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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120327/capillary-pericytes-mediate-coronary-no-reflow-after-myocardial-ischaemia
#1
Fergus M O'Farrell, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Matthew Hammond-Haley, Felipe Freitas, Wen Rui Wah, David Attwell
After cardiac ischaemia, a prolonged decrease of coronary microvascular perfusion often occurs even after flow is restored in an upstream artery. This 'no-reflow' phenomenon worsens patient prognosis. In the brain, after stroke, a similar post-ischaemic 'no-reflow' has been attributed to capillary constriction by contractile pericytes. We now show that occlusion of a rat coronary artery, followed by reperfusion, blocks 40% of cardiac capillaries and halves perfused blood volume within the affected region. Capillary blockages colocalised strongly with pericytes, where capillary diameter was reduced by 37%...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112241/periodontal-therapy-for-the-management-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-patients-with-chronic-periodontitis
#2
REVIEW
Chunjie Li, Zongkai Lv, Zongdao Shi, Ye Zhu, Yafei Wu, Longjiang Li, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor
BACKGROUND: There is an association between chronic periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is not known whether periodontal therapy could prevent or manage CVD in patients with chronic periodontitis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of periodontal therapy in preventing the occurrence of, and management or recurrence of, CVD in patients with chronic periodontitis. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 31 August 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 31 August 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 31 August 2017) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL EBSCO) (1937 to 31 August 2017) ...
November 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966144/effects-of-exercise-training-on-excitation-contraction-coupling-calcium-dynamics-and-protein-expression-in-the-heart-of-the-neotropical-fish-brycon-amazonicus
#3
Rafael Zanelli Rissoli, Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Ana Lúcia Kalinin
Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) is a great swimming performance teleost fish from the Amazon basin. However, the possible cardiac adaptations of this ability are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise (EX group - 60days under 0.4BL·s(-1)) on ventricular contractility by (i) in-vitro analysis of contractility comparing the relative roles of sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and (ii) molecular analysis of NCX, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2) and phospholamban (PLB) expression and quantification...
September 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870220/the-type-vi-adenylyl-cyclase-protects-cardiomyocytes-from-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stress-by-a-pka-stat3-dependent-pathway
#4
Yu-Shuo Wu, Chien-Chang Chen, Chen-Li Chien, Hsing-Lin Lai, Si-Tse Jiang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Lin-Ping Lai, Wei-Fan Hsiao, Wen-Pin Chen, Yijuang Chern
BACKGROUND: The type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC6) is a main contributor of cAMP production in the heart. The amino acid (aa) sequence of AC6 is highly homologous to that of another major cardiac adenylyl cyclase, AC5, except for its N-terminus (AC6-N, aa 1-86). Activation of AC6, rather than AC5, produces cardioprotective effects against heart failure, while the underlying mechanism remains to be unveiled. Using an AC6-null (AC6(-/-)) mouse and a knockin mouse with AC6-N deletion (AC6 (ΔN/ΔN)), we aimed to investigate the cardioprotective mechanism of AC6 in the heart...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832903/drug-eluting-stents-versus-bare-metal-stents-for-acute-coronary-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Naqash J Sethi, Sanam Safi, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.7 million people died from acute coronary syndrome worldwide in 2012. Acute coronary syndrome, also known as myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris, is caused by a sudden blockage of the blood supplied to the heart muscle. Percutaneous coronary intervention is often used for acute coronary syndrome, but previous systematic reviews on the effects of drug-eluting stents compared with bare-metal stents have shown conflicting results with regard to myocardial infarction; have not fully taken account of the risk of random and systematic errors; and have not included all relevant randomised clinical trials...
August 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757442/endothelin-receptor-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-coronary-arteries-after-experimentally-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat
#6
Sarah Brøgger Kristiansen, Kristian A Haanes, Majid Sheykhzade, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death. It is caused by a blockage of a coronary artery leading to reduced blood flow to the myocardium and hence ischemic damage. In addition, a second wave of damage after the flow has been restored, named reperfusion injury greatly exacerbate the damage. For the latter, no medical treatment exist. In this study the aim was to characterize Ca(2+) sensitivity in coronary arteries following experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719429/maternal-salvage-with-extracorporeal-life-support-lessons-learned-in-a-single-center
#7
Philippe Biderman, Uri Carmi, Eric Setton, Michael Fainblut, Oren Bachar, Sharon Einav
The American Heart Association scientific statement on cardiac arrest in pregnancy did not endorse extracorporeal life support for lack of cohort data. We studied all pregnancy and peripartum cases of extracorporeal life support in 1 medical center (n = 11), including collapse due to infection (n = 6, 55%), thromboembolism (n = 3, 27%), and cardiac disease (n = 2, 18%). Half of the cases (n = 5, 45%) involved extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most mothers survived (n = 7, 64% [95% confidence interval, 32%-88%])...
October 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678856/time-course-of-changes-in-oxidative-stress-and-stress-induced-proteins-in-cardiomyocytes-exposed-to-doxorubicin-and-prevention-by-vitamin-c
#8
Ana Ludke, Gauri Akolkar, Prathapan Ayyappan, Anita K Sharma, Pawan K Singal
We previously reported that Vitamin C (Vit C) protects against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and p53 activation and rescuing cell death in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. The pattern of activation and the role of oxidative stress as well as down-stream mechanisms for such protection remain elusive. Therefore the present study aims to analyze time-dependant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of stress induced signalling pathways in cardiomyocytes treated with Dox and Vit C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674724/infantile-scimitar-syndrome-with-unusual-associations
#9
Abullah Al-Shamrani, Reem S AlSadi, Motea E Elhoury, Adel S AlHarbi
Scimitar syndrome is a variant of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC), in which all or part of the right lung is drained by right pulmonary veins that anomalously connect to the inferior vena cava (IVC). The affected lung and its associated airways are often hypoplastic. In addition, aortopulmonary collateral vessels may be involved on the affected side, causing sequestration of that side; such involvement is commonly associated with cardiac defects. We report a case of infantile scimitar syndrome that involved a typical association with the right lung, but with extremely unusual associations with congenital hydrocephalus and heart blockage...
July 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596512/paricalcitol-as-an-antiproteinuric-agent-can-result-in-the-deterioration-of-renal-and-heart-function-in-a-patient-with-fabry-disease
#10
Tajda Keber, Martin Tretjak, Andreja Cokan Vujkovac, Marija Mravljak, Katja Ravber, Bojan Vujkovac
BACKGROUND Fabry disease is a rare and progressive X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism that is due to deficient or absent lysosomal a-galactosidase A activity. Among its other associated signs and symptoms, patients present with renal failure and proteinuria, which are markers of disease progression. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers can slow the progression of chronic renal failure and proteinuria. In fact, some studies have shown the beneficial effects of paricalcitol on proteinuria...
June 9, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587583/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibition
#11
Ofer Havakuk, Uri Elkayam
The novel combination sacubitril/valsartan represents a new therapeutic approach in the management of heart failure. With the simultaneous blockage of the enzyme neprilysin (by sacubitril) and angiotensin II receptors (by valsartan), this combination reduces the degradation of natriuretic peptides and other counterregulatory peptide systems while avoiding the deleterious effect of angiotensin II receptors activation and thereby encompasses a beneficial impact of 2 important neurohormonal pathways activated in heart failure...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558981/natural-lipids-based-nlc-containing-lidocaine-from-pre-formulation-to-in-vivo-studies
#12
Lígia N M Ribeiro, Márcia C Breitkreitz, Viviane A Guilherme, Gustavo H R da Silva, Verônica M Couto, Simone R Castro, Bárbara O de Paula, Daisy Machado, Eneida de Paula
In a nanotechnological approach we have investigated the use of natural lipids in the preparation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Three different NLC composed of copaiba oil and beeswax, sweet almond oil and shea butter, and sesame oil and cocoa butter as structural matrices were optimized using factorial analysis; Pluronic® 68 and lidocaine (LDC) were used as the colloidal stabilizer and model encapsulated drug, respectively. The optimal formulations were characterized by different techniques (IR-ATR, DSC, and TEM), and their safety and efficacy were also tested...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523343/hh-signaling-in-regeneration-of-the-ischemic-heart
#13
REVIEW
Marina Dunaeva, Johannes Waltenberger
Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by the occlusion of a coronary artery due to underlying atherosclerosis complicated by localized thrombosis. The blockage of blood flow leads to cardiomyocyte (CM) death in the infarcted area. Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes have little capacity to proliferate in response to injury; however, some pathways active during embryogenesis and silent during adult life are recruited in response to tissue injury. One such example is hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Hh is involved in the embryonic development of the heart and coronary vascular system...
May 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497823/natural-products-modulating-the-herg-channel-heartaches-and-hope
#14
REVIEW
Jadel M Kratz, Ulrike Grienke, Olaf Scheel, Stefan A Mann, Judith M Rollinger
Covering: 1996-December 2016The human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene (hERG) channel is a voltage-gated potassium channel playing an essential role in the normal electrical activity in the heart. It is involved in the repolarization and termination of action potentials in excitable cardiac cells. Mutations in the hERG gene and hERG channel blockage by small molecules are associated with increased risk of fatal arrhythmias. Several drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to hERG channel-related cardiotoxicity...
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423119/importance-of-serca2a-on-early-isolated-diastolic-dysfunction-induced-by-supravalvular-aortic-stenosis-in-rats
#15
C F S M P Silveira, D H S Campos, P P Freire, A F Deus, K Okoshi, C R Padovani, A C Cicogna
Cardiac remodeling is defined as changes in shape and function of the heart in response to aggression (pressure overload). The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase cardiac isoform 2a (SERCA2a) is a known factor that influences function. A wide spectrum of studies report a decrease in SERCA2a in heart failure, but none evaluate it's the role in early isolated diastolic dysfunction in supravalvular aortic stenosis (AoS). Our hypothesis was that SERCA2a participates in such dysfunction. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats (60-80 g) were divided into AoS and Sham groups, which were submitted to surgery with or without aorta clipping, respectively...
April 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419972/neprilysin-inhibitors-a-new-hope-to-halt-the-diabetic-cardiovascular-and-renal-complications
#16
REVIEW
Vajir Malek, Anil Bhanudas Gaikwad
Diabetes is an enormous and ever-growing calamity and a global public health threat of the 21st century. Besides insulin and oral hypoglycaemic drugs, blockage of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) denotes a key pharmacotherapy for the management of cardiovascular (CVD) and chronic kidney diseases (CKD), which are the leading causes of disability and death among diabetic patients. Neprilysin (NEP) inhibition, auxiliary to RAS blockage increases the bioavailability of natriuretic peptides and benefits the cardio-renal system...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373586/critical-role-of-adamts2-a-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-with-thrombospondin-motifs-2-in-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-pressure-overload
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Xiaodi Wang, Wen Chen, Jie Zhang, Aiman Khan, Liangpeng Li, Fuhua Huang, Zhibing Qiu, Liming Wang, Xin Chen
ADAMTS2 (A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase With Thrombospondin Motifs 2) is recognized as a metalloproteinase that promotes the cleavage of amino propeptides of types I, II, III, and V procollagens. However, the role of ADAMTS2 in the heart has not yet been defined. Herein, we observed the upregulated expression of ADAMTS2 in failing human hearts and hypertrophic murine hearts. Mice lacking ADAMTS2 display exacerbated cardiac hypertrophy on pressure overload-induced hypertrophic response, whereas mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ADAMTS2 display alleviation of this detrimental phenotype...
June 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287141/myricitrin-alleviates-oxidative-stress-induced-inflammation-and-apoptosis-and-protects-mice-against-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#18
Bin Zhang, Qiang Shen, Yaping Chen, Ruile Pan, Shihuan Kuang, Guiyan Liu, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) has been increasingly considered as a main cause of heart failure and death in diabetic patients. At present, no effective treatment exists to prevent its development. In the present study, we describe the potential protective effects and mechanisms of myricitrin (Myr) on the cardiac function of streptozotosin-induced diabetic mice and on advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced H9c2 cardiomyocytes. In vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with Myr significantly decreased AGEs-induced inflammatory cytokine expression, limited an increase in ROS levels, and reduced cell apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy in H9c2 cells...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269190/automated-in-vivo-delineation-of-lumen-wall-using-intravascular-ultrasound-imaging
#19
Debarghya China, Manas K Nag, K M Mandana, Anup K Sadhu, Pabitra Mitra, Chandan Chakraborty
This paper presents a novel methodology for automated detection and extraction of the lumen wall from Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) frames. IVUS is an in-vivo pull back imaging technique and provides a sequential frame of images for diagnosis of atherosclerotic heart disease. The detection and segmentation of lumen wall is necessary for predicting the arterial wall blockage. Lumen wall is recognized and segmented with the help of seed refinement and random walks algorithms, in tunica and lumen area. The proposed methodology was tested on 147 frames of 13 patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227420/automated-in-vivo-delineation-of-lumen-wall-using-intravascular-ultrasound-imaging
#20
Debarghya China, Manas K Nag, K M Mandana, Anup K Sadhu, Pabitra Mitra, Chandan Chakraborty, Debarghya China, Manas K Nag, K M Mandana, Anup K Sadhu, Pabitra Mitra, Chandan Chakraborty, Chandan Chakraborty, Manas K Nag, Debarghya China, Pabitra Mitra, Anup K Sadhu, K M Mandana
This paper presents a novel methodology for automated detection and extraction of the lumen wall from Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) frames. IVUS is an in-vivo pull back imaging technique and provides a sequential frame of images for diagnosis of atherosclerotic heart disease. The detection and segmentation of lumen wall is necessary for predicting the arterial wall blockage. Lumen wall is recognized and segmented with the help of seed refinement and random walks algorithms, in tunica and lumen area. The proposed methodology was tested on 147 frames of 13 patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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