a national, commercial, managed behavioral health organization...
September 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720620/in-this-issue-opiates-tobacco-social-determinants-of-health-social-accountability-for-non-profit-hospitals-more-on-pcmh-and-clinical-topics
#6
EDITORIAL
Marjorie A Bowman, Anne Victoria Neale, Dean A Seehusen
This issue contains several articles about the factors contributing to the complex and deadly interplay between social determinants of health, pain, mental illness, and addictive substances such as opioids and tobacco. One article clearly is a call to action: more than half of opioid prescriptions in the United States are given to patients with mental health problems. Two articles report work on the next steps for social determinants of health in health care settings. Social accountability based on community health needs assessments required of community hospitals should lead to the creation of more family medicine residency positions...
July 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694276/denial-the-greatest-barrier-to-the-opioid-epidemic
#7
Nicole Gastala
"Why can't you be like my old doctor?" This essay explores my experiences as a new family physician in a rural town endemic with liberal opioid prescribing practices and opioid addiction. I detail my inner turmoil while overcoming resistance to change, the influence of these experiences on my professional growth, and my decision to offer medication-assisted treatment.
July 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687441/de-escalation-of-treatment-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer-determinants-of-response-and-mechanisms-of-resistance
#8
Jamunarani Veeraraghavan, Carmine De Angelis, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Tomás Pascual, Aleix Prat, Mothaffar F Rimawi, C Kent Osborne, Rachel Schiff
Overexpression and/or gene amplification of HER2, a crucial member of the HER family of four receptors, occur in about 15-20% of breast cancers and define an aggressive subtype of the disease. Activated HER homo and heterodimers govern a complex and redundant downstream signaling network that regulates cell survival and metastasis. Despite treatment with effective HER2-targeted therapies, many HER2-positive tumors fail to respond, or initially respond but eventually develop resistance. One of the upfront reasons for this treatment failure is failure to accurately select the tumors that are truly dependent on HER2 for survival and so would benefit the most from HER2-targeted therapy...
July 4, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678934/-clinical-and-social-vulnerabilities-in-crack-users-according-to-housing-status-a-multicenter-study-in-six-brazilian-state-capitals
#9
MULTICENTER STUDY
Silvia Chwartzmann Halpern, Juliana Nichterwitz Scherer, Vinicius Roglio, Sibele Faller, Anne Sordi, Felipe Ornell, Carla Dalbosco, Flavio Pechansky, Félix Kessler, Lísia von Diemen
The study had the goal to evaluate psychoactive substance use severity, violence, physical and emotional health of crack users who seeks specialized treatment in Psychosocial Care Centers for Alcohol and Drugs (CAPSad) concerning housing status. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study in six Brazilian capitals with 564 crack users categorized into two groups (1) users who have been homeless sometime in life (n = 266) and (2) individuals who have never lived on streets (n = 298). To assess the substance use severity and the characteristics of the individuals, the Addiction Severity Index, 6th version (ASI-6) was used...
July 3, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651618/relationships-between-received-and-perceived-social-support-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-patients-receiving-methadone-maintenance-treatment-in-mainland-china
#10
Kaina Zhou, Hengxin Li, Xiaoli Wei, Juan Yin, Peifeng Liang, Hongmei Zhang, Lingling Kou, Mengmeng Hao, Lijuan You, Xiaomei Li, Guihua Zhuang
BACKGROUND: Social support has been considered one of the most important factors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluations among different populations; however, few studies have explored the relationships of both received and perceived social support to HRQoL among patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Thus, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to clarify these relationships. METHODS: Participants were patients admitted at the two largest privately and publicly funded MMT clinics in Xi'an...
June 26, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#11
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604354/mental-health-insurance-parity-and-provider-wages
#12
Ezra Golberstein, Susan H Busch
BACKGROUND: Policymakers frequently mandate that employers or insurers provide insurance benefits deemed to be critical to individuals' well-being. However, in the presence of private market imperfections, mandates that increase demand for a service can lead to price increases for that service, without necessarily affecting the quantity being supplied. We test this idea empirically by looking at mental health parity mandates. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether implementation of parity laws was associated with changes in mental health provider wages...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603825/the-profile-of-drug-users-in-tunisia-implications-for-prevention
#13
Rim Sellami, Ines Feki, Abdelmajid Zahaf, Jawaher Masmoudi
BACKGROUND: Despite cultural, religious, and legal constraints on Muslims against the consumption of drugs, usage and misuse do exist. Drug addiction in Tunisia is a wide-spread problem and is destroying the lives of many individuals and families. AIMS: To examine the socio-demographic characteristics of substance users and to identify the drugs commonly used. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients admitted at the addiction treatment center ''Aide et Ecoute'' in the period from January 2014 to September 2014 formed the sample of the present study...
August 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571877/shaping-vulnerability-to-addiction-the-contribution-of-behavior-neural-circuits-and-molecular-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Gabor Egervari, Roberto Ciccocioppo, J David Jentsch, Yasmin L Hurd
Substance use disorders continue to impose increasing medical, financial and emotional burdens on society in the form of morbidity and overdose, family disintegration, loss of employment and crime, while advances in prevention and treatment options remain limited. Importantly, not all individuals exposed to abused substances effectively develop the disease. Genetic factors play a significant role in determining addiction vulnerability and interactions between innate predisposition, environmental factors and personal experiences are also critical...
May 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541119/treatment-of-opioid-use-disorder-with-ibogaine-detoxification-and-drug-use-outcomes
#15
Thomas Kingsley Brown, Kenneth Alper
BACKGROUND: Ibogaine is a monoterpene indole alkaloid used in medical and nonmedical settings for the treatment of opioid use disorder. Its mechanism of action is apparently novel. There are no published prospective studies of drug use outcomes with ibogaine. OBJECTIVES: To study outcomes following opioid detoxification with ibogaine. METHODS: In this observational study, 30 subjects with DSM-IV Opioid Dependence (25 males, 5 females) received a mean total dose of 1,540 ± 920 mg ibogaine HCl...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534313/class-based-chronicities-of-suffering-and-seeking-help-comparing-addiction-treatment-programs-in-uganda
#16
Julia Vorhölter
Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article looks at changing discourses and practices in the field of mental health care in Uganda. In particular, it analyzes two psychotherapeutic institutions designed to treat drug- and alcohol-addiction, and their accessibility and affordability for people from different class backgrounds. The first center is a high-class residential facility near Kampala which offers state-of-the-art addiction therapy, but is affordable only for the rich. The second center, a church-funded organization in Northern Uganda, cares mainly for people from poor, rural families who cannot afford exp/tensive treatment...
May 22, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533684/stigma-associated-with-mental-illness-perspectives-of-university-students-in-qatar
#17
Monica Zolezzi, Nawal Bensmail, Farah Zahrah, Salma Mawfek Khaled, Tayseer El-Gaili
BACKGROUND: Stigma in relation to mental illness is one of the main factors inhibiting people from seeking help. Studies have been undertaken looking into the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) about mental illness among residents in Qatar; however, none have looked specifically at students in higher education. The aim of this study was to understand the KAB toward mental illness among students at a Qatari university and determine if there are any differences based on gender, nationality, and college type...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520496/shelter-based-opioid-treatment-increasing-access-to-addiction-treatment-in-a-family-shelter
#18
Avik Chatterjee, Aura Obando, Erica Strickland, Ariana Nestler, Rachel Harrington-Levey, Toni Williams, Terri LaCoursiere-Zucchero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488881/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-for-methadone-maintenance-a-feasibility-trial
#19
Sarah Bowen, Vanessa C Somohano, Rachel E Rutkie, Jacob A Manuel, Kristoffer L Rehder
OBJECTIVES: As rates of opiate misuse rise in the United States, so do significant associated health and financial consequences to afflicted individuals, their families, and society at large. Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is one evidence-based approach to treating opiate addiction, yet supplemental psychosocial treatment to support this approach is lacking. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) has shown to be efficacious in various substance use populations, but has yet to be assessed with MMT clients...
July 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464942/-getting-out-of-downtown-a-longitudinal-study-of-how-street-entrenched-youth-attempt-to-exit-an-inner-city-drug-scene
#20
Rod Knight, Danya Fast, Kora DeBeck, Jean Shoveller, Will Small
BACKGROUND: Urban drug "scenes" have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths' drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences...
May 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
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