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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749411/advances-in-testing-techniques-for-digital-microfluidic-biochips
#1
REVIEW
Vineeta Shukla, Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin, Nor Hisham Hamid, Noohul Basheer Zain Ali
With the advancement of digital microfluidics technology, applications such as on-chip DNA analysis, point of care diagnosis and automated drug discovery are common nowadays. The use of Digital Microfluidics Biochips (DMFBs) in disease assessment and recognition of target molecules had become popular during the past few years. The reliability of these DMFBs is crucial when they are used in various medical applications. Errors found in these biochips are mainly due to the defects developed during droplet manipulation, chip degradation and inaccuracies in the bio-assay experiments...
July 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749111/syncope-in-pediatric-patients-a-practical-approach-to-differential-diagnosis-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#2
Colleen Fant, Ari Cohen, Michelle N Vazquez
Syncope is a condition that is often seen in the emergency department. Most syncope is benign, but it can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. While syncope often requires an extensive workup in adults, in the pediatric population, critical questioning and simple, noninvasive testing is usually sufficient to exclude significant or life-threatening causes. For low-risk patients, resource-intensive workups are rarely diagnostic, and add significant cost to medical care. This issue will highlight critical diseases that cause syncope, identify high-risk "red flags," and enable the emergency clinician to develop a cost-effective, minimally invasive algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric syncope...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747410/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-studies-evaluating-the-performance-and-operational-characteristics-of-dual-point-of-care-tests-for-hiv-and-syphilis
#3
REVIEW
Harriet D Gliddon, Rosanna W Peeling, Mary L Kamb, Igor Toskin, Teodora E Wi, Melanie M Taylor
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis and HIV continue to be important yet preventable causes of perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review, critically appraise and perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the operational characteristics of dual rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for HIV/syphilis and evaluate whether they are cost effective, acceptable and easy to use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
July 26, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747367/rapid-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-blood-stream-infections-using-a-novel-assay-in-the-genexpert-system
#4
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Riccardo Russo, Eric Singleton, Darshini Shah, Bhavana Patel, Michele Burday, Ranie Koshy, Qing Wang, Martin Jones, Alexander Gall, Sergey Lokhov, Robert Kwiatkowski, David Persing, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND.Bacillus anthracis is a tier1 select agent with the potential to quickly cause severe disease. Rapid identification of this pathogen may accelerate treatment and reduce mortality in the event of a bioterrorism attack. We developed a rapid and sensitive assay to detect B. anthracis bacteremia using a system that is suitable for point of care testing.METHODS. A filter-based cartridge that included both sample processing and PCR amplification functions was loaded with all reagents needed for sample processing and multiplex nested PCR...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747205/detection-of-antibiotic-resistance-is-essential-for-gonorrhoea-point-of-care-testing-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#5
Stephanie M Fingerhuth, Nicola Low, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Christian L Althaus
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is threatening to make gonorrhoea untreatable. Point-of-care (POC) tests that detect resistance promise individually tailored treatment, but might lead to more treatment and higher levels of resistance. We investigate the impact of POC tests on antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea. METHODS: We used data about the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men and women (HMW) to calibrate a mathematical gonorrhoea transmission model...
July 26, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746180/a-consort-compliant-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial-radiation-dose-reducing-in-computed-tomography-using-an-additional-lateral-scout-view-combined-with-automatic-tube-current-modulation-phantom-and-patient-study
#6
Wanlin Peng, Zhenlin Li, Chunchao Xia, Yingkun Guo, Jinge Zhang, Kai Zhang, Lei Li, Fei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure has been a hot point in research field of computed tomography (CT). Recently, automated tube current modulation (ATCM) has emerged as an important technique to reduce radiation exposure. Many studies have shown that the difference in scout view would affect modulation. This prospective randomized controlled study is aimed to investigate the impact of an additional lateral scout view on radiation dose and image quality in CT using ACTM. METHODS: Combined with ATCM (Care Dose 4D) on multidetector CT, 2 thoracic phantom CT image series were acquired in which planning was conducted with either an anteroposterior (AP) or an AP-lateral scout view...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745251/-using-thromboelastography-to-measure-coagulation-following-massive-blood-loss
#7
M C A Müller, G A E Ponjee
Thromboelastography is becoming increasingly important for diagnosing coagulation disorders in patients with massive blood loss. This whole-blood measurement provides information about the speed of clot formation, clot strength, and degree of fibrinolysis. The result can be used as a basis for making a faster and better choice of a suitable blood product for the patient with severe blood loss. This technique can be carried out simply and quickly as a rapid test ('point-of-care test') or in a central laboratory...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744879/procarbazine-lomustine-and-vincristine-for-recurrent-high-grade-glioma
#8
REVIEW
Saurabh Parasramka, Goutham Talari, John L Villano, Myrna Rosenfeld, Jing Guo
BACKGROUND: Recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) carries an extremely poor prognosis. There is no current standard of care or guideline-based recommendations. Nitrosourea-based multidrug chemotherapy or PCV - procarbazine, lomustine (CCNU) and vincristine - is one of the treatment options at recurrence. There has been no meta-analysis which looks at the benefits and harms of PCV chemotherapy in adults with recurrent HGG. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy with other interventions in adults with recurrent high-grade glioma...
July 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743917/a-rapid-low-cost-and-microfluidic-chip-based-system-for-parallel-identification-of-multiple-pathogens-related-to-clinical-pneumonia
#9
Guoliang Huang, Qin Huang, Lan Xie, Guangxin Xiang, Lei Wang, Hui Xu, Li Ma, Xianbo Luo, Juan Xin, Xinying Zhou, Xiangyu Jin, Lei Zhang
An air-insulated microfluidic chip was designed for the automatic centrifugal distribution of samples to 24-test cells, enabling the parallel identification of multiple clinical pneumonia-related pathogens in 1.45-μL reactions without cross-contamination in 45 min. A portable nucleic acid analyzer that integrates mechanical, confocal optical, electronic, and software functions was also developed to collect fluorescence data in a Ø3 mm imaging field near the optical diffraction limit for highly sensitive fluorescence detection of nucleic acid amplification in real time...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743680/internet-based-assessment-of-oncology-health-care-professional-learning-style-and-optimization-of-materials-for-web-based-learning-controlled-trial-with-concealed-allocation
#10
Christine M Micheel, Ingrid A Anderson, Patricia Lee, Sheau-Chiann Chen, Katy Justiss, Nunzia B Giuse, Fei Ye, Sheila V Kusnoor, Mia A Levy
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine has resulted in increasing complexity in the treatment of cancer. Web-based educational materials can help address the needs of oncology health care professionals seeking to understand up-to-date treatment strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess learning styles of oncology health care professionals and to determine whether learning style-tailored educational materials lead to enhanced learning. METHODS: In all, 21,465 oncology health care professionals were invited by email to participate in the fully automated, parallel group study...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743339/-predictive-value-of-ultrasonic-diaphragm-thickening-fraction-on-successful-weaning-for-patients-with-myasthenia-gravis-crisis
#11
Qiang Sun, Feng Shan, Hai Dong, Yan Jiang, Yongmei Sun, Yunbo Sun
OBJECTIVE: To confirm the predictive value of diaphragm thickening fraction (DTF) on successful weaning by bedside ultrasound in patients with myasthenia gravis crisis. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted. The patients with myasthenia gravis crisis undergoing mechanical ventilation admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from March 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled. All patients underwent a low level pressure support mode of spontaneous breathing test (SBT), and rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) was recorded...
July 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742306/identifying-emergency-department-patients-with-chest-pain-who-are-at-low-risk-for-acute-coronary-syndromes-digest
#12
David Markel, Jeremy Kim
Though a minority of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain have acute coronary syndromes,identifying the patients who may be safely discharged and determining whether further testing is needed remains challenging. From the prehospital care setting to disposition and follow-up, this systematic review addresses the fundamentals of the emergency department evaluation of patients determined to be at low risk for acute coronary syndromes or adverse outcomes. Clinical risk scores are discussed, as well as the evidence and indications for confirmatory testing...
July 21, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741392/recent-advances-in-the-development-and-use-of-molecular-tests-to-predict-antimicrobial-resistance-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#13
Valentina Donà, Nicola Low, Daniel Golparian, Magnus Unemo
The number of genetic tests, mostly real-time PCRs, to detect antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants and predict AMR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing. Several of these assays are promising, but there are important shortcomings and few assays have been adequately validated and quality assured. Areas covered: Recent advances, focusing on publications since 2012, in the development and use of molecular tests to predict gonococcal AMR for surveillance and for clinical use, advantages and disadvantages of these tests and of molecular AMR prediction compared with phenotypic AMR testing, and future perspectives for effective use of molecular AMR tests for different purposes...
July 25, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740546/a-paper-based-device-for-performing-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-with-real-time-simultaneous-detection-of-multiple-dna-targets
#14
Youngung Seok, Hyou-Arm Joung, Ju-Young Byun, Hyo-Sung Jeon, Su Jeong Shin, Sanghyo Kim, Young-Beom Shin, Hyung Soo Han, Min-Gon Kim
Paper-based diagnostic devices have many advantages as a one of the multiple diagnostic test platforms for point-of-care (POC) testing because they have simplicity, portability, and cost-effectiveness. However, despite high sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid testing (NAT), the development of NAT based on a paper platform has not progressed as much as the others because various specific conditions for nucleic acid amplification reactions such as pH, buffer components, and temperature, inhibitions from technical differences of paper-based device...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740385/application-of-nanodiagnostics-in-point-of-care-tests-for-infectious-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Yongzhong Wang, Li Yu, Xiaowei Kong, Leming Sun
Although tremendous efforts have been put into the treatment of infectious diseases to prevent epidemics and mortality, it is still one of the major health care issues that have a profound impact on humankind. Therefore, the development of specific, sensitive, accurate, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use diagnostic tools is still in urgent demand. Nanodiagnostics, defined as the application of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics, can offer many unique opportunities for more successful and efficient diagnosis and treatment for infectious diseases...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740366/the-mediatory-role-of-medication-adherence-in-improving-patients-medication-experience-through-patient-physician-communication-among-older-hypertensive-patients
#16
Woojung Lee, Youran Noh, Hyeonjin Kang, Song Hee Hong
BACKGROUND: Understanding how patient-physician communication affects patients' medication experience would help hypertensive patients maintain their regular long-term medication therapy. This study aimed to examine whether patient-physician communication (information and interpersonal treatment) affects patients' medication experience directly or indirectly through changing medication adherence for each of the two communication domains. METHODS: A self-administered cross-sectional survey was conducted for older patients who had visited a community senior center as a member...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738887/emerging-technologies-in-autoantibody-testing-for-rheumatic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Nancy J Olsen, May Y Choi, Marvin J Fritzler
Testing for the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) is a key step in the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARD). The standard slide-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test is widely used, but is limited by a relative lack of specificity for SLE and not all SARD-ANAs are detected. Alternative immunoassays that might offer enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information have evolved, and some of these have entered clinical practice. This review summarizes the current state of ANA testing and multiplex techniques for detecting other autoantibodies, the possibility of point-of-care testing, and approaches for applications in early disease stages...
July 24, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738809/surgical-frailty-assessment-a-missed-opportunity
#18
Gilgamesh Eamer, Jennifer A Gibson, Chelsia Gillis, Amy T Hsu, Marian Krawczyk, Emily MacDonald, Reid Whitlock, Rachel G Khadaroo
BACKGROUND: Preoperative frailty predicts adverse postoperative outcomes. Despite the advantages of incorporating frailty assessment into surgical settings, there is limited research on surgical healthcare professionals' use of frailty assessment for perioperative care. METHODS: Healthcare professionals caring for patients enrolled at a Canadian teaching hospital were surveyed to assess their perceptions of frailty, as well as attitudes towards and practices for frail patients...
July 24, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737045/pharmacist-s-demand-for-optimal-primary-care-service-delivery-in-a-community-pharmacy-the-optipharm-study
#19
Mark A Munger, Michael Walsh, Jon Godin, Michael Feehan
BACKGROUND: The US population continues to expand providing the need for primary health care services. Community pharmacies integrated with medicine may provide greater access while providing high quality care. OBJECTIVE: To gauge pharmacists' demand for primary health care services delivered through community pharmacies. METHODS: An online survey was administered to determine community pharmacists' preferences for varying primary care services that could be offered in the community pharmacy setting...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736641/bone-marrow-tolerance-during-postoperative-chemotherapy-in-colorectal-carcinomas
#20
Neil B Newman, Rebecca A Moss, Nell Maloney-Patel, Kristen Donohue, Teresa V Brown, Michael J Nissenblatt, Shou-En Lu, Salma K Jabbour
BACKGROUND: This study seeks to quantify and compare bone marrow tolerance during postoperative chemotherapy therapy between rectal cancer vs. colon cancer patients. During rectal cancer treatment, patients receive neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) irradiation which can exacerbate the hematologic toxicity (HT) via incidental irradiation of the pelvic bone marrow (PBM) during myelosuppressive postoperative chemotherapy. In contrast, colon cancer patients receive the same postoperative myelosuppressive chemotherapy but do not routinely receive preoperative chemoradiation therapy...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
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