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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332073/functional-anatomy-of-basal-ganglia-circuits-with-the-cerebral-cortex-and-the-cerebellum
#1
Andreea C Bostan, Richard P Dum, Peter L Strick
The neural connections of the basal ganglia provide important insights into their function. Here, we discuss the current perspective on basal ganglia connections with the cerebral cortex and with the cerebellum. We review the evidence that the basal ganglia participate in functionally segregated circuits with motor and non-motor areas of the cerebral cortex. We then discuss the data that the basal ganglia are interconnected with the cerebellum. These results provide the anatomical substrate for basal ganglia contributions not only to the control of movement, but also to a variety of cognitive and affective functions...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332054/dementia-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-dangerous-combination-for-ischemic-stroke-and-mortality
#2
Daniele Pastori, Kazuo Miyazawa, Gregory Y H Lip
The risk of developing dementia is increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), with the incidence of both conditions increasing with aging. Patients with dementia frequently do not receiving adequate thrombo-prophylaxis, because of the inability to monitor INR and/or to achieve and maintain good compliance with anticoagulant treatment. Under-treatment is therefore an important contributor to the increased risk of ischemic stroke and mortality in this subgroup of AF patients. In newly-diagnosed patients with AF starting oral anticoagulation, the presence of cognitive impairment should be considered in addition to the calculation of the SAMe-TT2R2 score, as part of an integrated decision management pathway to choose the most appropriate oral anticoagulant [i...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332053/apparent-cognitive-decline-as-revealed-by-an-executive-function-test-within-a-cohort-of-elderly-individuals-self-reporting-normal-cognitive-performance
#3
Thomas B Shea, Ruth Remington
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be preceded by subtle memory decline that can last a decade or more before progressing to what would be diagnosed as the mild cognitive impairment stage. During this early stage of decline, individuals and even their caregivers can fail to perceive any serious difficulty or need to consult a physician. Herein, we present evidence in support of these concerns, and demonstrate how this can interfere not only with clinical trials of AD but also those involving cognitive performance of elderly individuals without intentional reference to AD...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332042/protective-effects-of-indian-spice-curcumin-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Mary Catherine Grady, Andrew Mitchell, Sahil Tonk, Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murali Vijayan, Subodh Kumar, Rui Wang, Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran, Gilbert Ogunmokun, Kavya Thamarai, Kandi Quesada, Annette Boles, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our article is to assess the current understanding of Indian spice, curcumin, against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Natural products, such as ginger, curcumin, and gingko biloba have been used as diets and dietary supplements to treat human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndromes, and neurological disorders. Products derived from plants are known to have protective effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-arthritis, pro-healing, and boosting memory cognitive functions...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332036/relationships-between-lower-olfaction-and-brain-white-matter-lesions-in-elderly-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#7
Juliette Heinrich, Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Axelle Simon, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Olivier Hanon, Jacques Epelbaum, Cecile Viollet, Emmanuelle Duron
BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairment is reported in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is associated with hippocampal atrophy. In elderly people, dementia with AD neuropathology and white matter lesions (WML) is common. In this context, olfactory impairment could also depend on the presence of WML. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cross-sectional relationship between olfaction and WML in elderly subjects with MCI. METHODS: Consecutive subjects, >65 years old, diagnosed as MCI after a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in an expert memory center, with a brain MRI performed within a year and without major depressive state, were included...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#8
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331916/aerobic-exercise-is-more-effective-than-goal-based-exercise-for-the-treatment-of-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Carolina R A Silveira, Eric A Roy, Brittany N Intzandt, Quincy J Almeida
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how different exercise modalities influence cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, the focus of previous investigations on examining the effects of exercise mainly on executive functions and the exclusion of individuals with cognitive impairment may limit the potential to define exercise as a treatment for cognitive decline in PD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic and goal-based exercise on five cognitive domains in cognitively normal and impaired individuals with PD...
January 10, 2018: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331848/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-apathy-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-double-blind-randomized-sham-controlled-cross-over-pilot-study
#10
Prasad R Padala, Kalpana P Padala, Shelly Y Lensing, Andrea N Jackson, Cassandra R Hunter, Christopher M Parkes, Richard A Dennis, Melinda M Bopp, Ricardo Caceda, Mark S Mennemeier, Paula K Roberson, Dennis H Sullivan
Apathy is a common and disabling behavioral concomitant of many neurodegenerative conditions. The presence of apathy with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is linked with heightened rates of conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Improving apathy may slow the neurodegenerative process. The objective was to establish the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving apathy in older adults with MCI. An 8-week, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over study was conducted in nine subjects (66 ± 9 years) with apathy and MCI...
January 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331842/predicting-1-year-disability-and-mortality-of-injured-older-adults
#11
Alvin D Jeffery, Mary S Dietrich, Cathy A Maxwell
PURPOSE: The growing incidence of elderly patients injured from falls, combined with a growing understanding of the contribution of cognition and frailty to mortality, prompted this work. Our objective was to develop a clinical risk prediction model for prognosticating disability and mortality among injured older adults 1 year after hospitalization. METHODS: Secondary analysis of prospective longitudinal data from an urban Level 1 trauma center. A proportional odds regression model was used to model mortality and functional status as ordinal outcomes...
January 6, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331792/candesartan-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-blocker-is-able-to-relieve-age-related-cognitive-impairment
#12
Emil Trofimiuk, Przemysław Wielgat, Jan J Braszko
BACKGROUND: Candesartan is one of the standard antihypertensive drug belonging to AT1R angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) group. Beneficial effects of this drug in the treatment of hypertension are well recognized. In this study we tested a hypothesis that candesartan could alleviate age-related memory decline. METHODS: Aged and young rats have been treated with candesartan (0.1 mg kg-1) for 21 days and then underwent a battery of behavioral tests: for assessment of long-term memory (Passive avoidance test - PA), recognition memory (Object recognition test - OR), locomotor functions (Open field - OF) and anxiety behavior (Elevated plus maze - EPM)...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331703/the-effects-of-vortioxetine-on-cognitive-performance-in-working-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-short-term-randomized-double-blind-exploratory-study
#13
Bernhard T Baune, Lasse B Sluth, Christina K Olsen
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a complex disease characterized by emotional, physical and cognitive symptoms. We explored the efficacy of vortioxetine versus placebo on outcomes of cognition, functioning and mood symptoms in working patients with depression, using paroxetine as an active reference. METHODS: Gainfully employed patients (18-65 years, N = 152) with MDD were randomized 1:1:1 to 8 weeks' double-blind, parallel treatment either with vortioxetine (10mg/day) or paroxetine (20mg/day), or with placebo...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#14
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331637/development-of-a-multi-dimensional-scale-to-measure-trauma-associated-with-child-sexual-abuse-mscsa-and-its-ramifying-impacts-on-children-a-pilot-study
#15
Vandana Choudhary, Sujata Satapathy, Rajesh Sagar
BACKGROUND: With the rising incidence of CSA in India and absence of culturally competent tool to assess the impact of trauma, there is a dire need for development of a comprehensive scale to assess the impact of trauma on children. Thus, the present study aims to develop a multi-dimensional CSA tool for children aged between 7 and 13 years. METHOD: Qualitative research method of FGD/Key Interviews with 4 group participants (Parents, counsellors, mental health and medical professionals) and in-depth interview with children having history of CSA was conducted along with item pooling from existing scales...
January 4, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331595/the-interaction-between-neurocognitive-functioning-subthreshold-psychotic-symptoms-and-pharmacotherapy-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-longitudinal-comparative-study
#16
R Weinberger, O Weisman, Y Guri, T Harel, A Weizman, D Gothelf
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common genetic syndrome associated with schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the interaction between neurocognitive functioning, the presence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms (SPS) and conversion to psychosis in individuals with 22q11DS. In addition, we attempted to identify the specific neurocognitive domains that predict the longitudinal evolution of positive and negative SPS, as well as the effect of psychiatric medications on 22q11DS psychiatric and cognitive developmental trajectories...
December 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331287/characterizing-the-effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-with-magnetoencephalography-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Irene E Harmsen, Nathan C Rowland, Richard A Wennberg, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the literature related to the use of MEG to characterize the effects of DBS...
January 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331264/altered-levels-of-the-splicing-factor-muscleblind-modifies-cerebral-cortical-function-in-mouse-models-of-myotonic-dystrophy
#18
Gang Chen, Russell E Carter, John D Cleary, Tammy S Reid, Laura P Ranum, Maurice S Swanson, Timothy J Ebner
Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a progressive, multisystem disorder affecting skeletal muscle, heart, and central nervous system. In both DM1 and DM2, microsatellite expansions of CUG and CCUG RNA repeats, respectively, accumulate and disrupt functions of alternative splicing factors, including muscleblind (MBNL) proteins. Grey matter loss and white matter changes, including the corpus callosum, likely underlie cognitive and executive function deficits in DM patients. However, little is known how cerebral cortical circuitry changes in DM...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331095/household-food-insecurity-and-its-association-with-morbidity-report-among-school-adolescent-in-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#19
Dessalegn Tamiru, Tefera Belachew
Background Household food insecurity has a substantial contribution to poor health outcomes among young children and adolescents. Food insecurity also affects optimal cognitive development and physiological function of these vulnerable groups. There is a gap of documented data regarding the association of food insecurity and morbidity among school adolescents in Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the interrelationship of household food insecurity and morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330827/profiling-online-poker-players-are-executive-functions-correlated-with-poker-ability-and-problem-gambling
#20
Mauro Schiavella, Matteo Pelagatti, Jerker Westin, Gabriele Lepore, Paolo Cherubini
Poker playing and responsible gambling both entail the use of the executive functions (EF), which are higher-level cognitive abilities. This study investigated if online poker players of different ability showed different performances in their EF and if so, which functions were the most discriminating for their playing ability. Furthermore, it assessed if the EF performance was correlated to the quality of gambling, according to self-reported questionnaires (PGSI, SOGS, GRCS). Three poker experts evaluated anonymized poker hand history files and, then, a trained professional administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
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