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Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634307/prefrontal-neurons-encode-a-solution-to-the-credit-assignment-problem
#1
Wael F Asaad, Peter M Lauro, János A Perge, Emad N Eskandar
To adapt successfully to our environments, we must use the outcomes of our choices to guide future behavior. Critically, we must be able to correctly assign credit for any particular outcome to the causal features which preceded it. In some cases, the causal features may be immediately evident, whereas in others they may be separated in time or intermingled with irrelevant environmental stimuli, creating a potentially nontrivial credit assignment problem. We examined the neuronal representation of information relevant for credit assignment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) of two male rhesus macaques performing a task that elicited key aspects of this problem...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#2
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631869/lateralized-hippocampal-volume-increase-following-high-frequency-left-prefrontal-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-patients-with-major-depression
#3
Shunsuke Hayasaka, Motoaki Nakamura, Yoshihiro Noda, Takuji Izuno, Takashi Saeki, Hideo Iwanari, Yoshio Hirayasu
AIM: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied as a treatment for patients with treatment-resistant depression in recent years, and a large body of evidence has demonstrated its therapeutic efficacy through stimulating neuronal plasticity. The aim of this study was to investigate structural alterations in the hippocampus (HIPP) and amygdala (AM) following conventional rTMS in patients with depression. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with depression underwent 10 daily 20-Hz left prefrontal rTMS over 2 weeks...
June 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631348/updating-of-working-memory-in-ecstasy-polydrug-users-findings-from-fnirs
#4
Catharine Montgomery, John E Fisk, Carl A Roberts
AIMS/OBJECTIVES: Cognitive deficits are now well documented in ecstasy (MDMA) users with type and relative demand of task emerging as important factors. The updating component of executive processes appears to be particularly affected. The study reported here used functional near infrared spectroscopy imaging to investigate changes in cortical haemodynamics during memory updating. METHOD: Twenty ecstasy users and 20 non-users completed verbal and spatial memory updating tasks and brain blood oxygenation and deoxygenation change was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy...
June 19, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#5
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618857/state-independent-and-dependent-neural-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-current-and-remitted-depression
#6
Qingsen Ming, Xue Zhong, Xiaocui Zhang, Weidan Pu, Daifeng Dong, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Xiang Wang, John A Detre, Shuqiao Yao, Hengyi Rao
OBJECTIVE: Stress is a strong risk factor for major depressive disorder, while sensitization to stress in remitted individuals plays a key role in depression recurrence. The present study explored the state-independent (trait) and dependent (state) neural responses to psychosocial stress in major depressive disorder. METHOD: Thirty-six patients with medication-naive first-episode current depression, 33 patients with remitted depression, and 36 demographically matched healthy control participants were administered the Montreal Imaging Stress Task during functional MRI...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614492/clinical-improvement-in-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-after-treatment-with-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-preliminary-results
#7
Julian Reyes-López, Josefina Ricardo-Garcell, Gabriela Armas-Castañeda, María García-Anaya, Iván Arango-De Montis, Jorge J González-Olvera, Francisco Pellicer
Objective: Current treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) consists of psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could be beneficial to improve some BPD symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical improvement in patients with BPD after application of rTMS over the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Method: Twenty-nine patients with BPD from the National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico, were randomized in two groups to receive 15 sessions of rTMS applied over the right (1 Hz, n=15) or left (5 Hz, n=14) DLPFC...
June 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614399/the-effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-over-the-left-dlpfc-on-cognitive-control-in-young-healthy-participants
#8
Yanmin Li, Lin Wang, Meng Jia, Jihong Guo, Huijun Wang, Mingwei Wang
A large body of evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is clinically effective in treating neuropsychiatric disorders and multiple sessions are commonly used. However, it is unknown whether multiple sessions of rTMS improve cognitive control, which is a function of the neural circuitry of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)-cingulate cortex in healthy individuals. In addition, it is still unclear which stages of neural processing are altered by rTMS. In this study, we investigated the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive control and explored the time course changes of cognitive processing after rTMS using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611694/acute-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-following-prefrontal-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#9
Guilhem Carle, Mehdi Touat, Nicolas Bruno, Damien Galanaud, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Richard Levy, Carole Azuar
The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611616/differential-functional-connectivity-alterations-of-two-subdivisions-within-the-right-dlpfc-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Julian Caspers, Christian Mathys, Felix Hoffstaedter, Martin Südmeyer, Edna C Cieslik, Christian Rubbert, Christian J Hartmann, Claudia R Eickhoff, Kathrin Reetz, Christian Grefkes, Jochen Michely, Bernd Turowski, Alfons Schnitzler, Simon B Eickhoff
Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607750/noninvasive-tongue-stimulation-combined-with-intensive-cognitive-and-physical-rehabilitation-induces-neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-multimodal-neuroimaging-study
#11
Gabriel Leonard, Yves Lapierre, Jen-Kai Chen, Rima Wardini, Joelle Crane, Alain Ptito
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have central nervous system (CNS) lesions that may impede cognitive and sensorimotor function. Few rehabilitative therapies are available. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to study effects of noninvasive tongue stimulation using the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator (PoNS™) combined with intensive cognitive and physical rehabilitation on working memory, gait, balance and concomitant changes in the brain...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607492/cognitive-characterization-of-schizophrenia-risk-variants-involved-in-synaptic-transmission-evidence-of-cacna1c-s-role-in-working-memory
#12
Donna Cosgrove, Omar Mothersill, Kimberley Kendall, Bettina Konte, Denise Harold, Ina Giegling, Annette Hartmann, Alex Richards, Kiran Mantripragada, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael Gill, Dan Rujescu, James Walters, Aiden Corvin, Derek W Morris, Gary Donohoe
With >100 common variants associated with schizophrenia risk, establishing their biological significance is a priority. We sought to establish cognitive effects of risk variants at loci implicated in synaptic transmission by (1) identifying GWAS schizophrenia variants whose associated gene function is related to synaptic transmission, and (2) testing for association between these and measures of neurocognitive function. We selected variants, reported in the largest GWAS to date, associated with genes involved in synaptic transmission...
June 13, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606245/prefrontal-brain-responsiveness-to-negative-stimuli-distinguishes-familial-risk-for-major-depression-from-acute-disorder
#13
Nils Opel, Ronny Redlich, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Dohm, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Christian Bürger, Leonie Plümpe, Judith Alferink, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Peter Zwanzger, Volker Arolt, Udo Dannlowski
BACKGROUND: Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605513/a-quadrantic-bias-in-prefrontal-representation-of-visual-mnemonic-space
#14
Matthew L Leavitt, Florian Pieper, Adam J Sachs, Julio C Martinez-Trujillo
Single neurons in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) are known to encode working memory (WM) representations of visual space. Psychophysical studies have shown that the horizontal and vertical meridians of the visual field can bias spatial information maintained in WM. However, most studies and models have tacitly assumed that dLPFC neurons represent mnemonic space homogenously. The anatomical organization of these representations has also eluded clear parametric description. We investigated these issues by recording from neuronal ensembles in macaque dLPFC with microelectrode arrays while subjects performed an oculomotor delayed-response task...
June 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604733/imaging-microglial-activation-in-individuals-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-an-in-vivo-pet-study-with-18-f-feppa
#15
Sina Hafizi, Tania Da Silva, Cory Gerritsen, Michael Kiang, R Michael Bagby, Ivana Prce, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Several lines of evidence implicate microglial activation and abnormal immune response in the etiology of psychosis. Previous positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging studies of the translocator protein 18 kDa, TSPO, were limited by low affinity of the first-generation radioligand, low resolution scanners, and small sample sizes. Moreover, there is a dearth of literature on microglial activation in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. We used a novel second-generation TSPO radioligand, [(18)F]FEPPA, to examine whether microglial activation is elevated in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus of antipsychotic-naïve CHR...
June 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602963/brain-activity-related-to-working-memory-for-temporal-order-and-object-information
#16
Brooke M Roberts, Laura A Libby, Marika C Inhoff, Charan Ranganath
Maintaining items in an appropriate sequence is important for many daily activities; however, remarkably little is known about the neural basis of human temporal working memory. Prior work suggests that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus, play a role in representing information about temporal order. The involvement of these areas in successful temporal working memory, however, is less clear. Additionally, it is unknown whether regions in the PFC and MTL support temporal working memory across different timescales, or at coarse or fine levels of temporal detail...
June 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600742/does-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-help-in-searching-for-the-lost-key-evidence-from-an-fnirs-study
#17
Marika Carrieri, Stefania Lancia, Alessia Bocchi, Marco Ferrari, Laura Piccardi, Valentina Quaresima
The Key Search Task (KST) is a neuropsychological test that requires strategies for searching a lost key in an imaginary field. This request may involve different cognitive processes as mental imagery and navigation planning. This study was aimed at investigating, by a twenty-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system, the hemodynamic response (i.e., oxygenated-hemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HHb) changes) of the prefrontal cortex in navigation planning. A right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) activation during the KST was hypothesized...
June 10, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597539/developmental-effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-serotonin-receptor-subtypes
#18
Yong Kee Choi, Matthew P Gardner, Frank I Tarazi
Antipsychotic medications are increasingly prescribed to pediatric and adolescent patients with psychotic diseases in spite of limited knowledge on the long-term effects of dissimilar antipsychotic drugs on developing brain. In this study, we quantified the levels of two major serotonin 5-HT1A , and 5-HT2A receptors in brain regions of developing rats after 3 weeks of treatment with typical (fluphenazine) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotics, and compared to similarly treated adult rats treated with olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine examined in previous studies...
June 8, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596484/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592893/regional-brain-functions-in-the-resting-state-indicative-of-potential-differences-between-depression-and-chronic-pain
#20
Atsuo Yoshino, Yasumasa Okamoto, Mitsuru Doi, Naofumi Otsuru, Go Okada, Masahiro Takamura, Naho Ichikawa, Satoshi Yokoyama, Hidehisa Yamashita, Shigeto Yamawaki
Complex relationships between depression and chronic pain have been reported in previous studies. However, only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated similarities and differences in neural systems underlying them. We examined the brain functions in the resting state of 43 patients with depression, 41 patients with chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) and 41 healthy controls, by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II)...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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