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behavioral interventions

Yi-Chen Lee, Shui-Chin Lu, Yu-Lin Hsieh
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) or those experiencing the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapeutic agents may develop sensation disorders due to degeneration and injury of small-diameter sensory neurons, referred to as small fiber neuropathy. Present animal models of small fiber neuropathy affect both large- and small-diameter sensory fibers and thus create a neuropathology too complex to properly assess the effects of injured small-diameter sensory fibers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an experimental model of pure small fiber neuropathy to adequately examine these issues...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Daniel J Paulus, Charles Jardin, Andres G Viana, Clayton Neighbors, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: Extant work has documented the relationship between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic alcohol-related behaviors. However, research on the underlying mechanisms may serve to better explain their association. METHOD: The present study tested the hypothesis that AS would exert an indirect effect on alcohol-related behaviors through negative urgency among a sample of 507 college students (74.4% female; mean age = 22.07 years; SD = 3.83; age range: 18-47 years) who reported at least one heavy episodic drinking (HED) event in the previous month and at least one lifetime sexual partner...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Jon M Houck, Jennifer K Manuel, Theresa B Moyers
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of a causal chain in motivational interviewing (MI) involving counselor MI-consistent skills, client change language, and outcomes. MI was a key component of the combined behavioral intervention in the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study. Participants in COMBINE were treatment-seeking and medication-seeking, and were required to maintain a period of abstinence before enrollment. Counselors were closely monitored and were temporarily removed from the study for remediation and supervision if their performance fell below threshold...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Erica M Eaton, Molly Magill, Christy Capone, Margaret A Cramer, Nadine R Mastroleo, Racheal Reavy, Brian Borsari
OBJECTIVE: Colleges continue to experience a high number of referred students because of campus alcohol violations. Subsequently, there has been a trend to use peer-implemented minimal interventions (PMIs), often using motivational interviewing (MI). However, little is known about how PMIs facilitate behavior change. This study aims to examine the mechanisms of behavior change within PMIs and their influence on alcohol reduction among mandated students. METHOD: Participants (N = 146; mean age = 18...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Katie Witkiewitz, Corey R Roos, Davood Tofighi, M Lee Van Horn
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have found support for coping as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) following coping skills training interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD). One potential reason for null findings is heterogeneity in the patterns of coping skills acquired during treatment. This study sought to identify latent classes of coping and to test the latent class variable as a mediator of the effect of a combined behavioral intervention for AUD. METHOD: Secondary analyses of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study (N = 1,124; mean age = 44...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
John W Finney
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, a shift has occurred from identifying variables that mediate the effects of psychosocial interventions for problematic alcohol use to trying to identify effective mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) that lead to better drinking-related and other outcomes. Although implementing interventions targeting specific MOBCs has considerable conceptual and intuitive appeal, it is important that strong empirical evidence be available that supports such implementation...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Colleen J Hernan, Tai A Collins, Julie Q Morrison, Stephen D Kroeger
As the capabilities of portable technology continue to advance and become more accessible, educators express concern about the impact of the inappropriate use of mobile devices on academic engagement and learning. An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effectiveness of an antecedent (Clear Box) intervention and an interdependent group contingency (Clear Box + Good Behavior Game [GBG]) intervention to typical classroom management techniques (Control) in increasing the academic engagement and decreasing mobile device use of high school students during instruction...
March 1, 2018: Behavior Modification
Emily A Kringle, Lauren Terhorst, Meryl A Butters, Elizabeth R Skidmore
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify clinical predictors that could distinguish clients' level of engagement in inpatient rehabilitation following stroke. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of pooled data from three randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of a behavioral intervention. The sample (n=208) consisted of clients with stroke who had cognitive deficits (Quick-EXIT≥3) and were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities associated with a university medical center...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Wei Pang, Fu-Zhi Lian, Xue Leng, Shu-Min Wang, Yi-Bo Li, Zi-Yu Wang, Kai-Ren Li, Zhi-Xian Gao, Yu-Gang Jiang
A growing body of evidence has shown bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like industrial chemical, has adverse effects on the nervous system. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional behavior of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs to provide the information to explore neurotoxic effects induced by BPA. By microarray expression profiling, we discovered 151 differentially expressed lncRNAs and 794 differentially expressed mRNAs in the BPA intervention group compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis indicated the differentially expressed mRNAs were mainly involved in fundamental metabolic processes and physiological and pathological conditions, such as development, synaptic transmission, homeostasis, injury, and neuroinflammation responses...
March 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
José Pedro Ferreira, Chrystiane Vasconcelos Andrade Toscano, Aristides Machado Rodrigues, Guilherme Eustaquio Furtado, Mauro Gomes Barros, Rildo Souza Wanderley, Humberto Moreira Carvalho
Physical exercise has shown positive effects on symptomatology and on the reduction of comorbidities in population with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is still no consensus about the most appropriate exercise intervention model for children with ASD. The physical exercise program for children with autism (PEP-Aut) protocol designed allow us to (i) examine the multivariate associations between ASD symptoms, metabolic profile, physical activity level, physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of children with ASD; (ii) assess the effects of a 40-week exercise program on all these aspects of children with ASD...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Lisa Carter-Harris, James E Slaven, Patrick O Monahan, Rivienne Shedd-Steele, Nasser Hanna, Susan M Rawl
Lung cancer screening is a relatively new screening option. Inequalities related to screening behavior have been documented in other types of cancer screening. Because stage at presentation drives mortality in lung cancer, it is critical to understand factors that influence screening behavior in lung cancer screening in order to intervene. However, we must first understand where disparities exist in lung cancer screening participation in order to effectively guide intervention efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of sociodemographic (including key disparity-related variables) and knowledge with lung cancer screening behavior...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Marc J Weigensberg, Cheryl Vigen, Paola Sequeira, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Magaly Juarez, Daniella Florindez, Joseph Provisor, Anne Peters, Elizabeth A Pyatak
Background: The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D...
2018: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Boram Lee, Jihong Lee, Jin-Hong Cheon, Hyun-Kyung Sung, Seung-Hun Cho, Gyu Tae Chang
Objectives. We aimed to summarize and critically evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods. We searched 13 databases for studies published up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture for children with ASD were included. Outcome measures were the overall scores on scales evaluating the core symptoms of ASD and the scores for each symptom, such as social communication ability and skills, stereotypies, language ability, and cognitive function...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kristin J Perry, Joseph M Price
This study contributes to current research on the behavior problems of children in foster care by analyzing a more comprehensive set of concurrent child history and contextual predictors. Kinship home status and sibling status (i.e., whether the sibling was a biological sibling to the foster child) were evaluated as moderators of significant associations. Data were collected at the baseline of a foster parent training intervention program prior to any intervention services using parent phone interviews ( N = 310, 51...
January 2018: Children and Youth Services Review
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Whitney A Welch, Bonnie Spring, Siobhan M Phillips, Juned Siddique
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to identify whether weather-related factors moderate the effect of a physical activity (PA) intervention. METHODS: Participants (N=204, 77% female, mean age 33 [SD=11] years, mean BMI 28.2 [SD=7.1]) from the Make Better Choices 1 trial, enrolled April 2005 to April 2008, were randomized to one of two treatment conditions: (1) increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) treatment group, or (2) decrease sedentary behavior control group...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jennifer M Clifton
Compared with adults, sexually active adolescents are at higher risk of acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea (CT/GC). Additionally, sex trafficking and sexual violence are serious public health problems. Before this project, no data on the sexual behaviors of adolescents within Utah's Juvenile Justice System had been gathered in a systematic manner that provided a population-based perspective. From July 1, 2015, through December 30, 2016, nurses and staff in 18 Utah Juvenile Justice facilities screened all youth admitted to their facilities...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Nicolas Gillet, Evelyne Fouquereau, Hélène Coillot, Franck Bonnetain, Sophie Dupont, Leïla Moret, Amélie Anota, Philippe Colombat
PURPOSE: Although quality of care and caregivers' well-being are important issues in their own right, relatively few studies have examined both, especially in oncology. The present research thus investigated the relationship between job-related well-being and patients' perceptions of quality of care. More specifically, we examined the indirect effects of ethical leadership on patients' perceived quality of care through caregivers' well-being. METHOD: A cross-sectional design was used...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Nóra Kerekes, Susanne Apelqvist, Cecilia Fielding, Henrik Anckarsäter, Thomas Nilsson
There is a need for instruments that can be used in correctional settings to measure changes in aggressive behaviors over a limited time period. This study aimed to validate an instrument (the Prison Adjusted Measure of Aggression, PAMA) that assesses specifically the past month's aggressive behaviors and is adapted for use in correctional facilities. The psychometric properties of the self-rated and interview versions of the PAMA were explored and compared to those of two well-established measures of aggression: The Staff Observation Aggression Scale (SOAS); and the self-rate Aggression Questionnaire-Revised Swedish Version (AQ-RSV)...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Stefan G Hofmann, Aleena C Hay
Avoidance is typically considered a maladaptive behavioral response to excessive fear and anxiety, leading to the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Exposure is a core element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. One important aspect of this treatment is repeated and prolonged exposure to a threat while discouraging patients from using avoidance strategies, such as escape or safety behaviors. We will first revisit the role of avoidance learning in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, including important insights from the neuroscience literature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
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