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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931245/brain-activation-in-frontotemporal-and-alzheimer-s-dementia-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#1
Florian G Metzger, Betti Schopp, Florian B Haeussinger, Katja Dehnen, Matthis Synofzik, Andreas J Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is an increasingly studied disease, the underlying functional impairments on a neurobiological level of which have not been fully understood. Patients with the behavioral-subtype frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are particularly challenging for clinical measurements such as functional imaging due to their behavioral symptoms. Here, an alternative imaging method, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), is introduced to measure task-related cortical brain activation based on blood oxygenation...
December 8, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920977/neurochemical-changes-in-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain-detected-by-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Xianjing Zhao, Maosheng Xu, Kristen Jorgenson, Jian Kong
BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a highly prevalent health problem around the world, affecting 50% to 85% of people at some point in life. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies on brain chemical changes in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). METHODS: We identified relevant studies from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE from 1980 to March 2016. Data extraction was performed on the subjects' characteristics, MRS methods, spectral analyses, cerebral metabolites and perceptual measurements...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918935/depressive-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-correlate-with-cortical-atrophy-over-time
#3
Alexandru Hanganu, Marie-Andrée Bruneau, Clotilde Degroot, Christophe Bedetti, Béatriz Mejia-Constain, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Sylvain Chouinard, Oury Monchi
INTRODUCTION: Depressive symptoms are very common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and have a significant impact on the quality of life. METHODS: The present study analyzed the correlations between over-time changes in depressive symptoms and gray matter parameters of cortical thickness and subcortical volumes in non-demented PD patients. RESULTS: A significant correlation was observed, between increased scores for depression over time and lower cortical thickness over time in the right temporo-parietal junction, right occipital medial region, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right posterior cingulate region, left middle temporal as well as left supplementary motor area...
December 2, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917869/neurophysiological-characterization-of-attentional-performance-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia-patients-in-a-reverse-translated-task
#4
Jared W Young, Andrew W Bismark, Yinming Sun, Wendy Zhang, Meghan McIlwain, Ibrahim Grootendorst, Gregory A Light
Attentional dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ) contributes to the functional deficits ubiquitous to the disorder. Identifying the neural substrates of translational measures of attentional dysfunction would prove invaluable for developing therapeutics. Attentional performance is typically assessed via continuous performance tasks (CPTs), though many place additional cognitive demands with little cross-species test-relevance. Herein, event related potentials (ERPs) were utilized to investigate the neurophysiological correlates of attention and response inhibition of SZ and healthy participants, while they performed the cross-species translated five-choice CPT (5C-CPT)...
December 5, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916731/associations-between-the-cntnap2-gene-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-and-cognitive-performance-on-the-stroop-task
#5
Bi Zhu, Chuansheng Chen, Gui Xue, Xuemei Lei, Yunxin Wang, Jin Li, Robert K Moyzis, Jun Li, Qi Dong, Chongde Lin
The CNTNAP2 (contactin-associated protein-like 2) gene, highly expressed in the human prefrontal cortex, has been linked with autism and language impairment. Potential relationships between CNTNAP2, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and cognition have been suggested by previous clinical studies, but have not been directly examined in the same study. The current study collected structural MRI, genetic, and behavioral data in 317 healthy Chinese adults, and examined associations between CNTNAP2 variants, DLPFC, and cognitive performance (measured by the Stroop task)...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909453/the-effect-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-occupational-stress-among-health-care-workers-a-pilot-study
#6
Young In Kim, Sun Mi Kim, Hyungjin Kim, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to alleviate symptoms of treatment-resistant depression. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of rTMS treatment on alleviating occupational stress by evaluating clinical symptoms and quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). METHODS: Twenty-four health care workers were randomized to receive 12 sessions of active or sham rTMS delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909404/prefrontal-cortex-activity-is-associated-with-biobehavioral-components-of-the-stress-response
#7
Muriah D Wheelock, Nathaniel G Harnett, Kimberly H Wood, Tyler R Orem, Douglas A Granger, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Contemporary theory suggests that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function is associated with individual variability in the psychobiology of the stress response. Advancing our understanding of this complex biobehavioral pathway has potential to provide insight into processes that determine individual differences in stress susceptibility. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during a variation of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in 53 young adults. Salivary cortisol was assessed as an index of the stress response, trait anxiety was assessed as an index of an individual's disposition toward negative affectivity, and self-reported stress was assessed as an index of an individual's subjective psychological experience...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907134/reward-contingencies-improve-goal-directed-behavior-by-enhancing-posterior-brain-attentional-regions-and-increasing-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-cocaine-addicts
#8
Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan-Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Víctor Costumero, Juan-José Llopis-Llacer, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906119/degrading-traumatic-memories-with-eye-movements-a-pilot-functional-mri-study-in-ptsd
#9
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904120/high-frequency-rtms-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-case-series
#10
Wataru Kakuda, Ryo Momosaki, Naoki Yamada, Masahiro Abo
Structural and functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex seem to correlate with fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We consecutively applied facilitatory high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of seven CFS patients over three days. Five patients completed the 3-day protocol without any adverse events. For the other two patients, we had to reduce the stimulation intensity in response to mild adverse reactions...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902711/eeg-to-primary-rewards-predictive-utility-and-malleability-by-brain-stimulation
#11
Nicole Prause, Greg J Siegle, Choi Deblieck, Allan Wu, Marco Iacoboni
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is thought to affect reward processing mechanisms, which may increase and decrease reward sensitivity. To test the ability of TBS to modulate response to strong primary rewards, participants hypersensitive to primary rewards were recruited. Twenty men and women with at least two opposite-sex, sexual partners in the last year received two forms of TBS. Stimulations were randomized to avoid order effects and separated by 2 hours to reduce carryover. The two TBS forms have been demonstrated to inhibit (continuous) or excite (intermittent) the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using different pulse patterns, which links to brain areas associated with reward conditioning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899889/anodal-tdcs-to-right-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-facilitates-performance-for-novice-jazz-improvisers-but-hinders-experts
#12
David S Rosen, Brian Erickson, Youngmoo E Kim, Daniel Mirman, Roy H Hamilton, John Kounios
Research on creative cognition reveals a fundamental disagreement about the nature of creative thought, specifically, whether it is primarily based on automatic, associative (Type-1) or executive, controlled (Type-2) processes. We hypothesized that Type-1 and Type-2 processes make differential contributions to creative production that depend on domain expertise. We tested this hypothesis with jazz pianists whose expertise was indexed by the number of public performances given. Previous fMRI studies of musical improvisation have reported that domain expertise is characterized by deactivation of the right-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (r-DLPFC), a brain area associated with Type-2 executive processing...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895985/multi-channel-multi-distance-broadband-near-infrared-spectroscopy-system-to-measure-the-spatial-response-of-cellular-oxygen-metabolism-and-tissue-oxygenation
#13
Phong Phan, David Highton, Jonathan Lai, Martin Smith, Clare Elwell, Ilias Tachtsidis
We present a multi-channel, multi-distance broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system with the capability of measuring changes in haemoglobin concentrations (Δ[HbO2], Δ[HHb]), oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (Δ[oxCCO]) and tissue oxygen saturation (TOI) in the adult human brain. The main components of the instrument are two customized spectrographs and two light sources. Each spectrograph is lens-based to improve light throughput, has a grating enhanced to optimise reflection in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region and uses a front illuminated cooled CCD camera (-70° C) with a square chip dimension of 12...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895564/neural-systems-underlying-emotional-and-non-emotional-interference-processing-an-ale-meta-analysis-of-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#14
Min Xu, Guiping Xu, Yang Yang
Understanding how the nature of interference might influence the recruitments of the neural systems is considered as the key to understanding cognitive control. Although, interference processing in the emotional domain has recently attracted great interest, the question of whether there are separable neural patterns for emotional and non-emotional interference processing remains open. Here, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 78 neuroimaging experiments, and examined common and distinct neural systems for emotional and non-emotional interference processing...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894892/longitudinal-functional-brain-imaging-study-in-early-course-schizophrenia-before-and-after-cognitive-enhancement-therapy
#15
Matcheri S Keshavan, Shaun M Eack, Konasale M Prasad, Chiara S Haller, Raymond Y Cho
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired -social and non social cognition both of which lead to functional deficits. These deficits may benefit from cognitive remediation, but the neural underpinnings of such improvements have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We conducted a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study in early course schizophrenia patients randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or enriched supportive therapy (EST) and treated for two years...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892513/dissociable-early-attentional-control-mechanisms-underlying-cognitive-and-affective-conflicts
#16
Taolin Chen, Keith M Kendrick, Chunliang Feng, Shiyue Sun, Xun Yang, Xiaogang Wang, Wenbo Luo, Suyong Yang, Xiaoqi Huang, Pedro A Valdés-Sosa, Qiyong Gong, Jin Fan, Yue-Jia Luo
It has been well documented that cognitive conflict is sensitive to the relative proportion of congruent and incongruent trials. However, few studies have examined whether affective conflict processing is modulated as a function of proportion congruency (PC). To address this question we recorded event-related potentials (ERP) while subjects performed both cognitive and affective face-word Stroop tasks. By varying the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials in each block, we examined the extent to which PC impacts both cognitive and affective conflict control at different temporal stages...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891090/disrupted-nodal-and-hub-organization-account-for-brain-network-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Yuko Koshimori, Sang-Soo Cho, Marion Criaud, Leigh Christopher, Mark Jacobs, Christine Ghadery, Sarah Coakeley, Madeleine Harris, Romina Mizrahi, Clement Hamani, Anthony E Lang, Sylvain Houle, Antonio P Strafella
The recent application of graph theory to brain networks promises to shed light on complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to investigate functional changes in sensorimotor and cognitive networks in Parkinsonian patients, with a focus on inter- and intra-connectivity organization in the disease-associated nodal and hub regions using the graph theoretical analyses. Resting-state functional MRI data of a total of 65 participants, including 23 healthy controls (HCs) and 42 patients, were investigated in 120 nodes for local efficiency, betweenness centrality, and degree...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889392/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-affects-conflict-induced-behavioural-adaptation-in-a-wisconsin-card-sorting-test-analogue
#18
Erica A Boschin, Rogier B Mars, Mark J Buckley
A substantial body of literature has proposed a role for dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in supporting behavioural adaptation during conflict tasks. The vast majority of the evidence in support of this interpretation comes from neuroimaging studies. However, in order to unequivocally ascribe such a role to dlPFC, it is important to determine whether or not it is essential for this mechanism, and this can only be achieved by lesioning the area or interfering with its activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to dlPFC on performance on a conflict version of a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test analogue (used previously in circumscribed lesion studies in monkeys) in neurologically healthy human participants...
November 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887721/comparative-multimodal-meta-analysis-of-structural-and-functional-brain-abnormalities-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#19
Christina O Carlisi, Luke J Norman, Steve S Lukito, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share inhibitory control deficits possibly underlying poor control over stereotyped and repetitive g., v/r/ dACC /MPFC); and (iv) to indicate a pathway (e.g., if this is a pathway: bilateral putamen/caudate/nucleus accumbens / pallidum /amygdala/insula). BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent expressions of duality or alternatives. Please express these as and/or, and, or or . BPS style does not allow virgules to be used to represent a compound modifier such as "rostral/ dorsomedial ," which should be changed to hyphen(s), such as rostral- dorsomedial ...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876306/effects-of-hd-tdcs-on-memory-and-metamemory-for-general-knowledge-questions-that-vary-by-difficulty
#20
Elizabeth F Chua, Rifat Ahmed, Sandry M Garcia
BACKGROUND: The ability to monitor one's own memory is an important feature of normal memory and is an aspect of 'metamemory'. Lesion studies have shown dissociations between memory and metamemory, but only single dissociations have been shown using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). One potential reason that only single dissociations have been shown is that tDCS effects may be moderated by task difficulty. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We used high definition (HD) tDCS to test for dissociable roles of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic long-term memory and metamemory tasks...
November 1, 2016: Brain Stimulation
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