Read by QxMD icon Read

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

Matilde M Vaghi, Petra E Vértes, Manfred G Kitzbichler, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, Febe E van der Flier, Naomi A Fineberg, Akeem Sule, Rashid Zaman, Valerie Voon, Prantik Kundu, Edward T Bullmore, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: A recent hypothesis has suggested that core deficits in goal-directed behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are caused by impaired frontostriatal function. We tested this hypothesis in OCD patients and control subjects by relating measures of goal-directed planning and cognitive flexibility to underlying resting-state functional connectivity. METHODS: Multiecho resting-state acquisition, combined with micromovement correction by blood oxygen level-dependent sensitive independent component analysis, was used to obtain in vivo measures of functional connectivity in 44 OCD patients and 43 healthy comparison subjects...
August 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Christine Buff, Leonie Brinkmann, Paula Neumeister, Katharina Feldker, Carina Heitmann, Bettina Gathmann, Tanja Andor, Thomas Straube
BACKGROUND: Despite considerable effort, the neurobiological underpinnings of hyper-responsive threat processing specific to patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remain poorly understood. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aims to delineate GAD-specific brain activity during immediate threat processing by comparing GAD patients to healthy controls (HC), to social anxiety disorder (SAD) and to panic disorder (PD) patients. METHOD: Brain activation and functional connectivity patterns to threat vs...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy)...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Brian A Coffman, Michael A Hunter, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Vincent P Clark
Although working memory (WM) training programs consistently result in improvement on the trained task, benefit is typically short-lived and extends only to tasks very similar to the trained task (i.e., near transfer). It is possible that pairing repeated performance of a WM task with brain stimulation encourages plasticity in brain networks involved in WM task performance, thereby improving the training benefit. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with performance of a WM task (n-back)...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Xuemei Lei, Chuansheng Chen, Chunhui Chen, Qinghua He, Robert K Moyzis, Gui Xue, Qi Dong
Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex...
2016: PloS One
A Kibleur, G Gras-Combe, D Benis, J Bastin, T Bougerol, S Chabardès, M Polosan, O David
High-frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus can be used to treat severe obsessive-compulsive disorders that are refractory to conventional treatments. The mechanisms of action of this approach possibly rely on the modulation of associative-limbic subcortical-cortical loops, but remain to be fully elucidated. Here in 12 patients, we report the effects of high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on behavior, and on electroencephalographic responses and inferred effective connectivity during motor inhibition processes involved in the stop signal task...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Xu Li, Zhi Li, Ke Li, Ya-Wei Zeng, Hai-Song Shi, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Ada W S Leung, Raymond C K Chan
Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is a challenging negative symptom in patients with schizophrenia and can be observed in at-risk individuals with schizotypy. Deficits in hedonic processing have been postulated to be related to decreased motivation to engage in potentially rewarding events. It remains unclear whether non-pharmacological interventions, such as cognitive training, could improve anhedonia. The present study aimed to examine the neural mechanism for alleviating hedonic deficits with working memory (WM) training in individuals with social anhedonia...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation is not well understood...
October 18, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Shin-Eui Park, Nam-Gil Choi, Gwang-Woo Jeong
OBJECTIVE: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to evaluate metabolic changes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: In total, 14 OCD patients (mean age 28.9±7.2 years) and 14 healthy controls (mean age 32.6±7.1 years) with no history of neurological and psychiatric illness participated in this study. Brain metabolite concentrations were measured from a localised voxel on the right DLPFC using a 3-Tesla 1H-MRS...
October 17, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Pedro Shiozawa, July Silveira Gomes, Daniella Valverde Ducos, Henrique Teruo Akiba, Álvaro Machado Dias, Alisson Paulino Trevizol, Ricardo R Uchida, Natasza Orlov, Quirino Cordeiro
Introduction: We report a transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) combined with cognitive training in schizophrenia. Method: We assessed psychotic symptoms in nine patients using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). All evaluations were scored at baseline, at the end of the intervention protocol, and during a 4-week follow-up. The tDCS protocol consisted of 10 consecutive sessions over 5-day periods...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Nicholas J Kelley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Self-control involves the inhibition of dominant response tendencies. Most research on self-control has examined the inhibition of appetitive tendencies, and recent evidence suggests that stimulation to increase right frontal cortical activity helps to inhibit approach-motivated responses. The current experiment paired an approach-avoidance joystick task with transcranial DC stimulation to test the effects of brain stimulation on the inhibition of both approach and avoidance response tendencies. Anodal stimulation over the right/cathodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (compared to the opposite pattern of stimulation or sham stimulation) caused participants to initiate motive-incongruent movements more quickly, thereby suggesting a shared neural mechanism for the self-control of both approach- and avoidance-motivated impulses...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Motohisa Hirose, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Chihiro Sutoh, Kenichi Asano, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Michiko Nakazato, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Stefanie Desmyter, Romain Duprat, Chris Baeken, Sara Van Autreve, Kurt Audenaert, Kees van Heeringen
Objectives: We aimed to examine the effects and safety of accelerated intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) on suicide risk in a group of treatment-resistant unipolar depressed patients, using an extensive suicide assessment scale. Methods: In 50 therapy-resistant, antidepressant-free depressed patients, an intensive protocol of accelerated iTBS was applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a randomized, sham-controlled crossover design. Patients received 20 iTBS sessions over 4 days...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sebastian Walther, Lea Schäppi, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that not only frequently occurs in the context of schizophrenia but also in other conditions. The neural correlates of catatonia remain unclear due to small-sized studies. We therefore compared resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and gray matter (GM) density between schizophrenia patients with current catatonia and without catatonia and healthy controls. We included 42 schizophrenia patients and 41 controls. Catatonia was currently present in 15 patients (scoring >2 items on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale screening)...
October 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
A Hasan, T Wobrock, B Guse, B Langguth, M Landgrebe, P Eichhammer, E Frank, J Cordes, W Wölwer, F Musso, G Winterer, W Gaebel, G Hajak, C Ohmann, P E Verde, M Rietschel, R Ahmed, W G Honer, P Dechent, B Malchow, M F U Castro, D Dwyer, C Cabral, P M Kreuzer, T B Poeppl, T Schneider-Axmann, P Falkai, N Koutsouleris
Impaired neural plasticity may be a core pathophysiological process underlying the symptomatology of schizophrenia. Plasticity-enhancing interventions, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), may improve difficult-to-treat symptoms; however, efficacy in large clinical trials appears limited. The high variability of rTMS-related treatment response may be related to a comparably large variation in the ability to generate plastic neural changes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether negative symptom improvement in schizophrenia patients receiving rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was related to rTMS-related brain volume changes...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Nikola K Kasabov, Maryam Gholami Doborjeh, Zohreh Gholami Doborjeh
This paper introduces a new methodology for dynamic learning, visualization, and classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as spatiotemporal brain data. The method is based on an evolving spatiotemporal data machine of evolving spiking neural networks (SNNs) exemplified by the NeuCube architecture [1]. The method consists of several steps: mapping spatial coordinates of fMRI data into a 3-D SNN cube (SNNc) that represents a brain template; input data transformation into trains of spikes; deep, unsupervised learning in the 3-D SNNc of spatiotemporal patterns from data; supervised learning in an evolving SNN classifier; parameter optimization; and 3-D visualization and model interpretation...
October 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"