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Heart blockage

Arnold Groehler, Stefan Kren, Qinglu Li, Maggie Robledo-Villafane, Joshua Schmidt, Mary Garry, Natalia Tretyakova
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening condition that can occur when blood flow to the heart is interrupted due to a blockage in one or more of the coronary vessels. Current treatments of MI rapidly restore blood flow to the affected myocardium using thrombolytic agents or angioplasty. Adverse effects including inflammation, tissue necrosis, and ventricular dysfunction are, however, not uncommon following reperfusion therapy. These conditions are thought to be caused by a sudden influx of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the affected myocardium...
March 11, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Peter H Khalil, Ghazal Kabbach, Debabrata Mukherjee, Sarmad Said
Heart Failure (HF) is one of the main health care burdens in the United States and in the world. Many drugs are approved and used in practice for management of this condition; including beta blockers, diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI's), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a drug with brand name Entresto (Sacubitril/Valsartan or LCZ696), an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor for the use in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) patients instead of ACEI's and ARBs...
March 13, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Yong Li, Qiu-Hua Yu, Ying Chu, Wei-Min Wu, Jian-Xiang Song, Xiao-Bo Zhu, Qiang Wang
Hypertension is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease that leads to cardiac remodeling. A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) is a scaffolding protein that has multiple functions in various biological events, including the regulation of vessel integrity and differentiation of neural barriers in blood. However, the role of AKAP12 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury remains unclear. In the present study, Ang II infusion reduced AKAP12 expressions in the hearts of wild-type (WT) mice, and AKAP12 knockout (KO) enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells...
February 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Francisco Sahli Costabal, Jiang Yao, Ellen Kuhl
A common but serious side effect of many drugs is torsades de pointes, a rhythm disorder that can have fatal consequences. Torsadogenic risk has traditionally been associated with blockage of a specific potassium channel and an increased recovery period in the electrocardiogram. However, the mechanisms that trigger torsades de pointes remain incompletely understood. Here we establish a computational model to explore how drug-induced effects propagate from the single channel, via the single cell, to the whole heart level...
March 1, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Lang Tian, Yeyi Yang, Chunyun Li, Jia Chen, Zhuoying Li, Xin Li, Shentang Li, Fang Wu, Zhangxue Hu, Zuocheng Yang
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important human pathogen linked to cardiac arrhythmias and acute heart failure. CVB3 infection has been reported to induce the formation of autophagosomes that support the viral replication in host cells. Interestingly, our study shows that the accumulation of autophagosomes during CVB3 infection is caused by a blockage of autophagosome-lysosome fusion rather than the induction of autophagosome biogenesis. Moreover, CVB3 decreases the transcription and translation of syntaxin 17 (STX17), a SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor) protein involved in autophagosome-lysosome fusion...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
F Sahli Costabal, J Yao, E Kuhl
Drugs often have undesired side effects. In the heart, they can induce lethal arrhythmias such as torsades de pointes. The risk evaluation of a new compound is costly and can take a long time, which often hinders the development of new drugs. Here we establish a high resolution, multiscale computational model to quickly assess the cardiac toxicity of new and existing drugs. The input of the model is the drug-specific current block from single cell electrophysiology; the output is the spatio-temporal activation profile and the associated electrocardiogram...
February 9, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
Alfonso Saera-Vila, Ke'ale W Louie, Cuilee Sha, Ryan M Kelly, Phillip E Kish, Alon Kahana
Insulin-like growth factors (Igfs) are key regulators of key biological processes such as embryonic development, growth, and tissue repair and regeneration. The role of Igf in myogenesis is well documented and, in zebrafish, promotes fin and heart regeneration. However, the mechanism of action of Igf in muscle repair and regeneration is not well understood. Using adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration as an experimental model, we show that Igf1 receptor blockage using either chemical inhibitors (BMS754807 and NVP-AEW541) or translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) reduced EOM regeneration...
2018: PloS One
Shengkai Zuo, Deping Kong, Chenyao Wang, Jiao Liu, Yuanyang Wang, Qiangyou Wan, Shuai Yan, Jian Zhang, Juan Tang, Qianqian Zhang, Luheng Lyu, Xin Li, Zhixin Shan, Li Qian, Yujun Shen, Ying Yu
Apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes is associated with ischemic heart disease and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2) is highly expressed in the heart. However, its specific role in ischemic cardiomyopathy is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that CRTH2 disruption markedly improved cardiac recovery in mice postmyocardial infarction and doxorubicin challenge by suppressing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CRTH2 activation specifically facilitated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis via caspase-12-dependent pathway...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Jia Wei, Shiyou Chen, Song Xue, Qiangru Zhu, Sha Liu, Li Cui, Xiuguo Hua, Yongyi Wang
In donor hearts from mini pigs, overtime cold preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury cause poor graft quality and impaired heart function. Blockage of complement, apoptosis, and inflammation is considered a strategy for attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury and protecting cardiac function. Minipig donor hearts were perfused and preserved in Celsior solution or transfection reagent containing Celsior solution with scramble siRNA or siRNAs targeting complement 3, caspase-8, caspase-3, and nuclear factor κB-p65 genes at 4°C and subsequently hemo-reperfused ex vivo (38°C) or transplanted into recipients...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Chong Chen, Wenxia Xie, Zedong Wang, Linchai Zeng, Pei Liu, Chunli Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects on analgesia, tranquilization and prevention of abortion syndrome of artificial abortion operation treated with transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) with different acupoint combination and explore the optimal acupoint combination of TEAS in artificial abortion operation. METHODS: Two hundred patients intended to artificial operation were randomized into No.1 group[Sanyinjiao (SP 6) + Zusanli (ST 36)], No...
February 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Xiaozhe Li, Sujuan Zhang
In the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF), professor LAI Xinsheng focuses on the determination of syndrome to seek for etiology, associating with the differentiation of meridian and collateral and that of zangfu organs. Professor LAI believes that POF is mainly manifested as amenorrhea and infertility, localized in the kidney, with the dysfunction of liver, spleen and heart. It is impacted by many pathological factors, such as cold blockage, qi stagnation, blood stagnation, blood deficiency, yin deficiency, etc...
March 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Ana Paula Cremasco Takano, Nathalia Senger, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz, Maria Luiza Morais Barreto-Chaves
We have previously demonstrated that calcium-binding protein S100A8 and myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88) are important mediators of nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation in cardiomyocytes and that signalling molecules are involved in the hypertrophic response that is stimulated by thyroid hormones (TH). Angiotensin II (Ang II), the main active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), binds to type 1 Ang II receptor (AT1R) and subsequently promotes cardiac hypertrophy and the inflammatory response with NF-κB activation underlying the cardiovascular effects...
March 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Fergus M O'Farrell, Svetlana Mastitskaya, Matthew Hammond-Haley, Felipe Freitas, Wen Rui Wah, David Attwell
After cardiac ischaemia, a prolonged decrease of coronary microvascular perfusion often occurs even after flow is restored in an upstream artery. This 'no-reflow' phenomenon worsens patient prognosis. In the brain, after stroke, a similar post-ischaemic 'no-reflow' has been attributed to capillary constriction by contractile pericytes. We now show that occlusion of a rat coronary artery, followed by reperfusion, blocks 40% of cardiac capillaries and halves perfused blood volume within the affected region. Capillary blockages colocalised strongly with pericytes, where capillary diameter was reduced by 37%...
November 9, 2017: ELife
Chunjie Li, Zongkai Lv, Zongdao Shi, Ye Zhu, Yafei Wu, Longjiang Li, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor
BACKGROUND: There is an association between chronic periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is not known whether periodontal therapy could prevent or manage CVD in patients with chronic periodontitis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of periodontal therapy in preventing the occurrence of, and management or recurrence of, CVD in patients with chronic periodontitis. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 31 August 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 31 August 2017), Embase Ovid (1980 to 31 August 2017) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL EBSCO) (1937 to 31 August 2017) ...
November 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rafael Zanelli Rissoli, Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Ana Lúcia Kalinin
Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) is a great swimming performance teleost fish from the Amazon basin. However, the possible cardiac adaptations of this ability are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise (EX group - 60days under 0.4BL·s(-1)) on ventricular contractility by (i) in-vitro analysis of contractility comparing the relative roles of sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and (ii) molecular analysis of NCX, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2) and phospholamban (PLB) expression and quantification...
September 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Yu-Shuo Wu, Chien-Chang Chen, Chen-Li Chien, Hsing-Lin Lai, Si-Tse Jiang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Lin-Ping Lai, Wei-Fan Hsiao, Wen-Pin Chen, Yijuang Chern
BACKGROUND: The type VI adenylyl cyclase (AC6) is a main contributor of cAMP production in the heart. The amino acid (aa) sequence of AC6 is highly homologous to that of another major cardiac adenylyl cyclase, AC5, except for its N-terminus (AC6-N, aa 1-86). Activation of AC6, rather than AC5, produces cardioprotective effects against heart failure, while the underlying mechanism remains to be unveiled. Using an AC6-null (AC6(-/-)) mouse and a knockin mouse with AC6-N deletion (AC6 (ΔN/ΔN)), we aimed to investigate the cardioprotective mechanism of AC6 in the heart...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Naqash J Sethi, Sanam Safi, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: Approximately 3.7 million people died from acute coronary syndrome worldwide in 2012. Acute coronary syndrome, also known as myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris, is caused by a sudden blockage of the blood supplied to the heart muscle. Percutaneous coronary intervention is often used for acute coronary syndrome, but previous systematic reviews on the effects of drug-eluting stents compared with bare-metal stents have shown conflicting results with regard to myocardial infarction; have not fully taken account of the risk of random and systematic errors; and have not included all relevant randomised clinical trials...
August 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sarah Brøgger Kristiansen, Kristian A Haanes, Majid Sheykhzade, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death. It is caused by a blockage of a coronary artery leading to reduced blood flow to the myocardium and hence ischemic damage. In addition, a second wave of damage after the flow has been restored, named reperfusion injury greatly exacerbate the damage. For the latter, no medical treatment exist. In this study the aim was to characterize Ca2+ sensitivity in coronary arteries following experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury...
October 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Philippe Biderman, Uri Carmi, Eric Setton, Michael Fainblut, Oren Bachar, Sharon Einav
The American Heart Association scientific statement on cardiac arrest in pregnancy did not endorse extracorporeal life support for lack of cohort data. We studied all pregnancy and peripartum cases of extracorporeal life support in 1 medical center (n = 11), including collapse due to infection (n = 6, 55%), thromboembolism (n = 3, 27%), and cardiac disease (n = 2, 18%). Half of the cases (n = 5, 45%) involved extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most mothers survived (n = 7, 64% [95% confidence interval, 32%-88%])...
October 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ana Ludke, Gauri Akolkar, Prathapan Ayyappan, Anita K Sharma, Pawan K Singal
We previously reported that Vitamin C (Vit C) protects against doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and p53 activation and rescuing cell death in isolated adult cardiomyocytes. The pattern of activation and the role of oxidative stress as well as down-stream mechanisms for such protection remain elusive. Therefore the present study aims to analyze time-dependant generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of stress induced signalling pathways in cardiomyocytes treated with Dox and Vit C...
2017: PloS One
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