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behavioral treatments

Uday B Maachani, Uma Shankavaram, Tamalee Kramp, Philip J Tofilon, Kevin Camphausen, Anita T Tandle
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) continues to be the most frequently diagnosed and lethal primary brain tumor. Adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard of care following surgical resection. In this study, using reverse phase protein arrays (RPPAs), we assessed the biological effects of radiation on signaling pathways to identify potential radiosensitizing molecular targets. We identified subsets of proteins with clearly concordant/discordant behavior between irradiated and non-irradiated GBM cells in vitro and in vivo...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Isabelle E Bauer, Martin Hautzinger, Thomas D Meyer
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are common features of bipolar disorder (BD). Not much is, however, known about the potential moderator effects of these factors on the outcome of talking therapies. The goal of our study was to explore whether learning and memory abilities predict risk of recurrence of mood episodes or interact with a psychological intervention. METHOD: We analyzed data collected as part of a clinical trial evaluating relapse rates following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Therapy (ST) (Meyer and Hautzinger, 2012)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Julio Fernandez-Mendoza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Chen Wang, Chengcheng Xu, Jinxin Xia, Zhendong Qian
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to model fault in e-bike fatal crashes in a county-level city in China. METHOD: Three-year crash data are retrieved from the crash reports (2012-2014) from the Taixing Police Department. A mixed logit models is introduced to explore significant factors associated with fault assignment, as well as accounting for similarity among fault assignment and heterogeneity within unobserved variables. RESULTS: The modeling results indicate some interesting new findings...
October 20, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Zachary Y Huang, Stephanie Lin, Kiheung Ahn
Methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog, is a widely used insecticide that also accelerates behavioral development in honey bees (Apis mellifera). JH regulates the transition from nursing to foraging in adult worker bees, and treatment with JH or methoprene have both been shown to induce precocious foraging. To determine how methoprene changes honey bee behavior, we compared JH titers of methoprene-treated and untreated bees. Behavioral observations confirmed that methoprene treatment significantly increased the number of precocious foragers in 3 out of 4 colonies...
October 20, 2016: Insect Science
Fernando A Wagner, Payam Sheikhattari, Jane Buccheri, Mary Gunning, Lisa Bleich, Christine Schutzman
: Smoking disproportionally affects minority and underserved populations but only a handful of interventions tailored to these populations have demonstrated effectiveness in real-life situations. We use community-based participatory research (CBPR) to test two interventions delivered by a community-based health care center. METHODS: Participants randomly assigned to individual or group-based intervention for smoking cessation (N= 400). Both included cessation counseling and health education, a contingency behavioral program, Nicotine Replacement Therapy, and health care for other comorbidities...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Liang Yan, Di Lv, Xinwen Huang, Huixiang Shi, Geshan Zhang
The adsorption behavior of pharmaceuticals and personal care product, Bisphenol-A (BPA), according to four coal-based and four wood-based granular activated carbons modified using outgassing treatment, acidic treatment or alkaline treatment was studied. The adsorption isotherm results indicated that carbon surface acidity played a very important role in the adsorption of BPA. It was found that increasing surface acidity would increase the hydrogen bonding effects and increase adsorption of BPA on activated carbon...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Cuizhen Sun, Jinwei Qiu, Zhibin Zhang, Taha F Marhaba, Yanhao Zhang
In this paper, flocculating performance and mechanisms of a new composite coagulant, poly-ferric aluminum chloride-polydimethyl diallylammonium chloride (PFAC-PD) with different OH(-)/(Fe(3+) + Al(3+)) molar ratios, were investigated for humic acid (HA)-kaolin synthetic wastewater treatment. The impact of OH(-)/(Fe(3+) + Al(3+)) molar ratios on the removal efficiencies of turbidity and dissolved organic carbon, specific UV absorbance, coagulation mechanisms and dynamics was explored during the coagulation process using composite coagulants...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
J Panek, E Koziolova, P Stepanek, T Etrych, O Janouskova
Nanocarriers bearing anticancer drugs are promising candidates to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy and minimize side effects. The most potent cytostatics used in the treatment of various cancers are anthracyclines, e.g. doxorubicin or pirarubicin. Recently, polymer therapeutics carrying anthracyclines have been intensively studied. The precise characterization of in vitro nanocarrier biological behavior brings a better understanding of the nanocarrier characteristics and enables prediction of the behavior of the nanocarrier during in vivo application...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Lauren Eskreis-Winkler, Elizabeth P Shulman, Victoria Young, Eli Tsukayama, Steven M Brunwasser, Angela L Duckworth
Deliberate practice leads to world-class excellence across domains. In the current investigation, we examined whether psychologically "wise" interventions targeting expectancies and values-stock antecedents of ordinary effortful behaviors-could motivate nonexperts to engage in deliberate practice and improve their achievement. As a preliminary, we developed and validated a novel task measure of deliberate practice and confirmed its association with (a) expectancy-value beliefs, and (b) achievement in the nonexpert setting (Study 1)...
November 2016: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Denise D Walker, Robert S Stephens, Claire E Blevins, Kelsey E Banes, Lauren Matthews, Roger A Roffman
OBJECTIVE: Brief interventions for adolescent marijuana users offered in schools reach users who would not otherwise present for treatment. The current study builds on previous trials of a school-based, 2-session motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention by adding periodic, brief motivational check-ins to reinforce gains and bolster motivation. METHOD: Adolescent participants were randomly assigned to a motivational check-in (MCI; n = 128) or assessment-only check-in (ACI; n = 124) comparison condition...
November 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Pelin Erkoc, Ahmet Cingöz, Tugba Bagci Onder, Seda Kizilel
Overcoming drug resistance is a major challenge for cancer therapy. Tumor necrosis factor α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent therapeutic as an activator of apoptosis, particularly in tumor but not in healthy cells. However, its efficacy is limited by the resistance of tumor cell populations to the therapeutic substance. Here, we have addressed this limitation through the development of a controlled release system, matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive and arg-gly-asp-ser (RGDS) peptide functionalized poly (ethylene-glycol) (PEG) particles which are synthesized via visible-light-induced water-in-water emulsion polymerization...
October 20, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Denise Dion Hallfors, Bonita J Iritani, Lei Zhang, Shane Hartman, Winnie K Luseno, Elias Mpofu, Simbarashe Rusakaniko
This study examines the association between religious affiliation and reasons for marriage, perceived church attitudes, and reproductive health-seeking behaviors, including HIV testing, among young women in eastern rural Zimbabwe. The sample comprised women (N = 35) who had married by 2012 while participating in a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of school support on HIV-related risk. The RCT sample was identified in 2007 as all female sixth graders in 25 rural eastern Zimbabwe primary schools whose parents, one or both, had died (N = 328)...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Mathieu Fonteneau, Dominique Filliol, Patrick Anglard, Katia Befort, Pascal Romieu, Jean Zwiller
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic process which regulates the accessibility of genes to the transcriptional machinery. In the present study, we investigated whether modifying the global DNA methylation pattern in the brain would alter cocaine intake by rats, using the cocaine self-administration test. The data indicate that treatment of rats with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and zebularine actually enhanced the reinforcing properties of cocaine. To get some insights about the underlying neurobiological mechanisms, a genome-wide methylation analysis was undertaken in the prefrontal cortex of rats self-administering cocaine and treated or not with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine...
October 20, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Karol Cichewicz, Emma J Garren, Chika Adiele, Yoshinori Aso, Zhang Wang, Martin Wu, Serge Birman, Gerald M Rubin, Jay Hirsh
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter with conserved behavioral roles between invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In addition to its neural functions, in insects DA is a critical substrate for cuticle pigmentation and hardening. Drosophila tyrosine hydroxylase (DTH) is the rate limiting enzyme for DA biosynthesis. Viable brain DA deficient flies were previously generated using tissue selective GAL4-UAS binary expression rescue of a DTH null mutation and these flies show specific behavioral impairments. To circumvent the limitations of rescue via binary expression, here we achieve rescue utilizing genomically integrated mutant DTH...
October 19, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Enerelt Urnukhsaikhan, Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir, Soo-Chan Kim, Jung-Keug Park, Young-Kwon Seo
Low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) affect many biological processes; however, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these effects remain unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of LF-PEMFs on neuroprotection after ischemic stroke. C57B6 mice were exposed to LF-PEMF (F = 60 Hz, Bm = 10 mT) after photothrombotic occlusion. We measured the BDNF/TrkB/Akt signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic and pro-survival protein and gene expressions, and the expression of inflammatory mediators and performed behavioral tests in both LF-PEMF-treated and untreated ischemic stroke mice...
October 19, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
C Piñol-Felis, T Fernández-Marcelo, J Viñas-Salas, C Valls-Bautista
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Our aim is to describe the state of the art about the role of telomeres and telomerase in the clinical management of CRC and its potential utility as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers and targets of new treatments. Telomere length could be a new diagnostic marker as an anomalous behavior is observed in peripheral blood cells when CRC patients and healthy people are compared. Moreover, telomeres and telomerase may be used as diagnostic markers considering that universal changes appear along the CRC process...
October 19, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Catherine R Glenn, Elizabeth C Lanzillo, Erika C Esposito, Angela C Santee, Matthew K Nock, Randy P Auerbach
Suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) among youth are major public health concerns. Although a growing body of research has focused on the complex association between nonsuicidal and suicidal self-injury, the temporal relationship between these two classes of behaviors is unclear. The current study addresses this empirical gap by examining the course of SITBs in adolescents receiving outpatient (N = 106; 82.1 % female) and inpatient (N = 174; 75.9 % female) treatment. SITBs (co-occurrence, age-of-onset, and time lag between SITBs) and major psychiatric disorders were assessed at a single time point with well-validated structured interviews...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Christine N El Ouardani
Based on 9 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a U.S. mental health clinic focused on the treatment of preschool-aged children who exhibited extremely disruptive behavior, this article examines the contradictions clinicians faced when trying to identify and attribute "intentionality" to very young children. Disruptive, aggressive behavior is one of the central symptoms involved in a wide-range of childhood psychopathology and the number one reason young children are referred to mental health clinics in the United States...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
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