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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444419/pak1-kinase-maintains-apical-membrane-identity-in-epithelia
#1
Mario Aguilar-Aragon, Ahmed Elbediwy, Valentina Foglizzo, Georgina C Fletcher, Vivian S W Li, Barry J Thompson
Epithelial cells are polarized along their apical-basal axis by the action of the small GTPase Cdc42, which is known to activate the aPKC kinase at the apical domain. However, loss of aPKC kinase activity was reported to have only mild effects on epithelial cell polarity. Here, we show that Cdc42 also activates a second kinase, Pak1, to specify apical domain identity in Drosophila and mammalian epithelia. aPKC and Pak1 phosphorylate an overlapping set of polarity substrates in kinase assays. Inactivating both aPKC kinase activity and the Pak1 kinase leads to a complete loss of epithelial polarity and morphology, with cells losing markers of apical polarization such as Crumbs, Par3/Bazooka, or ZO-1...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443967/peptidoglycan-synthesis-drives-an-ftsz-treadmilling-independent-step-of-cytokinesis
#2
João M Monteiro, Ana R Pereira, Nathalie T Reichmann, Bruno M Saraiva, Pedro B Fernandes, Helena Veiga, Andreia C Tavares, Margarida Santos, Maria T Ferreira, Vânia Macário, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Sérgio R Filipe, Mariana G Pinho
Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial wall and protects cells from the mechanical stress that results from high intracellular turgor. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is very similar in all bacteria; bacterial shapes are therefore mainly determined by the spatial and temporal regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis rather than by the chemical composition of peptidoglycan. The form of rod-shaped bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli, is generated by the action of two peptidoglycan synthesis machineries that act at the septum and at the lateral wall in processes coordinated by the cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and MreB, respectively...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443889/alteration-of-epigenetic-regulation-by-long-noncoding-rnas-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Mariangela Morlando, Alessandro Fatica
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of the epigenetic status of the human genome. Besides their participation to normal physiology, lncRNA expression and function have been already associated to many diseases, including cancer. By interacting with epigenetic regulators and by controlling chromatin topology, their misregulation may result in an aberrant regulation of gene expression that may contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we review the functional role and mechanisms of action of lncRNAs implicated in the aberrant epigenetic regulation that has characterized cancer development and progression...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442897/development-of-targeted-nanoscale-drug-delivery-system-for-osteoarthritic-cartilage-tissue
#4
Tao Jiang, Ho-Man Kan, Komal Rajpura, Erica J Carbone, Yingcui Li, Kevin W-H Lo
Osteoarthritis is a severe and debilitating joint disease, which is characterized as results from damage and degeneration of the articular cartilage of the joint surfaces. The incidence of osteoarthritis is growing increasingly high while current treatment methods remain suboptimal. The major issue for current osteoarthritic medications is that patients frequently experience adverse, nonspecific side effects that are not a direct result of the specific pharmacological action of the drug. The treatment processes could be made more effective, safe, and comfortable if it were possible to deliver the drugs specifically to cartilage tissue...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442331/role-of-zic-family-proteins-in-transcriptional-regulation-and-chromatin-remodeling
#5
Minoru Hatayama, Jun Aruga
Proper functions of Zic proteins are essential for animals in health and disease. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the molecular properties and functions of the Zic family across animal species and paralog subtypes. Zics are basic proteins with some posttranslational modifications and can move to the cell nucleus via importin- and CRM1-based nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mechanisms. Degradation is mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Many Zic proteins are capable of binding to two types of target DNA sequences (CTGCTG-core-type and GC-stretch-type)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442223/beneficial-role-of-low-intensity-laser-irradiation-on-neural-%C3%AE-tubulin-iii-protein-expression-in-human-bone-marrow-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#6
Valéria Ferreira-Silva, Fernando L Primo, Munira M A Baqui, Danielle A R Magalhães, Maristela D Orellana, Andrielle Castilho-Fernandes, Mario C Cruz, Niehls O S Câmara, Dimas T Covas, Antonio C Tedesco
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neural protein expression pattern of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) treated with forskolin (free-form/FF). The study investigated forskolin's capacity to enhance intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) by activating adenylate cyclase and probably by inducing neuron-like cells in vitro. In addition, because nanotechnology is a growing field of tissue engineering, we also assessed the action of a new system called the nanostructured-forskolin (NF) to examine the improvement of drug delivery...
February 13, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441506/development-of-a-procedure-for-the-government-provision-of-bone-anchored-prosthesis-using-osseointegration-in-australia
#7
Laurent Frossard, Gregory Merlo, Tanya Quincey, Brendan Burkett, Debra Berg
BACKGROUND: Governmental organizations are facing challenges in adjusting procedures providing equitable assistance to consumers with amputation choosing newly available osseointegrated fixations for bone-anchored prostheses (BAPs) over socket-suspended prostheses. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (1) present a procedure focusing on tasks, documents and costs of prosthetic care, and (2) share observed obstacles and facilitators to implementation. METHODS: This research aimed at developing a governmental procedure for the provision of BAPs was designed as an action research study...
December 2017: PharmacoEconomics open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441469/gaze-anchoring-guides-real-but-not-pantomime-reach-to-grasp-support-for-the-action-perception-theory
#8
Jessica R Kuntz, Jenni M Karl, Jon B Doan, Ian Q Whishaw
Reach-to-grasp movements feature the integration of a reach directed by the extrinsic (location) features of a target and a grasp directed by the intrinsic (size, shape) features of a target. The action-perception theory suggests that integration and scaling of a reach-to-grasp movement, including its trajectory and the concurrent digit shaping, are features that depend upon online action pathways of the dorsal visuomotor stream. Scaling is much less accurate for a pantomime reach-to-grasp movement, a pretend reach with the target object absent...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441034/reduced-mu-power-in-response-to-unusual-actions-is-context-dependent-in-1-year-olds
#9
Miriam Langeloh, David Buttelmann, Daniel Matthes, Susanne Grassmann, Sabina Pauen, Stefanie Hoehl
During social interactions infants predict and evaluate other people's actions. Previous behavioral research found that infants' imitation of others' actions depends on these evaluations and is context-dependent: 1-year-olds predominantly imitated an unusual action (turning on a lamp with one's forehead) when the model's hands were free compared to when the model's hands were occupied or restrained. In the present study, we adapted this behavioral paradigm to a neurophysiological study measuring infants' brain activity while observing usual and unusual actions via electroencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440967/mir-29b-enhances-prostate-cancer-cell-invasion-independently-of-mmp-2-expression
#10
Renato F Ivanovic, Nayara I Viana, Denis R Morais, Iran A Silva, Katia R Leite, José Pontes-Junior, Gustavo Inoue, William C Nahas, Miguel Srougi, Sabrina T Reis
Background: The ability to metastasize is one of the most important characteristics of neoplastic cells. An imbalance between the action of some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs drives the invasion process. Some studies have suggested that MMP-2 is involved in metastasis, while other studies have reported that collagen production by cancer cells might also contribute to motility. However, decreased expression of microRNA-29b (miR-29b), which may control MMP-2 and collagen gene expression, has been shown in prostate cancer (PCa)...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440135/biomechanics-of-omnidirectional-strikes-in-flat-spiders
#11
Yu Zeng, Sarah Crews
Many ambush predators attack prey using rapid strikes, but these strikes are typically only anteriorly directed. However, a predator may attack laterally- and posteriorly-oriented prey if it can couple the strikes with rapid body reorientation. Here, we examined omnidirectional strikes in flattie spiders (Selenopidae), a group of sit-and-wait ambush predators found on open surfaces. These spiders attack prey throughout their entire peripheral range using rapid strikes that consist of rapid translation and rotation toward the prey...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440124/sorcs1-and-sorcs3-control-energy-balance-and-orexigenic-peptide-production
#12
Aygul Subkhangulova, Anna R Malik, Guido Hermey, Oliver Popp, Gunnar Dittmar, Thomas Rathjen, Matthew N Poy, Alexander Stumpf, Prateep Sanker Beed, Dietmar Schmitz, Tilman Breiderhoff, Thomas E Willnow
SORCS1 and SORCS3 are two related sorting receptors expressed in neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Using mouse models with individual or dual receptor deficiencies, we document a previously unknown function of these receptors in central control of metabolism. Specifically, SORCS1 and SORCS3 act as intracellular trafficking receptors for tropomyosin-related kinase B to attenuate signaling by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a potent regulator of energy homeostasis. Loss of the joint action of SORCS1 and SORCS3 in mutant mice results in excessive production of the orexigenic neuropeptide agouti-related peptide and in a state of chronic energy excess characterized by enhanced food intake, decreased locomotor activity, diminished usage of lipids as metabolic fuel, and increased adiposity, albeit at overall reduced body weight...
February 12, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440116/improving-interpretation-of-cardiac-phenotypes-and-enhancing-discovery-with-expanded-knowledge-in-the-gene-ontology
#13
Ruth C Lovering, Paola Roncaglia, Douglas G Howe, Stanley J F Laulederkind, Varsha K Khodiyar, Tanya Z Berardini, Susan Tweedie, Rebecca E Foulger, David Osumi-Sutherland, Nancy H Campbell, Rachael P Huntley, Philippa J Talmud, Judith A Blake, Ross Breckenridge, Paul R Riley, Pier D Lambiase, Perry M Elliott, Lucie Clapp, Andrew Tinker, David P Hill
BACKGROUND: A systems biology approach to cardiac physiology requires a comprehensive representation of how coordinated processes operate in the heart, as well as the ability to interpret relevant transcriptomic and proteomic experiments. The Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium provides structured, controlled vocabularies of biological terms that can be used to summarize and analyze functional knowledge for gene products. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we created a computational resource to facilitate genetic studies of cardiac physiology by integrating literature curation with attention to an improved and expanded ontological representation of heart processes in the Gene Ontology...
February 2018: Circ Genom Precis Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439712/trovafloxacin-attenuates-neuroinflammation-and-improves-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#14
Charu Garg, Joon Ho Seo, Jayalakshmi Ramachandran, Ji Meng Loh, Frances Calderon, Jorge E Contreras
BACKGROUND: Trovafloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, recently identified as an inhibitor of pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels. Panx1 channels are important conduits for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from live and dying cells that enhances the inflammatory response of immune cells. Elevated extracellular levels ATP released upon injury activate purinergic pathways in inflammatory cells that promote migration, proliferation, phagocytosis, and apoptotic signals. Here, we tested whether trovafloxacin administration attenuates the neuroinflammatory response and improves outcomes after brain trauma...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439670/phase-i-study-of-an-active-immunotherapy-for-asymptomatic-phase-lymphoplasmacytic-lymphoma-with-dna-vaccines-encoding-antigen-chemokine-fusion-study-protocol
#15
Sheeba K Thomas, Soung-Chul Cha, D Lynne Smith, Kun Hwa Kim, Sapna R Parshottam, Sheetal Rao, Michael Popescu, Vincent Y Lee, Sattva S Neelapu, Larry W Kwak
BACKGROUND: There is now a renewed interest in cancer vaccines. Patients responding to immune checkpoint blockade usually bear tumors that are heavily infiltrated by T cells and express a high load of neoantigens, indicating that the immune system is involved in the therapeutic effect of these agents; this finding strongly supports the use of cancer vaccine strategies. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) is a low grade, incurable disease featuring an abnormal proliferation of Immunoglobulin (Ig)-producing malignant cells...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438844/top-down-expectation-effects-of-food-labels-on-motivation
#16
Joost Wegman, Ilke van Loon, Paul A M Smeets, Roshan Cools, Esther Aarts
Labels on food packages inform our beliefs, shaping our expectations of food properties, such as its expected taste and healthiness. These beliefs can influence the processing of caloric rewards beyond objective sensory properties and have the potential to impact decision making. However, no studies, within or beyond the food domain, have assessed how written information, such as food labels, affect implicit motivation to obtain rewards, even though choices in daily life might be strongly driven by implicit motivational biases...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438534/both-in-vivo-fsh-depletion-and-follicular-exposure-to-gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone-analogues-in-vitro-are-not-effective-to-prevent-follicular-depletion-during-chemotherapy-in-mice
#17
F Horicks, G Van Den Steen, C Gervy, H J Clarke, I Demeestere
STUDY QUESTION: Does fertility preservation using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues during chemotherapy act through a direct effect on the ovary or through inhibition of FSH secretion? SUMMARY ANSWER: The absence of FSH in vivo and the direct exposition of ovarian follicles to GnRH analogues in vitro did not prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The potential mechanisms of action of GnRH analogues in protecting ovaries against chemotherapy damage remain poorly understood...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438430/unravelling-the-bioherbicide-potential-of-eucalyptus-globulus-labill-biochemistry-and-effects-of-its-aqueous-extract
#18
Carolina G Puig, Manuel J Reigosa, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Nuria Pedrol
In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438300/compact-hip-force-sensor-for-a-gait-assistance-exoskeleton-system
#19
Hyundo Choi, Keehong Seo, Seungyong Hyung, Youngbo Shim, Soo-Chul Lim
In this paper, we propose a compact force sensor system for a hip-mounted exoskeleton for seniors with difficulties in walking due to muscle weakness. It senses and monitors the delivered force and power of the exoskeleton for motion control and taking urgent safety action. Two FSR (force-sensitive resistors) sensors are used to measure the assistance force when the user is walking. The sensor system directly measures the interaction force between the exoskeleton and the lower limb of the user instead of a previously reported force-sensing method, which estimated the hip assistance force from the current of the motor and lookup tables...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437706/targeting-cyclin-d-cdk4-6-sensitizes-immune-refractory-cancer-by-blocking-the-scp3-nanog-axis
#20
Se Jin Oh, Hanbyoul Cho, Suhyun Kim, Kyung Hee Noh, Kwon-Ho Song, Hyo-Jung Lee, Seon Rang Woo, Suyeon Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M Hewitt, Jae-Hoon Kim, Seungki Baek, Kyung-Mi Lee, Cassian Yee, Hae-Chul Park, Tae Woo Kim
Immune editing caused by anti-tumor immunity drives tumor cells to acquire refractory phenotypes. We demonstrated previously that tumor antigen-specific T cells edit these cells such that they become resistant to CTL killing and enrich NANOGhigh cancer stem cell-like (CSC-like) cells. In the current study, we show that synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3), a member of the Cor1 family, is overexpressed in immune-edited cells and upregulates NANOG by hyperactivating the Cyclin D1-CDK4/6 axis. The SCP3-Cyclin D1-CDK4/6 axis was preserved across various types of human cancer, and correlated negatively with progression-free survival of cervical cancer patients...
February 6, 2018: Cancer Research
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