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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108946/in-vivo-neuroimaging-and-behavioral-correlates-in-a-rat-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#1
Robert L Barry, Nellie E Byun, M Noor Tantawy, Chase A Mackey, George H Wilson, Adam J Stark, Michael P Flom, Laura C Gee, C Chad Quarles
Adjuvant chemotherapy has been used for decades to treat cancer, and it is well known that disruptions in cognitive function and memory are common chemotherapeutic adverse effects. However, studies using neuropsychological metrics have also reported group differences in cognitive function and memory before or without chemotherapy, suggesting that complex factors obscure the true etiology of chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction (CICD) in humans. Therefore, to better understand possible mechanisms of CICD, we explored the effects of CICD in rats through cognition testing using novel object recognition (NOR) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC), and through metabolic neuroimaging via [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108936/a-group-mediated-physical-activity-intervention-in-older-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-effects-on-social-cognitive-outcomes
#2
Brian C Focht, Matthew J Garver, Alexander R Lucas, Steven T Devor, Charles F Emery, Kevin V Hackshaw, Ciaran M Fairman, Jessica Bowman, W Jack Rejeski
The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108876/concordance-between-self-report-and-performance-based-measures-of-everyday-functioning-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#3
Talia N Shirazi, Angela C Summers, Bryan R Smith, Sally R Steinbach, Suad Kapetanovic, Avindra Nath, Joseph Snow
Self-report is typically used to differentiate between asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in the assessment of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Yet, it is unclear whether the lack of self-reported functional impairments in individuals with ANI is indicative of a genuine absence of functional impairment, or of inaccurate self-reports. In the present study, we examined the relationship between previously validated self-report (patient's assessment of own functioning inventory; instrumental activities of daily living inventory) and performance-based (the Texas Functional Living Scale) measures of functional abilities in 112 virologically-controlled HIV-infected, and 40 well-matched, HIV-uninfected participants...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108639/prevalence-of-epilepsy-seizures-as-a-comorbidity-of-neurologic-disorders-in-nursing-homes
#4
Angela K Birnbaum, Ilo E Leppik, Kenneth Svensden, Lynn E Eberly
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of epilepsy/seizure (epi/sz) comorbid with other neurologic disorders in elderly nursing home residents and to examine demographic and regional variability and associations with clinical characteristics. METHODS: We studied 5 cross-sectional cohorts of all residents in any Medicare/Medicaid-certified nursing home in the United States on July 15 of each year from 2003 to 2007. Epi/sz was identified by ICD-9 codes (345.xx or 780...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108638/natural-course-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-disease-a-5-year-population-based-study
#5
Kenn Freddy Pedersen, Jan Petter Larsen, Ole-Bjørn Tysnes, Guido Alves
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, progression, and reversion of mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson disease (PD-MCI) over 5 years. METHODS: A population-based cohort of patients with incident PD underwent repeated neuropsychological testing of attention, executive function, memory, and visuospatial abilities at baseline (n = 178), 1 year (n = 175), 3 years (n = 163), and 5 years (n = 150). Patients were classified as PD-MCI and diagnosed with dementia according to published criteria...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108498/mglur2-versus-mglur3-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-primate-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-postsynaptic-mglur3-strengthen-working-memory-networks
#6
Lu E Jin, Min Wang, Veronica C Galvin, Taber C Lightbourne, Peter Jeffrey Conn, Amy F T Arnsten, Constantinos D Paspalas
The newly evolved circuits in layer III of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) generate the neural representations that subserve working memory. These circuits are weakened by increased cAMP-K(+) channel signaling, and are a focus of pathology in schizophrenia, aging, and Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive deficits in these disorders are increasingly associated with insults to mGluR3 metabotropic glutamate receptors, while reductions in mGluR2 appear protective. This has been perplexing, as mGluR3 has been considered glial receptors, and mGluR2 and mGluR3 have been thought to have similar functions, reducing glutamate transmission...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108414/the-macaque-lateral-grasping-network-a-neural-substrate-for-generating-purposeful-hand-actions
#7
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Marzio Gerbella, Stefano Rozzi, Giuseppe Luppino
In primates, neural mechanisms for controlling skilled hand actions primarily rely on sensorimotor transformations. These transformations are mediated by circuits linking specific inferior parietal with ventral premotor areas in which sensory coding of objects' features automatically trigger appropriate hand motor programs. Recently, connectional studies in macaques showed that these parietal and premotor areas are nodes of a large-scale cortical network, designated as "lateral grasping network," including specific temporal and prefrontal sectors involved in object recognition and executive functions, respectively...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108394/unsmoothed-functional-mri-of-the-human-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-during-processing-of-emotional-faces
#8
Ronald Sladky, Nicole Geissberger, Daniela M Pfabigan, Christoph Kraus, Martin Tik, Michael Woletz, Katharina Paul, Thomas Vanicek, Bastian Auer, Georg S Kranz, Claus Lamm, Rupert Lanzenberger, Christian Windischberger
Functional neuroimaging of the human amygdala has been of great interest to uncover the neural underpinnings of emotions, mood, motivation, social cognition, and decision making, as well as their dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Yet, several factors limit in vivo imaging of amygdalar function, most importantly its location deep within the temporal lobe adjacent to air-filled cavities that cause magnetic field inhomogeneities entailing signal dropouts. Additionally, the amygdala and the extended amygdalar region consist of several substructures, which have been assigned different functions and have important implications for functional and effective connectivity studies...
January 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108320/modulation-on-brain-gray-matter-activity-and-white-matter-integrity-by-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-risk-gene-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#9
Suping Cai, Yuanyuan Jiang, Yubo Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Junchan Ren, Min Seob Lee, Sunghoon Lee, Liyu Huang
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the genetic risk factor with the most established evidence for sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated insufficiently consistent functional and structural changes among healthy APOE ε4 carriers when compared to non-carriers. Here, in a cognitively intact elderly group (a total of 110: 45 APOE ε4 carriers, 65 non-carriers), we aimed to investigate the potential role of APOE ε4 in the modulation of grey matter activity, white matter integrity, and brain morphology before the development of clinically significant symptoms and signs, by methods of: amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity analysis based on resting state fMRI, and fiber tractography approach based on diffusion tensor imaging...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108257/working-memory-load-dependent-spatio-temporal-activity-of-single-trial-p3-response-detected-with-an-adaptive-wavelet-denoiser
#10
Qiushi Zhang, Xueqian Yang, Li Yao, Xiaojie Zhao
Working memory (WM) refers to the holding and manipulation of information during cognitive tasks. Its underlying neural mechanisms have been explored through both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Trial-by-trial coupling of simultaneously collected EEG and fMRI signals has become an important and promising approach to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of such cognitive processes. Previous studies have demonstrated a modulation effect of the WM load on both the BOLD response in certain brain areas and the amplitude of P3...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108255/regular-exercise-promotes-memory-function-and-enhances-hippocampal-neuroplasticity-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#11
Tae-Woon Kim, Yun-Hee Sung
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS), and is characterized by the development of demyelinated lesions and plaques in the brain and spinal cord. Exercise is beneficial against dementia in elderly patients, so we investigated the effects of exercise on memory in relation to hippocampal demyelination and neuroplasticity in a mouse model of MS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]). Mice were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, EAE, and EAE and exercise (EAE+EX)...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108253/dcc-haploinsufficiency-regulates-dopamine-receptor-expression-across-postnatal-lifespan
#12
Matthew Pokinko, Alanna Grant, Florence Shahabi, Yvan Dumont, Colleen Manitt, Cecilia Flores
Adolescence is a period during which the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) undergoes significant remodeling. The netrin-1 receptor, DCC, controls the extent and organization of mPFC dopamine connectivity during adolescence and in turn directs mPFC functional and structural maturation. Dcc haploinsufficiency leads to increased mPFC dopamine input, which causes improved cognitive processing and resilience to behavioral effects of stimulant drugs of abuse. Here we examine the effects of Dcc haploinsufficiency on the dynamic expression of dopamine receptors in forebrain targets of C57BL6 mice...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108209/the-impact-of-cognitive-impairment-on-efficacy-of-pulmonary-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-copd
#13
Fiona A H M Cleutjens, Martijn A Spruit, Rudolf W H M Ponds, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Frits M E Franssen, Jeanette B Dijkstra, Candy Gijsen, Emiel F M Wouters, Daisy J A Janssen
OBJECTIVES: To compare changes in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) dropout and outcomes between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with and without cognitive impairment. DESIGN: A cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Patients with COPD were recruited from a PR centre in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 157 patients with clinically stable COPD who were referred for and completed PR...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108207/cognitive-impairment-is-very-common-in-elderly-patients-with-syncope-and-unexplained-falls
#14
Susanne C de Ruiter, Jos F M de Jonghe, Tjeerd Germans, Jaap H Ruiter, René W M M Jansen
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI), including mild CI and dementia, in elderly patients with syncope and unexplained falls. In this population, we compared the use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with a cognitive screening test that assesses executive dysfunction typical of subcortical (vascular) CI, that is, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient fall and syncope clinic...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108204/the-dietary-approaches-to-stop-hypertension-diet-cognitive-function-and-cognitive-decline-in-american-older-women
#15
Agnes A M Berendsen, Jae H Kang, Ondine van de Rest, Edith J M Feskens, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Francine Grodstein
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US states. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 16,144 women from the Nurses' Health Study, aged ≥70 years, who underwent cognitive testing a total of 4 times by telephone from 1995 to 2001 (baseline), with multiple dietary assessments between 1984 and the first cognitive examination...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108097/factors-predicting-recovery-of-oral-intake-in-stroke-survivors-with-dysphagia-in-a-convalescent-rehabilitation-ward
#16
Yasunori Ikenaga, Sayaka Nakayama, Hiroki Taniguchi, Isao Ohori, Nahoko Komatsu, Hitoshi Nishimura, Yasuo Katsuki
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy may be performed in dysphagic stroke patients. However, some patients regain complete oral intake without gastrostomy. This study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of intake, thereby determining gastrostomy indications. METHOD: Stroke survivors admitted to our convalescent rehabilitation ward who underwent gastrostomy or nasogastric tube placement from 2009 to 2015 were divided into 2 groups based on intake status at discharge...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107809/plasma-protein-profiling-for-potential-biomarkers-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Yuki Kitamura, Ryoko Usami, Sahoko Ichihara, Hirotaka Kida, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Mariko Murata, Shinji Oikawa
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in elderly persons. Since the pathology of AD develops slowly from a preclinical or early phase into a fully expressed clinical syndrome, at the time of diagnosis the disease has been progressing for many years. To facilitate the early diagnosis of AD, we performed protein profiling of blood in patients with mild AD as defined by the Functional Assessment Staging (FAST) scale. METHODS: Plasma samples from mild AD patients and healthy controls were analyzed using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF/MS) followed by peptide mass fingerprinting...
January 20, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107806/cognitive-function-and-insulin-resistance-in-elderly-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Lina Ma, Yun Li
PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and insulin resistance (IR) in elderly patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twelve elderly patients with type-2 diabetes were enrolled in this study and assigned into either the cognitive impairment group (n = 100) or the normal cognitive group (n = 112). Gender, age, education, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatinine (Cr), fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin (FINS) and homeostasis model of assessment for IR index (HOMA-IR) were compared between the two groups...
January 20, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107672/a-computational-model-of-conditioning-inspired-by-drosophila-olfactory-system
#19
Faramarz Faghihi, Ahmed A Moustafa, Ralf Heinrich, Florentin Wörgötter
Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning...
November 23, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107668/neurotrophins-role-in-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-function-performance-association-analysis-of-nrn1-gene-and-its-interaction-with-bdnf-gene-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#20
C Prats, B Arias, G Ortet, M I Ibáñez, J Moya, E Pomarol-Clotet, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
BACKGROUND: Neuritin-1 is a neurotrophic factor involved in synaptic plasticity that has been associated with depressive disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive performance. The study of genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy individuals is a useful framework to investigate the etiology of brain dysfunctions. We therefore aimed to investigate in a non-clinical sample whether NRN1 gene contributes to the psychopathological profile, with a particular focus on the clinical dimensions previously related to the NRN1 gene (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
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