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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087221/varenicline-provokes-impulsive-action-by-stimulating-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-in-a-nicotine-exposure-status-dependent-manner
#1
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement and drug addiction. Because nicotine administration enhances impulsivity, the effects of stop-smoking aids stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on impulsivity must be determined in different conditions. Our goals were 1) to confirm the relationship between varenicline, a stop-smoking aid and α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, and impulsivity, 2) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of varenicline, 3) to examine whether a low dose of varenicline that does not evoke impulsive action could block the stimulating effects of nicotine on impulsive action, 4) to determine whether the route of administration could modulate the effects of varenicline on impulsive action, and 5) to determine whether the effects of varenicline on impulsivity could be altered by smoking status...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042872/infralimbic-glun2a-containing-nmda-receptors-modulate-reconsolidation-of-cocaine-self-administration-memory
#2
Madalyn Hafenbreidel, Carolynn Rafa Todd, Devin Mueller
Addiction is characterized by high relapse susceptibility, and relapse can be triggered by drug-associated cues. Cue presentation induces retrieval of the drug-cue memory, which becomes labile and must be reconsolidated into long-term storage. Repeated unpaired cue presentation, however, induces extinction. Cue-reactivity can be reduced by blocking reconsolidation or facilitating extinction, which are mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDArs). However, the role of NMDArs in either process following self-administration is unclear...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038985/exploring-the-mechanism-by-which-accumbal-deep-brain-stimulation-attenuates-morphine-induced-reinstatement-through-manganese-enhanced-mri-and-pharmacological-intervention
#3
Lei Zhang, Ying Cui, Ying-Chun Wang, Hong Yin, Jian-Min Zheng, Lu Huang, Zhen-Wei Zhao, Jiang Li
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been applied to attenuate drug relapses in animal studies and clinical treatments. However, the mechanisms by which DBS produces its therapeutic effects remain largely unknown. This study is the first to combine manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with DBS to explore the effects of accumbal DBS on the relapse pathway of rats. The images suggested that DBS produced an antidromic activation of the cortico-accumbal afferents. To verify the activating effects of DBS, the expression levels of the protein encoded by the immediate early gene c-Fos following DBS were measured using immunochemical methods...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035181/functional-connectivity-of-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-carrying-orexin-receptors-and-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptors-in-regulating-sociability-and-mood-related-behaviors
#4
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces changes in neuronal functions in specific brain regions regulating sociability and mood-related behaviors. Recently we reported that stress-induced persistent upregulation of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the resulting activation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors within the BLA produced deficits in sociability and mood-related behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the neural targets that were innervated by BLA neurons containing orexin receptors or MCH receptors...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003411/dorsal-versus-ventral-differences-in-fast-up-state-associated-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-of-the-urethane-anaesthetised-rat
#5
Sabine Gretenkord, Adrian Rees, Miles A Whittington, Sarah E Gartside, Fiona E N LeBeau
Cortical slow oscillations (0.1 - 1 Hz), which may play a role in memory consolidation, are a hallmark of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and also occur under anaesthesia. During slow oscillations the neuronal network generates faster oscillations on the active Up-states and these nested oscillations are particularly prominent in the PFC. In rodents the mPFC consists of several subregions: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and dorsal peduncular cortices (DP). Although each region has a distinct anatomy and function, it is not known whether slow or fast network oscillations differ between subregions in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980118/role-of-taar1-within-the-subregions-of-the-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-system-in-cocaine-seeking-behavior
#6
Jian-Feng Liu, Justin N Siemian, Robert Seaman, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
: A novel G-protein coupled receptor, trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), has been shown to be a promising target to prevent stimulant relapse. Our recent studies showed that systemic administration of TAAR1 agonists decreased abuse-related behaviors of cocaine. However, the role of TAAR1 in specific subregions of the reward system in drug addiction is unknown. Here, using a local pharmacological activation method, we assessed the role of TAAR1 within the subregions of the mesocorticolimbic system, i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964870/high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-infralimbic-cortex-induces-morphological-changes-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Scellig S D Stone, Clement Hamani, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Although a significant subset of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail to respond to medical or behavioural therapy, deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC; sg25) has been shown to reduce depressive symptoms in a subset of patients. This area receives projections from neurons in the CA1 region and subiculum of the hippocampus (HC), a brain region implicated in the pathobiology and treatment of MDD. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the infralimbic cortex is associated with changes in cellular morphology in the HC...
November 23, 2016: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957346/vagus-nerve-stimulation-enhances-extinction-of-conditioned-fear-in-rats-and-modulates-arc-protein-camkii-and-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptors-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#8
Amanda C Alvarez-Dieppa, Kimberly Griffin, Sheridan Cavalier, Christa K McIntyre
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) enhances the consolidation of extinction of conditioned fear. High frequency stimulation of the infralimbic cortex (IL) produces long-term potentiation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in rats given VNS-paired extinction training, whereas the same stimulation produces long-term depression in sham-treated rats. The present study investigated the state of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in the BLA that could be responsible for this shift. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into 4 groups: auditory fear conditioning only (fear-conditioned); fear conditioning + 20 extinction trials (extended-extinction); fear conditioning + 4 extinction trials paired with sham stimulation (sham-extinction); fear conditioning + 4 extinction trials paired with VNS (VNS-extinction)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940080/sex-specific-recruitment-of-a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampal-thalamic-system-during-context-dependent-renewal-of-responding-to-food-cues-in-rats
#9
Lauren C Anderson, Gorica D Petrovich
Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not...
December 8, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938664/distinct-memory-engrams-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-of-rats-control-opposing-environmental-actions-on-a-learned-behavior
#10
Nobuyoshi Suto, Amanda Laque, Genna L De Ness, Grant E Wagner, Debbie Watry, Tony Kerr, Eisuke Koya, Mark R Mayford, Bruce T Hope, Friedbert Weiss
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of infralimbic cortex (IL) in the environmental control of appetitive behavior. Inhibition of IL, irrespective of its intrinsic neural activity, attenuates not only the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward availability to promote reward seeking, but also the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward omission to suppress this behavior. Here we report that such bidirectional behavioral modulation in rats is mediated by functionally distinct units of neurons (neural ensembles) that are concurrently localized within the same IL brain area but selectively reactive to different environmental cues...
December 10, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918280/lateral-not-medial-prefrontal-cortex-contributes-to-punishment-and-aversive-instrumental-learning
#11
Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Gavan P McNally
Aversive outcomes punish behaviors that cause their occurrence. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in punishment learning and behavior, although the exact roles for different PFC regions in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the role of the orbitofrontal (OFC), rostral agranular insular (RAIC), prelimbic (PL), and infralimbic (IL) cortex in instrumental aversive learning and decision-making. Rats that pressed two individually presented levers for pellet rewards rapidly suppressed responding to one lever if it also caused mild punishment (punished lever) but continued pressing the other lever that did not cause punishment (unpunished lever)...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918273/neural-circuits-via-which-single-prolonged-stress-exposure-leads-to-fear-extinction-retention-deficits
#12
Dayan Knox, Briana R Stanfield, Jennifer M Staib, Nina P David, Samantha M Keller, Thomas DePietro
Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been used to examine mechanisms via which stress exposure leads to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SPS induces fear extinction retention deficits, but neural circuits critical for mediating these deficits are unknown. To address this gap, we examined the effect of SPS on neural activity in brain regions critical for extinction retention (i.e., fear extinction circuit). These were the ventral hippocampus (vHipp), dorsal hippocampus (dHipp), basolateral amygdala (BLA), prelimbic cortex (PL), and infralimbic cortex (IL)...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876668/activation-of-the-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortices-during-the-expression-of-a-naturalistic-compulsive-like-behavior-in-the-rabbit
#13
Hugo Cano-Ramírez, Kurt L Hoffman
We propose that maternal nest building in the female laboratory rabbit is a useful model for compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This repetitive behavior comprises collecting straw, depositing it into the nest box, and then returning to collect more straw. We reasoned that if "straw carrying" behavior is homologous to compulsive behavior, then it should be associated with activation of prefrontal regions associated with OCD, namely, the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices (OFC and ACC, respectively)...
November 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870439/estradiol-shifts-interactions-between-the-infralimbic-cortex-and-central-amygdala-to-enhance-fear-extinction-memory-in-female-rats
#14
Lisa Y Maeng, Kara K Cover, Mohamad B Taha, Aaron J Landau, Mohammed R Milad, Kelimer Lebrón-Milad
There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862593/serotonergic-modulation-of-orbitofrontal-activity-and-its-relevance-for-decision-making-and-impulsivity
#15
Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Björn Enzi, Ann-Kristin Klimm, Elke Köhler, Patrik Roser, Christine Norra, Georg Juckel
BACKGROUND: The orbitofrontal cortex seems to play a crucial role in reward-guided learning and decision making, especially for impulsive choice procedures including delayed reward discounting. The central serotonergic system is closely involved in the regulation of impulsivity, but how the serotonergic firing rate and release, best investigated by the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), interact with orbitofrontal activity is still unknown. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (11 males, 9 females, 31...
November 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832448/developmental-exposure-to-cocaine-dynamically-dysregulates-cortical-arc-arg3-1-modulation-in-response-to-a-challenge
#16
Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Francesca Mottarlini, Giorgio Racagni, Fabio Fumagalli
During adolescence, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is still developing. We have previously shown that developmental cocaine exposure alters mPFC's ability to cope with challenging events. In this manuscript, we exposed rats developmentally treated with cocaine to a novelty task and analyzed the molecular changes of mPFC. Rats were exposed to cocaine from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed at PND 43, immediately after the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Cocaine-treated rats spent more time exploring the novel object than saline-treated counterparts, suggesting an increased response to novelty...
November 10, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824354/serotonergic-modulation-of-waiting-impulsivity-is-mediated-by-the-impulsivity-phenotype-in-humans
#17
S Neufang, A Akhrif, C G Herrmann, C Drepper, G A Homola, J Nowak, J Waider, A G Schmitt, K-P Lesch, M Romanos
In rodents, the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) has been established as a reliable measure of waiting impulsivity being defined as the ability to regulate a response in anticipation of reinforcement. Key brain structures are the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal regions (for example, pre- and infralimbic cortex), which are, together with other transmitters, modulated by serotonin. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined 103 healthy males while performing the 5-CSRTT measuring brain activation in humans by means of a paradigm that has been widely applied in rodents...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815415/reduction-of-cocaine-induced-locomotor-effects-by-enriched-environment-is-associated-with-cell-specific-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-fosb-in-striatal-and-cortical-subregions
#18
Audrey Lafragette, Michael T Bardo, Virginie Lardeux, Marcello Solinas, Nathalie Thiriet
BACKGROUND: Early exposure to enriched environments has been shown to decrease the locomotor effects induced by repeated injections of cocaine and modify basal and cocaine-induced total protein levels of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the whole striatum of mice. In this study, we aimed at characterizing whether the profile of ΔFosB accumulation induced by enriched environments and cocaine would be similar or different in terms of brain areas and cell type. METHODS: We used mice expressing the eGFP protein in D1 receptor positive (D1R(+)) neurons to determine whether Δ FosB induced by enriched environment or cocaine injections (5×15 mg/kg) would occur in selective subpopulations of neurons in several subregions of the striatum and prefrontal cortex...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813530/involvement-of-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-lateral-habenula-in-dopamine-attenuation-after-chronic-mild-stress
#19
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Anthony A Grace
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie, reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examined the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)-that is, rodent homolog of Brodmann area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb) in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810703/histone-deacetylase-and-acetyltransferase-inhibitors-modulate-behavioral-responses-to-social-stress
#20
Katharine E McCann, Anna M Rosenhauer, Genna M F Jones, Alisa Norvelle, Dennis C Choi, Kim L Huhman
Histone acetylation has emerged as a critical factor regulating learning and memory both during and after exposure to stressful stimuli. There are drugs that we now know affect histone acetylation that are already in use in clinical populations. The current study uses these drugs to examine the consequences of acutely increasing or decreasing histone acetylation during exposure to social stress. Using an acute model of social defeat in Syrian hamsters, we systemically and site-specifically administered drugs that alter histone acetylation and measured subsequent behavior and immediate-early gene activity...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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