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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766672/ribcage-deformity-and-the-altered-breathing-pattern-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#1
Antonella LoMauro, Paolo Fraschini, Simona Pochintesta, Marianna Romei, Maria G D'Angelo, Andrea Aliverti
AIM: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by bones fragility and progressive deformity. Life expectancy is reduced in the non-lethal most severe type III form before the age of 10 years. The main cause of death in OI is respiratory insufficiency resulting from impaired thoracic function worsened by ribcage deformity and scoliosis. METHODS: We used opto-electronic plethysmography to study chest geometry, the ventilatory, and the thoraco-abdominal pattern at rest in supine position in children younger than 10 years...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756296/effect-of-obesity-on-oxygen-uptake-and-cardiovascular-dynamics-during-whole-body-and-leg-exercise-in-adult-males-and-females
#2
Simon Green, Eamon O'Connor, Catherine Kiely, Donal O'Shea, Mikel Egaña
Obesity has been associated with a slowing of V˙O2 dynamics in children and adolescents, but this problem has not been studied in adults. Cardiovascular mechanisms underlying this effect are not clear. In this study, 48 adults (18 males, 30 females) grouped according to body mass index (BMI) (lean < 25 kg·m-2 , overweight = 25-29.9 kg·m-2 , obese ≥30 kg·m-2 ) provided a fasting blood sample, completed a maximal graded exercise test and six bouts of submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, and performed two protocols of calf exercise...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750475/effects-of-losartan-and-allopurinol-on-cardiorespiratory-regulation-in-obstructive-sleep-apnoea
#3
Barbara J Morgan, Mihaela Teodorescu, David F Pegelow, Emily R Jackson, Devin L Schneider, David T Plante, James P Gapinski, Scott J Hetzel, John M Dopp
Chemoreflex sensitization produced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in rats is attenuated by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) blockade. AT1 R blockade and xanthine oxidase inhibition both ameliorate CIH-induced endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized treatment with losartan and allopurinol would reduce chemoreflex sensitivity and improve hypoxic vasodilation in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Eighty-six hypertensive patients with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥25 events/hr and no other cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, or metabolic disease were randomly assigned to receive allopurinol, losartan, or placebo for 6 weeks...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685414/a-novel-capn3-mutation-in-late-onset-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-with-early-respiratory-insufficiency
#4
Jennifer M Martinez-Thompson, Steven A Moore, Teerin Liewluck
We describe a 70 year-old independently ambulatory man with a 10-year history of progressive axial and limb-girdle weakness, hyperCKemia, and a 5-year history of dyspnea requiring nocturnal ventilatory support due to a known c.1309C>T (p.Arg437Cys) variant and a novel in-frame deletion of exons 17-19 in the calpain-3 encoding gene (CAPN3). Pulmonary function tests revealed neuromuscular respiratory weakness. Biceps femoris biopsy showed chronic myopathic changes, numerous lobulated fibers, and reduced calpain-3 immunoreactivity...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672230/diaphragm-plasticity-in-aging-and-disease-therapies-for-muscle-weakness-go-from-strength-to-strength
#5
Sarah M Greising, Coen A C Ottenheijm, Ken D O'Halloran, Esther Barreiro
The diaphragm is the main inspiratory muscle and is required to be highly active throughout the lifespan. The diaphragm muscle must be able to produce and sustain various behaviors that range from ventilatory to non-ventilatory such as those required for airway maintenance and clearance. Throughout the lifespan various circumstances and conditions may affect the ability of the diaphragm muscle to generate requisite forces and in turn the diaphragm muscle may undergo significant weakness and dysfunction. For example, hypoxic stress, critical illness, cancer cachexia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and age-related sarcopenia all represent conditions in which significant diaphragm muscle dysfunction exits...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665262/effects-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-copd-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Marc Beaumont, Patrice Forget, Francis Couturaud, Gregory Reychler
OBJECTIVES: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), quality of life and exercise capacity are altered in relationship to dyspnea. Benefits of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on quality of life, dyspnea and exercise capacity were demonstrated, but when it is associated to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR), its efficacy on dyspnea is not demonstrated. The aim of this systematic review with meta analysis was to verify the effect of IMT using threshold devices in COPD patients on dyspnea, quality of life, exercise capacity and inspiratory muscles strength, and the added effect on dyspnea of IMT associated with PR (versus PR alone)...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653187/mid-cervical-spinal-cord-contusion-causes-robust-deficits-in-respiratory-parameters-and-pattern-variability
#7
Philippa M Warren, Cara Campanaro, Frank J Jacono, Warren J Alilain
Mid-cervical spinal cord contusion disrupts both the pathways and motoneurons vital to the activity of inspiratory muscles. The present study was designed to determine if a rat contusion model could result in a measurable deficit to both ventilatory and respiratory motor function under "normal" breathing conditions at acute to chronic stages post trauma. Through whole body plethysmography and electromyography we assessed respiratory output from three days to twelve weeks after a cervical level 3 (C3) contusion...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630067/respiratory-effects-of-thoracic-load-carriage-exercise-and-inspiratory-muscle-training-as-a-strategy-to-optimize-respiratory-muscle-performance-with-load-carriage
#8
Ren-Jay Shei, Robert F Chapman, Allison H Gruber, Timothy D Mickleborough
Many occupational and recreational settings require the use of protective and/or load-bearing apparatuses worn over the thoracic cavity, known as thoracic load carriage (LC). Compared to normal, unloaded exercise, thoracic LC exercise places an additional demand on the respiratory and limb locomotor systems by altering ventilatory mechanics as well as circulatory responses to exercise, thus accelerating the development of fatigue in the diaphragm and accessory respiratory muscles compared to unloaded exercise...
December 2017: Springer science reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608976/respiratory-muscles-stretching-acutely-increases-expansion-in-hemiparetic-chest-wall
#9
Catarina Rattes, Shirley Lima Campos, Caio Morais, Thiago Gonçalves, Larissa Bouwman Sayão, Valdecir Castor Galindo-Filho, Verônica Parreira, Andrea Aliverti, Armèle Dornelas de Andrade
Individuals post-stroke may present restrictive ventilatory pattern generated from changes in the functionality of respiratory system due to muscle spasticity and contractures. Objective was to assess the acute effects after respiratory muscle stretching on the ventilatory pattern and volume distribution of the chest wall in stroke subjects. Ten volunteers with right hemiparesis after stroke and a mean age of 60 ± 5.7 years were randomized into the following interventions: respiratory muscle stretching and at rest (control)...
March 30, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600726/aerobic-with-resistance-training-or-aerobic-training-alone-poststroke-a-secondary-analysis-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Susan Marzolini, Dina Brooks, Paul Oh, David Jagroop, Bradley J MacIntosh, Nicole D Anderson, David Alter, Dale Corbett
BACKGROUND: Stroke is associated with muscle atrophy and weakness, mobility deficits, and cardiorespiratory deconditioning. Aerobic and resistance training (AT and RT) each have the potential to improve deficits, yet there is limited evidence on the utility of combined training. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of AT+RT versus AT on physiological outcomes in chronic stroke with motor impairments. METHODS: Participants (n = 73) were randomized to 6 months of AT (5 d/wk) or AT+RT (3 and 2 d/wk, respectively)...
March 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575957/ventilator-induced-lung-injury-during-controlled-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-less-is-probably-better
#11
Fernanda Ferreira Cruz, Lorenzo Ball, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Paolo Pelosi
Mechanical ventilation is required to support respiratory function in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but it may promote lung damage, a phenomenon known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Areas covered: Several mechanisms of VILI have been described, such as: inspiratory and/or expiratory stress inducing overdistension (volutrauma); interfaces between collapsed or edema-filled alveoli with surrounding open alveoli, acting as stress raisers; alveoli that repetitively open and close during tidal breathing (atelectrauma); and peripheral airway dynamics...
March 26, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571133/lc-ms-based-serum-fingerprinting-reveals-significant-dysregulation-of-phospholipids-in-chronic-heart-failure
#12
M Marcinkiewicz-Siemion, M Ciborowski, K Ptaszynska-Kopczynska, A Szpakowicz, A Lisowska, M Jasiewicz, E Waszkiewicz, A Kretowski, W J Musial, K A Kaminski
Cardiac and extracardiac lipid metabolism is known to be significantly altered in the course of the heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF), however the precise mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to use of untargeted metabolomics to identify and validate changes in the blood metabolites profile, occurring as a result of HF-REF development. The analyses were performed first in the derivation set (36 chronic HF-REF patients and 19 controls without the disease) and repeated in validation cohort (31 chronic HF-REF patients and 20 controls)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565769/hyperadditive-ventilatory-response-arising-from-interaction-between-the-carotid-chemoreflex-and-the-muscle-mechanoreflex-in-healthy-humans
#13
Talita M Silva, Liliane C Aranda, Marcelle Paula-Ribeiro, Diogo M Oliveira, Wladimir Musetti Medeiros, Lauro C Vianna, Luiz E Nery, Bruno M Silva
Physical exercise potentiates the carotid chemoreflex control of ventilation (VE). Hyperadditive neural interactions may partially mediate the potentiation. However, some neural interactions remain incompletely explored. As the potentiation occurs even during low-intensity exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the carotid chemoreflex and the muscle mechanoreflex could interact in a hyperadditive fashion. Fourteen young healthy subjects inhaled, randomly, in separate visits, 12% O2 to stimulate the carotid chemoreflex, and 21% O2 as control...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554438/skeletal-muscle-dysfunction-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-what-we-know-and-can-do-for-our-patients
#14
Ariel Jaitovich, Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle dysfunction occurs in COPD patients and affects both ventilatory and non-ventilatory muscle groups. It represents a very important comorbidity that associates with poor quality of life and reduced survival, and results from a complex combination of functional, metabolic and anatomical alterations leading to suboptimal muscle work. Muscle atrophy, altered fiber type and metabolism and chest wall remodeling -in the case of the respiratory muscles- are relevant etiologic contributors to this process...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535259/high-frequency-airway-oscillating-device-for-respiratory-muscle-training-in-subjects-with-copd
#15
Enya Daynes, Neil J Greening, Theresa C Harvey-Dunstan, Sally J Singh
BACKGROUND: COPD is characterized by expiratory flow limitation, which results in symptomatic dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity. Changes in breathing mechanics mean the respiratory muscles are unable to respond to the ventilatory demands, increasing the sensation of dyspnea. A high-frequency oscillating device has been developed to improve dyspnea in patients with COPD. We conducted a feasibility trial to gain insight into the potential for recruitment, retention, and study design for a future randomized controlled trial...
May 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517834/properties-of-the-vastus-lateralis-muscle-in-relation-to-age-and-physiological-function-in-master-cyclists-aged-55-79-years
#16
Ross D Pollock, Katie A O'Brien, Lorna J Daniels, Kathrine B Nielsen, Anthea Rowlerson, Niharika A Duggal, Norman R Lazarus, Janet M Lord, Andrew Philp, Stephen D R Harridge
In this study, results are reported from the analyses of vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples obtained from a subset (n = 90) of 125 previously phenotyped, highly active male and female cyclists aged 55-79 years in regard to age. We then subsequently attempted to uncover associations between the findings in muscle and in vivo physiological functions. Muscle fibre type and composition (ATPase histochemistry), size (morphometry), capillary density (immunohistochemistry) and mitochondrial protein content (Western blot) in relation to age were determined in the biopsy specimens...
April 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509982/development-of-an-anaesthetized-rat-model-of-exercise-hyperpnoea-an-integrative-model-of-respiratory-control-using-an-equilibrium-diagram
#17
Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Kou Manabe, Shinya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small-animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anaesthetized-rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using a respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463621/ventilatory-support-or-respiratory-muscle-training-as-adjuncts-to-exercise-in-obese-cpap-treated-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Isabelle Vivodtzev, Renaud Tamisier, Marilie Croteau, Jean-Christian Borel, Angélique Grangier, Bernard Wuyam, Patrick Lévy, Caroline Minville, Frédéric Sériès, François Maltais, Jean-Louis Pépin
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity are interdependent chronic diseases sharing reduced exercise tolerance and high cardiovascular risk. INTERVENTION: A 3-month intervention with innovative training modalities would further improve functional capacity and cardiovascular health than usual cycle exercise training in already continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-treated obese patients with OSA. METHODS: Fifty three patients (35<body mass index (BMI) <45 kg/m2 ) were randomly allocated to exercise training on a cycle ergometer, either alone (ERGO) or with respiratory muscle training (ERGO+RMT) or non-invasive ventilation (ERGO+NIV)...
February 20, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426048/-respiratory-insufficiency-state-of-the-art-diagnosis-and-therapy
#19
Sebastian Fritsch, Johannes Bickenbach
The term "respiratory insufficiency" (RI) describes the inability of an organism to maintain the gas exchange between the ambient air and its peripheral organs. This causes a hypoxia and hypercapnia. The mechanisms that lead to RI are either an impaired gas exchange in the lung tissue or an alveolar hypoventilation caused by an insufficient ventilatory pump. Thus the RI is divided into a hypoxic or a hypercapnic RI. The diagnostic procedure for RI contains several examinations. One key aspect of the exploration is the identification of potential reversible and thus correctable reasons of the RI...
February 2018: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424007/inspiratory-muscle-training-improves-exercise-capacity-with-thoracic-load-carriage
#20
Ren-Jay Shei, Robert F Chapman, Allison H Gruber, Timothy D Mickleborough
Thoracic load carriage (LC) exercise impairs exercise performance compared to unloaded exercise, partially due to impaired respiratory mechanics. We investigated the effects of LC on exercise and diaphragmatic fatigue in a constant-load exercise task; and whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved exercise capacity and diaphragmatic fatigue with LC. Twelve recreationally active males completed three separate running trials to exhaustion (Tlim ) at a fixed speed eliciting 70% of their V˙O2max . The first two trials were completed either unloaded (UL) or while carrying a 10 kg backpack (LC)...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
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