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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876668/activation-of-the-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortices-during-the-expression-of-a-naturalistic-compulsive-like-behavior-in-the-rabbit
#1
Hugo Cano-Ramírez, Kurt L Hoffman
We propose that maternal nest building in the female laboratory rabbit is a useful model for compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This repetitive behavior comprises collecting straw, depositing it into the nest box, and then returning to collect more straw. We reasoned that if "straw carrying" behavior is homologous to compulsive behavior, then it should be associated with activation of prefrontal regions associated with OCD, namely, the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices (OFC and ACC, respectively)...
November 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870439/estradiol-shifts-interactions-between-the-infralimbic-cortex-and-central-amygdala-to-enhance-fear-extinction-memory-in-female-rats
#2
Lisa Y Maeng, Kara K Cover, Mohamad B Taha, Aaron J Landau, Mohammed R Milad, Kelimer Lebrón-Milad
There is growing evidence that estradiol (E2) enhances fear extinction memory consolidation. However, it is unclear how E2 influences the nodes of the fear extinction network to enhance extinction memory. This study begins to delineate the neural circuits underlying the influence of E2 on fear extinction acquisition and consolidation in female rats. After fear conditioning (day 1), naturally cycling female rats underwent extinction learning (day 2) in a low-E2 state, receiving a systemic administration of either E2 or vehicle prior to extinction training...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862593/serotonergic-modulation-of-orbitofrontal-activity-and-its-relevance-for-decision-making-and-impulsivity
#3
Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Björn Enzi, Ann-Kristin Klimm, Elke Köhler, Patrik Roser, Christine Norra, Georg Juckel
BACKGROUND: The orbitofrontal cortex seems to play a crucial role in reward-guided learning and decision making, especially for impulsive choice procedures including delayed reward discounting. The central serotonergic system is closely involved in the regulation of impulsivity, but how the serotonergic firing rate and release, best investigated by the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), interact with orbitofrontal activity is still unknown. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (11 males, 9 females, 31...
November 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832448/developmental-exposure-to-cocaine-dynamically-dysregulates-cortical-arc-arg3-1-modulation-in-response-to-a-challenge
#4
Lucia Caffino, Giuseppe Giannotti, Francesca Mottarlini, Giorgio Racagni, Fabio Fumagalli
During adolescence, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is still developing. We have previously shown that developmental cocaine exposure alters mPFC's ability to cope with challenging events. In this manuscript, we exposed rats developmentally treated with cocaine to a novelty task and analyzed the molecular changes of mPFC. Rats were exposed to cocaine from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed at PND 43, immediately after the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Cocaine-treated rats spent more time exploring the novel object than saline-treated counterparts, suggesting an increased response to novelty...
November 10, 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824354/serotonergic-modulation-of-waiting-impulsivity-is-mediated-by-the-impulsivity-phenotype-in-humans
#5
S Neufang, A Akhrif, C G Herrmann, C Drepper, G A Homola, J Nowak, J Waider, A G Schmitt, K-P Lesch, M Romanos
In rodents, the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) has been established as a reliable measure of waiting impulsivity being defined as the ability to regulate a response in anticipation of reinforcement. Key brain structures are the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal regions (for example, pre- and infralimbic cortex), which are, together with other transmitters, modulated by serotonin. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined 103 healthy males while performing the 5-CSRTT measuring brain activation in humans by means of a paradigm that has been widely applied in rodents...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815415/reduction-of-cocaine-induced-locomotor-effects-by-enriched-environment-is-associated-with-cell-specific-accumulation-of-%C3%AE-fosb-in-striatal-and-cortical-subregions
#6
Audrey Lafragette, Michael T Bardo, Virginie Lardeux, Marcello Solinas, Nathalie Thiriet
BACKGROUND: Early exposure to enriched environments (EE) has been shown to decrease the locomotor effects induced by repeated injections of cocaine and to modify basal and cocaine-induced total protein levels of the transcription factor delta-FosB (ΔFosB) in the whole striatum of mice. In this study, we aimed at characterizing whether the profile of ΔFosB accumulation induced by EE and cocaine would be similar or different in terms of brain areas and cell type. METHODS: We used mice expressing the eGFP protein in D1 receptor positive (D1R(+)) neurons to determine whether ΔFosB induced by EE or cocaine injections (5X15mg/kg) would occur in selective sub-populations of neurons in several sub-regions of the striatum and prefrontal cortex...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813530/involvement-of-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-but-not-lateral-habenula-in-dopamine-attenuation-after-chronic-mild-stress
#7
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Anthony A Grace
Emerging evidence supports a role for dopamine in major depressive disorder (MDD). We recently reported fewer spontaneously active ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons (ie reduced dopamine neuron population activity) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent model of MDD. In this study, we examine the role of two brain regions that have been implicated in MDD in humans, the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (ILPFC)-ie rodent homologue of Brodmann Area 25 (BA25), and the lateral habenula (LHb), in the CMS-induced attenuation of dopamine neuron activity...
November 4, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810703/histone-deacetylase-and-acetyltransferase-inhibitors-modulate-behavioral-responses-to-social-stress
#8
Katharine E McCann, Anna M Rosenhauer, Genna M F Jones, Alisa Norvelle, Dennis C Choi, Kim L Huhman
Histone acetylation has emerged as a critical factor regulating learning and memory both during and after exposure to stressful stimuli. There are drugs that we now know affect histone acetylation that are already in use in clinical populations. The current study uses these drugs to examine the consequences of acutely increasing or decreasing histone acetylation during exposure to social stress. Using an acute model of social defeat in Syrian hamsters, we systemically and site-specifically administered drugs that alter histone acetylation and measured subsequent behavior and immediate-early gene activity...
January 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797830/extinction-and-latent-inhibition-involve-a-similar-form-of-inhibitory-learning-that-is-stored-in-and-retrieved-from-the-infralimbic-cortex
#9
Nura W Lingawi, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
Extinction and latent inhibition each refer to a reduction in conditioned responding: the former occurs when pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) are followed by repeated presentations of the CS alone; the latter occurs when CS alone presentations precede its pairings with the US. The present experiments used fear conditioning to test the hypothesis that both phenomena involve a similar form of inhibitory learning that recruits common neuronal substrates. We found that the initial inhibitory memory established by extinction is reactivated in the infralimbic (IL) cortex during additional extinction...
October 20, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776157/fear-expression-suppresses-medial-prefrontal-cortical-firing-in-rats
#10
Thomas F Giustino, Paul J Fitzgerald, Stephen Maren
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765808/rapid-and-sustained-antidepressant-action-of-the-mglu2-3-receptor-antagonist-mgs0039-in-the-social-defeat-stress-model-comparison-with-ketamine
#11
Chao Dong, Ji-Chun Zhang, Wei Yao, Qian Ren, Min Ma, Chun Yang, Shigeyuki Chaki, Kenji Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Similar to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine, the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor antagonist, MGS0039, shows antidepressant effects. However, there are no reports comparing these 2 compounds in the social defeat stress model of depression. METHODS: We examined the effects of MGS0039 (1 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg) on depression-like behavior in susceptible mice after repeated social defeat stress. Protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, TrkB, phospho-TrkB, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (GluA1), postsynaptic density protein 95, and dendritic spine density in selected brain regions were measured...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720810/impaired-fear-extinction-retention-and-increased-anxiety-like-behaviours-induced-by-limited-daily-access-to-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-in-male-rats-implications-for-diet-induced-prefrontal-cortex-dysregulation
#12
Kathryn D Baker, Amy C Reichelt
Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711047/the-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonist-ro5256390-blocks-compulsive-binge-like-eating-in-rats
#13
Antonio Ferragud, Adam D Howell, Catherine F Moore, Tina L Ta, Marius C Hoener, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone
Compulsive, binge eating of highly palatable food constitutes a core feature of some forms of obesity and eating disorders, as well as of the recently proposed disorder of food addiction. Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a highly conserved G-protein-coupled receptor bound by endogenous trace amines. TAAR1 agonists have been shown to reduce multiple behavioral effects of drugs of abuse through their actions on the mesocorticolimbic system. In this study, we hypothesized that TAAR1 may have a role in compulsive, binge-like eating; we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of a TAAR1 agonist, RO5256390, in multiple excessive feeding-related behaviors induced by limiting access to a highly palatable diet in rats...
November 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702646/sensory-responses-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-anesthetized-rats-implications-for-sensory-processing
#14
Jesus Martin-Cortecero, Angel Nuñez
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC...
December 17, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687783/increased-gabab-receptor-signaling-in-a-rat-model-for-schizophrenia
#15
Martijn M Selten, Francisca Meyer, Wei Ba, Astrid Vallès, Dorien A Maas, Moritz Negwer, Vivian D Eijsink, Ruben W M van Vugt, Josephus A van Hulten, Nick H M van Bakel, Joey Roosen, Robert J van der Linden, Dirk Schubert, Michel M M Verheij, Nael Nadif Kasri, Gerard J M Martens
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that affects cognitive function and has been linked, both in patients and animal models, to dysfunction of the GABAergic system. However, the pathophysiological consequences of this dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we examined the GABAergic system in an animal model displaying schizophrenia-relevant features, the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rat and its phenotypic counterpart, the apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rat at postnatal day 20-22. We found changes in the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 specifically in the prelimbic- but not the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), indicative of reduced inhibitory function in this region in APO-SUS rats...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671324/subchronic-vortioxetine-treatment-but-not-escitalopram-enhances-pyramidal-neuron-activity-in-the-rat-prefrontal-cortex
#16
Maurizio S Riga, Vicent Teruel-Martí, Connie Sánchez, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Vortioxetine (VOR) is a multimodal antidepressant drug. VOR is a 5-HT3-R, 5-HT7-R and 5-HT1D-R antagonist, 5-HT1B-R partial agonist, 5-HT1A-R agonist, and serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitor. VOR shows pro-cognitive activity in animal models and beneficial effects on cognitive dysfunction in major depressive patients. Here we compared the effects of 14-day treatments with VOR and escitalopram (ESC, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) on neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Ten groups of rats (5 standard, 5 depleted of 5-HT with p-chlorophenylalanine -pCPA-, used as model of cognitive impairment) were fed with control food or with two doses of VOR-containing food...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628528/ethanol-increases-mechanical-pain-sensitivity-in-rats-via-activation-of-gabaa-receptors-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Kai-Wen Geng, Ting He, Rui-Rui Wang, Chun-Li Li, Wen-Jun Luo, Fang-Fang Wu, Yan Wang, Zhen Li, Yun-Fei Lu, Su-Min Guan, Jun Chen
Ethanol is widely known for its ability to cause dramatic changes in emotion, social cognition, and behavior following systemic administration in humans. Human neuroimaging studies suggest that alcohol dependence and chronic pain may share common mechanisms through amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions. However, whether acute administration of ethanol in the mPFC can modulate pain perception is unknown. Here we showed that bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the mPFC lowered the bilateral mechanical pain threshold for 48 h without influencing thermal pain sensitivity in adult rats...
October 2016: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624896/role-of-anterior-piriform-cortex-in-the-acquisition-of-conditioned-flavour-preference
#18
Cristina Mediavilla, Mar Martin-Signes, Severiano Risco
Flavour aversion learning (FAL) and conditioned flavour preference (CFP) facilitate animal survival and play a major role in food selection, but the neurobiological mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Neuroanatomical bases of CFP were examined by using Fos immunohistochemistry to record neuronal activity. Rats were trained over eight alternating one-bottle sessions to acquire a CFP induced by pairing a flavour with saccharin (grape was CS+ in Group 1; cherry in Group 2; in Group 3, grape/cherry in half of animals; Group 4, grape/cherry in water)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616342/altered-function-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-links-to-stress-induced-behavioral-inflexibility
#19
Chengji Piao, Xiaofei Deng, Xingyue Wang, Yiran Yuan, Zhengkui Liu, Jing Liang
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its output area, the nucleus accumbens (NAc), are implicated in mediating attentional set-shifting. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit difficulties in the disengagement of attention from traumatic cues, which is associated with impairments in set-shifting ability. However, unknown is whether alterations in corticostriatal function underlie deficits in this behavioral flexibility in individuals with PTSD. An animal model of single prolonged stress (SPS) has been partially validated as a model for PTSD, in which SPS rats recapitulate the pathophysiological abnormalities and behavioral characteristics of PTSD...
September 8, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616301/environmental-enrichment-may-protect-against-neural-and-behavioural-damage-caused-by-withdrawal-from-chronic-alcohol-intake
#20
Manoel Jorge Nobre
Exposure to stress and prolonged exposure to alcohol leads to neuronal damages in several brain regions, being the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) one of the most affected. These changes presumably reduce the ability of the organism to cope with these stimuli and may underlie a series of maladaptive behaviours among which include drug addiction and withdrawal. Drug-addicted individuals show a pattern of behavior similar to patients with lesions of the mPFC. This impairment in the decision-making could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the casual to compulsive drug use...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
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