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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150753/psychological-aspects-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Rajesh Sagar, Tanu Gupta
Childhood obesity is multi factorial health condition, so the simple evaluation of body fat will not be sufficed to manage the global epidemic of childhood obesity. Literature consistently provides evidence for physical health risks associated with childhood obesity; however in recent times, mental health of the obese children has also gained attention of the researchers as well as clinicians. Obese children experience number of psycho-social problems that significantly affect their quality of life and wellbeing...
November 18, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150369/trial-registration-in-pediatric-surgery-trials
#2
Sana Rokhsefat, Deanna E Morra, Martin Offringa, Lisa M Askie, Lauren E Kelly
BACKGROUND: Prospective clinical trial registration serves to increase transparency and to mitigate selective reporting bias. An assessment of adult surgical trials revealed poor trial registration practice with incomplete provision of information in registries and inconsistent information in the corresponding publication. The extent and completeness of pediatric surgical trial registration are unknown. We aimed to determine the proportion and adequacy of clinical trial registration in pediatric surgery trials published in 2014...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150147/clinic-and-home-based-behavioral-intervention-for-obesity-in-preschoolers-a-randomized-trial
#3
Lori J Stark, Stephanie Spear Filigno, Christopher Bolling, Megan B Ratcliff, Jessica C Kichler, Shannon M Robson, Stacey L Simon, Mary Beth McCullough, Lisa M Clifford, Cathleen Odar Stough, Cynthia Zion, Richard F Ittenbach
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that an innovative skills-based behavioral family clinic and home-based intervention (LAUNCH) would reduce body mass index z score (BMIz) compared with motivational interviewing and to standard care in preschool-aged children with obesity. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years above the 95(th) percentile for body mass index for age and sex recruited from 27 pediatrician offices across 10 recruitment cycles between March 12, 2012 and June 8, 2015...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149914/testing-the-effectiveness-of-a-motivational-interviewing-based-brief-intervention-for-substance-use-as-an-adjunct-to-usual-care-in-community-based-aids-service-organizations-study-protocol-for-a-multisite-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Bryan R Garner, Heather J Gotham, Stephen J Tueller, Elizabeth L Ball, David Kaiser, Patricia Stilen, Kathryn Speck, Denna Vandersloot, Traci R Rieckmann, Michael Chaple, Erika G Martin, Steve Martino
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project...
November 17, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149890/physical-activity-and-calorie-intake-mediate-the-relationship-from-depression-to-body-fat-mass-among-female-mexican-health-workers
#5
Amado D Quezada, Nayeli Macías-Waldman, Jorge Salmerón, Tessa Swigart, Katia Gallegos-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. METHOD: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149269/effects-of-a-healthy-eater-self-schema-and-nutrition-literacy-on-healthy-eating-behaviors-among-taiwanese-college-students
#6
Chia-Kuei Lee, Li-Ling Liao, I-Ju Lai, Li-Chun Chang
Unhealthy eating behaviors contribute to obesity and chronic illness. This study examined the relative contributions of a healthy-eater self-schema (a self-conception as a healthy eater) and nutrition literacy on healthy-eating behaviors and whether nutrition literacy was a mediator among Taiwanese college students. A total of 1216 undergraduate students from six universities in Taiwan participated in the study from April to June 2016. Healthy-eating behaviors, nutrition literacy, healthy-eater self-schema and known determinants of eating behaviors (e...
November 14, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149133/computer-based-exercise-program-effects-of-a-12-week-intervention-on-mood-and-fatigue-in-pediatric-patients-with-cancer%C3%A2
#7
Anna-Maria Platschek, Laura Kehe, Vera Abeln, Frank Berthold, Thorsten Simon, Heiko Strüder
BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of survival present a new set of physical and psychological challenges for children dealing with side effects during cancer treatment. Physical activity has been shown to be an effective strategy to reduce several side effects.
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the benefits of a 12-week computer-based exercise intervention on perceived physical, motivational, and fatigue syndrome and psychological state...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148839/sexual-risk-behaviors-and-perceptions-of-men-who-go-to-gay-sex-parties-in-new-york-city-comparisons-between-three-hiv-groups
#8
Étienne Meunier, Karolynn Siegel
Men who have sex with men (MSM) who attend group-sex events often engage in risky sexual behaviors that contribute to the high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence among this population. We conducted an online survey with 211 New York City MSM who attended sex parties in the prior year and asked them to describe their behaviors and perceptions of risk. We compared responses from HIV-positive-undetectable men (n = 36), HIV-negative men on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP; n = 62), and HIV-negative men never on PrEP (n = 113)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148826/engagement-in-the-overdose-risk-information-orion-e-health-tool-for-opioid-overdose-prevention-and-self-efficacy-a-preliminary-study
#9
Giuseppe Carrà, Cristina Crocamo, Gerald Humphris, Tommaso Tabacchi, Francesco Bartoli, Julia Neufeind, Norbert Scherbaum, Alexander Baldacchino
Increasing awareness of, and information about, overdose risk is an appropriate approach in risk reduction. e-Health technology in substance use disorders is an opportunity to support behavioral changes related to public health concerns. The present study aimed to evaluate the short-term impact of an innovative e-health psychoeducational software, the Overdose RIsk InfOrmatioN (ORION) tool. The ORION programme provided relevant information to opioid-dependent individuals about the risk of suffering a drug overdose as a result of high risky and dysfunctional behaviors...
November 17, 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148346/increasing-the-use-of-comparative-quality-information-in-maternity-care-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Maureen Maurer, Kristin L Carman, Manshu Yang, Kirsten Firminger, Judith Hibbard
This randomized controlled trial tested an intervention to increase uptake of hospital-level maternity care quality reports among 245 pregnant women in North Carolina (123 treatment; 122 control). The intervention included three enhancements to the quality report offered to the control: (a) biweekly text messages or e-mails directing women to the website, (b) videos and materials describing the relevance of quality measures to pregnant women's interests, and (c) tools to support discussions with clinicians...
May 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148287/does-the-brief-observation-of-social-communication-change-help-moving-forward-in-measuring-change-in-early-autism-intervention-studies
#11
Mirjam Kj Pijl, Nanda Nj Rommelse, Monica Hendriks, Manon Wp De Korte, Jan K Buitelaar, Iris J Oosterling
The field of early autism research is in dire need of outcome measures that adequately reflect subtle changes in core autistic behaviors. This article compares the ability of a newly developed measure, the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to detect changes in core symptoms of autism in 44 toddlers. The results provide encouraging evidence for the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change as a candidate outcome measure, as reflected in sufficient inter- and intra-rater reliability, independency from other child characteristics, and sensitivity to capture change...
December 1, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148087/an-agent-based-model-of-evolving-community-flood-risk
#12
Gina L Tonn, Seth D Guikema
Although individual behavior plays a major role in community flood risk, traditional flood risk models generally do not capture information on how community policies and individual decisions impact the evolution of flood risk over time. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the temporal aspects of flood risk through a combined analysis of the behavioral, engineering, and physical hazard aspects of flood risk. Additionally, the study aims to develop a new modeling approach for integrating behavior, policy, flood hazards, and engineering interventions...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147881/childhood-cancer-and-brain-tumor-late-effects-relationships-with-family-burden-and-survivor-psychological-outcomes
#13
Melissa K Cousino, Rebecca Hazen, Katherine Leigh Josie, Kelly Laschinger, Peter de Blank, H Gerry Taylor
This study examines illness-specific family burden as a mediator of the association between late effects of childhood cancer and survivors' emotional and behavioral outcomes. Childhood cancer survivors (n = 65; ages 10-17) two or more years off-treatment completed measures assessing internalizing and PTSD symptoms. Parents reported on illness-specific family burden, late effects severity, and survivor internalizing/externalizing problems. Providers documented the number of late effects. Illness-specific family burden was correlated with provider-reported late effects (r = ...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147858/community-interventions-to-increase-stroke-preparedness-and-acute-stroke-treatment-rates
#14
REVIEW
Kathleen M Kelly, Kathryn T Holt, Gina M Neshewat, Lesli E Skolarus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute stroke treatments reduce the risk of post-stroke disability. These treatments, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and intra-arterial treatment, are highly time-dependent; thus, one of the main barriers to treatment is pre-hospital delay. Stroke preparedness is defined as the ability to recognize stroke symptoms and the intent to activate emergency medical services (EMS). This review describes types of acute stroke treatment and preparedness interventions, including recent mass media interventions to increase acute stroke treatment rates, and adult and youth community interventions to increase stroke preparedness...
November 16, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147725/-stigma-risk-factor-and-consequence-of-suicidal-behavior-implications-for-suicide-prevention
#15
REVIEW
N Oexle, N Rüsch
Mental illness, previous suicidal behavior and loss of a relative by suicide are strong risk factors for suicidality. Both mental illness and suicide are stigmatized, which is a burden for those affected and potentially contributes to suicidality among stigmatized individuals. Many consequences of stigma, e. g. social isolation, low self-esteem and hopelessness, are well-known predictors of suicidality. Interventions to reduce stigmatization might therefore be an important component of successful suicide prevention...
November 16, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147630/sulforaphane-from-broccoli-reduces-symptoms-of-autism-a-follow-up-case-series-from-a-randomized-double-blind-study
#16
Rhoda Lynch, Eileen L Diggins, Susan L Connors, Andrew W Zimmerman, Kanwaljit Singh, Hua Liu, Paul Talalay, Jed W Fahey
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children, is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication as well as restricted or repetitive behaviors, and varies widely with respect to its causes and presentations. There are no validated pharmacologic treatments for the core symptoms of ASD. The social, medical, and economic burdens of ASD on families and caregivers are profound. We recently showed in a small clinical trial that sulforaphane (SF) from broccoli sprouts could significantly reduce the behavioral symptoms of ASD...
2017: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147128/the-effect-of-educational-intervention-on-weight-loss-in-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity-application-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#17
Seyed Saeed Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Zohreh Sadat Navabi, Alireza Ahmadi, Mohsen Askarishahi
BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) efficiently explains the ability of perceived behavioral control and possibly attitude to enhance the motivations of the obese people to lose weight. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TPB-based education on weight loss in obese and overweight adolescents. METHODS: In an interventional study, simple random sampling was used to select 86 overweight and obese adolescents aged 13-18 years in the pediatric clinic at the Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute...
July 2017: ARYA Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147063/nativity-race-ethnicity-and-dual-diagnosis-among-us-adults
#18
Magdalena Szaflarski, Shawn Bauldry, Lisa A Cubbins, Karthikeyan Meganathan
Purpose: This study investigated disparities in dual diagnosis (comorbid substance-use and depressive/anxiety disorders) among US adults by nativity and racial-ethnic origin and socioeconomic, cultural, and psychosocial factors that may account for the observed disparities. Design/methodology: The study drew on data from two waves of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Racial-ethnic categories included African, Asian/Pacific Islander, European, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and other Hispanic/Latino...
2017: Research in the Sociology of Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146941/developmental-excitatory-to-inhibitory-gaba-polarity-switch-is-disrupted-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-potential-target-for-clinical-therapeutics
#19
Hayder Amin, Federica Marinaro, Davide De Pietri Tonelli, Luca Berdondini
Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS) show cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions, developmental delays in childhood and risk of developing schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive previous studies in adult animal models, a possible embryonic root of this syndrome has not been determined. Here, in neurons from a 22q11.2 DS mouse model (Lgdel (+/-)), we found embryonic-premature alterations in the neuronal chloride cotransporters indicated by dysregulated NKCC1 and KCC2 protein expression levels...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146567/self-guided-web-based-interventions-scoping-review-on-user-needs-and-the-potential-of-embodied-conversational-agents-to-address-them
#20
REVIEW
Mark R Scholten, Saskia M Kelders, Julia Ewc Van Gemert-Pijnen
BACKGROUND: Web-based mental health interventions have evolved from innovative prototypes to evidence-based and clinically applied solutions for mental diseases such as depression and anxiety. Open-access, self-guided types of these solutions hold the promise of reaching and treating a large population at a reasonable cost. However, a considerable factor that currently hinders the effectiveness of these self-guided Web-based interventions is the high level of nonadherence. The absence of a human caregiver apparently has a negative effect on user adherence...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
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