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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344304/atherosclerosis-is-exacerbated-by-chitinase-3-like-1-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#1
Yu Yeon Jung, Ki Cheon Kim, Mi Hee Park, Youngsik Seo, Heonyong Park, Min Hee Park, Jun Chang, Dae Youn Hwang, Sang Bae Han, Sanghyeon Kim, Dong Ju Son, Jin Tae Hong
Although the important role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in vascular diseases associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated, the underlying molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences are unclear. We aimed to evaluate vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in Swedish mutant of human APP transgenic (APPsw-Tg) and ApoE-/-/APPsw-Tg mice. We also aimed to explore the mechanisms underlying any changes observed in these mice compared with non-Tg controls. Methods: The transgenic and non-Tg mouse strains were subjected to partial ligation of the left carotid artery to induce atherosclerotic changes, which were measured using histological approaches, immunohistochemistry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and gene expression microarrays...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343693/phantom-acupuncture-induces-placebo-credibility-and-vicarious-sensations-a-parallel-fmri-study-of-low-back-pain-patients
#2
Meena M Makary, Jeungchan Lee, Eunyoung Lee, Seulgi Eun, Jieun Kim, Geon-Ho Jahng, Kiok Kim, You-Suk Youn, Jun-Hwan Lee, Kyungmo Park
Although acupuncture is an effective therapeutic intervention for pain reduction, the exact difference between real and sham acupuncture has not been clearly understood because a somatosensory tactile component is commonly included in the existing sham acupuncture protocols. In an event-related fMRI experiment, we implemented a novel form of sham acupuncture, phantom acupuncture, that reproduces the acupuncture needling procedure without somatosensory tactile stimulation while maintaining the credibility of the acupuncture treatment context...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342443/test-retest-reliability-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-eeg-evoked-potentials
#3
Lewis J Kerwin, Corey J Keller, Wei Wu, Manjari Narayan, Amit Etkin
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked potentials (TEPs), recorded using electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), offer a powerful tool for measuring causal interactions in the human brain. However, the test-retest reliability of TEPs, critical to their use in clinical biomarker and interventional studies, remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We quantified TEP reliability to: (i) determine the minimal TEP amplitude change which significantly exceeds that associated with simply re-testing, (ii) locate the most reliable scalp regions of interest (ROIs) and TEP peaks, and (iii) determine the minimal number of TEP pulses for achieving reliability...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340869/intervention-effect-of-repetitive-tms-on-behavioral-adjustment-after-error-commission-in-long-term-methamphetamine-addicts-evidence-from-a-two-choice-oddball-task
#4
Qiongdan Liang, Jia Lin, Jiemin Yang, Xiang Li, Yijiang Chen, Xianxin Meng, Jiajin Yuan
Behavioral adjustment plays an important role in the treatment and relapse of drug addiction. Nonetheless, few studies have examined behavioral adjustment and its plasticity following error commission in methamphetamine (METH) dependence, which is detrimental to human health. Thus, we investigated the behavioral adjustment performance following error commission in long-term METH addicts and how it varied with the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
January 16, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338547/neuroimaging-meta-analysis-of-cannabis-use-studies-reveals-convergent-functional-alterations-in-brain-regions-supporting-cognitive-control-and-reward-processing
#5
Julio A Yanes, Michael C Riedel, Kimberly L Ray, Anna E Kirkland, Ryan T Bird, Emily R Boeving, Meredith A Reid, Raul Gonzalez, Jennifer L Robinson, Angela R Laird, Matthew T Sutherland
Lagging behind rapid changes to state laws, societal views, and medical practice is the scientific investigation of cannabis's impact on the human brain. While several brain imaging studies have contributed important insight into neurobiological alterations linked with cannabis use, our understanding remains limited. Here, we sought to delineate those brain regions that consistently demonstrate functional alterations among cannabis users versus non-users across neuroimaging studies using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis framework...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337278/effects-of-hunger-state-on-the-brain-responses-to-food-cues-across-the-life-span
#6
L Charbonnier, F van Meer, A M Johnstone, D Crabtree, W Buosi, Y Manios, O Androutsos, A Giannopoulou, M A Viergever, P A M Smeets
The abundant exposure to food cues in our environment is one of the main drivers of overconsumption. Food evaluation is important for the regulation of food intake by the brain and it's interaction with hunger state. Children are especially susceptible to food cues. Understanding the mechanisms behind this regulation in healthy individuals across the life span can help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying overconsumption and aid the development of future obesity prevention strategies. Few functional neuroimaging studies have been done in children and elderly...
January 11, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336775/neural-correlates-of-emotional-action-control-in-anger-prone-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#7
Katja Bertsch, Karin Roelofs, Paul Jonathan Roch, Bo Ma, Saskia Hensel, Sabine C Herpertz, Inge Volman
BACKGROUND: Difficulty in controlling emotional impulses is a crucial component of borderline personality disorder (BPD) that often leads to destructive, impulsive behaviours against others. In line with recent findings in aggressive individuals, deficits in prefrontal amygdala coupling during emotional action control may account for these symptoms. METHODS: To study the neurobiological correlates of altered emotional action control in individuals with BPD, we asked medication-free, anger-prone, female patients with BPD and age- and intelligence-matched healthy women to take part in an approach-avoidance task while lying in an MRI scanner...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335480/novel-analgesic-effects-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-on-persistent-neuropathic-and-inflammatory-pain-in-mice
#8
Jae-Hwan Jang, Ji-Yeun Park, Ju-Young Oh, Sun-Jeong Bae, Hyunchul Jang, Songhee Jeon, Jongpil Kim, Hi-Joon Park
The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a peptidergic neuromodulator synthesized by neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and zona incerta. MCHergic neurons project throughout the central nervous system, indicating the involvements of many physiological functions, but the role in pain has yet to be determined. In this study, we found that pMCH-/- mice showed lower baseline pain thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimuli than did pMCH+/+ mice, and the time to reach the maximum hyperalgesic response was also significantly earlier in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331692/memory-performance-predicts-response-to-psychotherapy-for-depression-in-bipolar-disorder-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-with-exploratory-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Thilo Deckersbach, Amy T Peters, Conor Shea, Aishwarya Gosai, Jonathan P Stange, Andrew D Peckham, Kristen K Ellard, Michael W Otto, Scott L Rauch, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg
OBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial compared Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Supportive Psychotherapy (SP) for the treatment of depression in bipolar I disorder. We also examined whether exploratory verbal memory, executive functioning, and neural correlates of verbal memory during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) predicted change in depression severity. METHODS: Thirty-two adults (ages 18-65) with DSM-IV bipolar I disorder meeting current criteria for a major depressive episode were randomized to 18 weeks of CBT or SP...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331059/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-grit-growth-mindset-mediates-the-association-between-gray-matter-structure-and-trait-grit-in-late-adolescence
#10
Song Wang, Jing Dai, Jingguang Li, Xu Wang, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Manxi He, Qiyong Gong
There is a long-standing interest in exploring the factors related to student achievement. As a newly explored personality trait, grit is defined as a person's tendency to pursue long-term goals with continual perseverance and passion, and grit plays a critical role in student achievement. Increasing evidence has shown that growth mindset, the belief that one's basic abilities are malleable and can be developed through effort, is a potential factor for cultivating grit. However, less is known about the association between grit and the brain and the role of growth mindset in this association...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329743/gaba-and-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-1h-mr-spectroscopy-study-at-7t
#11
E Mark Mahone, Nicolaas A Puts, Richard A E Edden, Matthew Ryan, Harvey S Singer
Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by presence of chronic, fluctuating motor and phonic tics. The underlying neurobiological basis for these movements is hypothesized to involve cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathways. Two major neurotransmitters within these circuits are γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Seventy-five participants (32 with TS, 43 controls) ages 5-12 years completed 1H MRS at 7T. GABA and glutamate were measured in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), premotor cortex (PMC), and striatum, and metabolites quantified using LCModel...
January 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329154/effects-on-volume-load-and-ratings-of-perceived-exertion-in-individuals-advanced-weight-training-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#12
Eduardo Lattari, Blair José Rosa Filho, Sidnei Jorge Fonseca Junior, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Nuno Rocha, Sérgio Machado, Geraldo Albuquerque Maranhão Neto
The aim of this study was investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on volume-load and ratings of perceived exertion. Fifteen young healthy individuals, aged between 20 and 30 years in advanced strength training were recruited. Test and retest of the 10 maximum repetitions (10RM) were performed to determine the reliability of load utilized. Subjects performed three experimental conditions in a randomized, double-blinded crossover design: anodic stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodic stimulation (c-tDCS) and sham (2 mA for 20 minutes targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex cortex left)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329055/altered-brain-structure-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#13
Peng Liu, Ying Wei, Yingying Fan, Ru Li, Yanfei Liu, Geliang Wang, Yichen Wei, Yong Pang, Demao Deng, Wei Qin
BACKGROUND: Functional brain abnormalities have been noted in premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, the brain structural alterations related to PMS remain unclear. This study aimed to identify possible abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volumes and structural covariance patterns among PMS patients. METHODS: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained from 20 PMS patients and 20 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was applied to examine GM volumes changes between the two groups...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328983/social-and-cognitive-control-skills-in-long-life-occupation-activities-modulate-the-brain-reserve-in-the-behavioural-variant-of-frontotemporal-dementia
#14
Alessandra Dodich, Giulia Carli, Chiara Cerami, Sandro Iannaccone, Giuseppe Magnani, Daniela Perani
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve may delay disease onset and mitigate symptoms presentation in neurodegenerative dementias. Although high occupation levels can be associated with higher cognitive reserve in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), it was never addressed how specific occupation profiles involving social interaction, executive and attention abilities can modulate neural reserve in bvFTD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included thirty-seven bvFTD patients with clinical-neuropsychological and FDG-PET brain metabolic data...
December 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#15
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324886/changes-in-network-connectivity-during-motor-imagery-and-execution
#16
Yun Kwan Kim, Eunhee Park, Ahee Lee, Chang-Hwan Im, Yun-Hee Kim
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of functional or effective connectivity in the brain have reported that motor-related brain regions were activated during motor execution and motor imagery, but the relationship between motor and cognitive areas has not yet been completely understood. The objectives of our study were to analyze the effective connectivity between motor and cognitive networks in order to define network dynamics during motor execution and motor imagery in healthy individuals. Second, we analyzed the differences in effective connectivity between correct and incorrect responses during motor execution and imagery using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of electroencephalography (EEG) data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321971/processing-and-regulation-of-negative-emotions-in-anorexia-nervosa-an-fmri-study
#17
Maria Seidel, Joseph A King, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Boehm, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Matthias Beck, Sophie Pauligk, Ronald Biemann, Alexander Strobel, Thomas Goschke, Henrik Walter, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
Theoretical models and recent advances in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) have increasingly focused on the role of alterations in the processing and regulation of emotions. To date, however, our understanding of these changes is still limited and reports of emotional dysregulation in AN have been based largely on self-report data, and there is a relative lack of objective experimental evidence or neurobiological data. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the hemodynamic correlates of passive viewing and voluntary downregulation of negative emotions by means of the reappraisal strategy detachment in AN patients...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317593/loneliness-5-years-ante-mortem-is-associated-with-disease-related-differential-gene-expression-in-postmortem-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex
#18
Turhan Canli, Lei Yu, Xiaoqing Yu, Hongyu Zhao, Debra Fleischman, Robert S Wilson, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Subjective social isolation, loneliness, is associated with poor mental and physical health, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed loneliness data collected on average 5 years ante-mortem and RNA gene expression at death in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 181 participants in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP), a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging. Our analytic protocol controlled for biographical variables (age, sex, education), psychological and health variables (depressive symptoms, interval between assessment and autopsy, slope of cognitive decline, AD pathology, presence of infarcts) and RNA integrity...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313253/the-neural-correlates-of-alcohol-related-aggression
#19
Thomas F Denson, Kate A Blundell, Timothy P Schofield, Mark M Schira, Ulrike M Krämer
Alcohol intoxication is implicated in approximately half of all violent crimes. Over the past several decades, numerous theories have been proposed to account for the influence of alcohol on aggression. Nearly all of these theories imply that altered functioning in the prefrontal cortex is a proximal cause. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, 50 healthy young men consumed either a low dose of alcohol or a placebo and completed an aggression paradigm against provocative and nonprovocative opponents...
January 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306963/earlier-alcohol-use-onset-prospectively-predicts-changes-in-functional-connectivity
#20
Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Alan N Simmons, Lindsay M Squeglia, M Alejandra Infante, Joseph P Schacht, Susan F Tapert
BACKGROUND: Half of all new alcohol initiates are between 12 and 17 years old. This is a period of intense neurodevelopment, including changes in functional connectivity patterns among higher-order function areas. It is crucial to understand how alcohol-related neurotoxicity may be influenced by drinking onset age. DESIGN: This study prospectively examined the effects of age of first drink on frontoparietal context-dependent functional connectivity (cdFC) during a visual working memory task...
January 6, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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