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ventilatory muscle

Jacob Zeitani, Marco Russo, Eugenio Pompeo, Gian Luigi Sergiacomi, Luigi Chiariello
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in patients with chronic complex sternum dehiscence, the use of muscle flap repair minimizes the occurrence of paradoxical motion of the chest wall (CWPM) when compared to sternal rewiring, eventually leading to better respiratory function and clinical outcomes during follow-up. METHODS: In a propensity score matching analysis, out of 94 patients who underwent sternal reconstruction, 20 patients were selected: 10 patients underwent sternal reconstruction with bilateral pectoralis muscle flaps (group 1) and 10 underwent sternal rewiring (group 2)...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Matthieu Dubois, Cécile Chenivesse, Mathieu Raux, Adrian Morales-Robles, Marie-Cécile Nierat, Gilles Garcia, Xavier Navarro-Sune, Mario Chavez, Jacques Martinerie, Thomas Similowski
: Spontaneous ventilation in mammals is driven by automatic brainstem networks that generate the respiratory rhythm and increase ventilation in the presence of increased carbon dioxide production. Hypocapnia decreases the drive to breathe and induces apnea. In humans, this occurs during sleep but not during wakefulness. We hypothesized that hypocapnic breathing would be associated with respiratory-related cortical activity similar to that observed during volitional breathing, inspiratory constraints, or in patients with defective automatic breathing (preinspiratory potentials)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Juliana Arcanjo Lino, Gabriela Carvalho Gomes, Nancy Delma Silva Vega Canjura Sousa, Andrea K Carvalho, Marcelo Emanoel Bezerra Diniz, Antonio Brazil Viana Junior, Marcelo Alcantara Holanda
BACKGROUND: Teaching mechanical ventilation at the bedside with real patients is difficult with many logistic limitations. Mechanical ventilators virtual simulators (MVVS) may have the potential to facilitate mechanical ventilation (MV) training by allowing Web-based virtual simulation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and describe the current available MVVS, to compare the usability of their interfaces as a teaching tool and to review the literature on validation studies...
June 14, 2016: JMIR Med Educ
James P Gavin, Stephen D Myers, Mark E Willems
BACKGROUND: We examined the effect of early-onset of muscle damage and low muscle glycogen on cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to low-intensity exercise. METHODS: Twelve men cycled for 10 min at 50% maximal oxygen uptake before, and 12 h after a morning downhill run (five, 8 min bouts at -12% gradient, with 2 min rests) under normal (NORM) and lowered glycogen (LOW) conditions, following a cross-over design with conditions separated by six weeks. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded, with oxidation measures derived from stoichiometry equations...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, S Delanaud, T Porcher, A Barnabé, L Gaillard, N Jaunet, T Weissland
: Exercise prescription was generally based on the determination of ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Changes in surface electromyographic activity (EMGth1, EMGth2) were also related to VT1 and VT2 in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the occurrence of EMGth1 and EMGth2 and whether these events accompany VT1 and VT2 during CPX in cardiac patients (CP). METHOD: Thirty-four CP (62.1±7.3years, 172...
September 30, 2016: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Dannuey M Cardoso, Guilherme A F Fregonezi, Renan T Jost, Ricardo Gass, Cristine L Alberton, Isabella M Albuquerque, Dulciane N Paiva, Sérgio S M Barreto
Objective: To investigate the acute effects of EPAP on the activity of sternocleidomastoid (SCM), parasternal muscles and ventilatory parameters in COPD patients. Method: Twenty-four patients with COPD were studied using surface electromyography (sEMG) and a ventilometer. Patients were randomly assigned to EPAP 10 cmH2O-EPAP10 or 15 cmH2O-EPAP15 for 20 minutes. Results: The parasternal muscle sEMG activity increased during EPAP10 and EPAP15; however, a greater and significant increase was observed with EPAP10 (mean between-group difference: 12...
September 16, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Thomas Péron, Raphaëlle Plassat
OBJECTIVE: The "Centre médical & pédagogique (CM&P) de Rennes-Beaulieu" prepares adolescents for surgical treatment of their idiopathic scoliosis (IS). This surgery has respiratory short-term consequences to the forefront of immediate complications. Two years after the surgery, the ventilatory status is correlated to preoperative pulmonary function. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the effects of our preparation program. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight teenagers followed our at home preparation program, including aerobic training, inspiratory muscle training and chest mobilizations during 2 months...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Daniel T Cannon, Ana Claudia Coelho, Robert Cao, Andrew Cheng, Janos Porszasz, Richard Casaburi, Harry B Rossiter
Muscle fatigue (a reduced power for a given activation) is common following exercise in COPD. Whether muscle fatigue, and reduced maximal voluntary locomotor power, are sufficient to limit whole-body exercise in COPD is unknown. We hypothesized in COPD: 1) exercise is terminated with a locomotor muscle power reserve; 2) reduction in maximal locomotor power is related to ventilatory limitation; and 3) muscle fatigue at intolerance is less than age-matched controls. We used a rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling to measure the decline in peak isokinetic power at the limit of incremental exercise ('performance fatigue') in 13 COPD (FEV1 49±17 %pred) and 12 controls...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Piotr Niewinski, Dariusz Janczak, Artur Rucinski, Stanislaw Tubek, Zoar J Engelman, Pawel Piesiak, Przemyslaw Jazwiec, Waldemar Banasiak, Marat Fudim, Paul A Sobotka, Shahrokh Javaheri, Emma C J Hart, Julian F R Paton, Piotr Ponikowski
AIMS: Augmented reflex responses from peripheral chemoreceptors, which are mainly localized in the carotid bodies (CBs), characterize patients with systolic heart failure and contribute to adrenergic hyperactivation. We investigated whether surgical resection of CBs in these patients can be performed safely to decrease sympathetic tone. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 10 male patients with systolic heart failure (age, 59 ± 3 years; LVEF, 27 ± 7%) who underwent unilateral right-sided CB resection (four patients) or bilateral CB resection (six patients)...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Stephan van der Zwaard, Richard T Jaspers, Ilse J Blokland, Chantal Achterberg, Jurrian M Visser, Anne R den Uil, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Koen Levels, Dionne A Noordhof, Arnold de Haan, Jos J de Koning, Willem J van der Laarse, Cornelis J de Ruiter
BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements of oxygenation reflect O2 delivery and utilization in exercising muscle and may improve detection of a critical exercise threshold. PURPOSE: First, to detect an oxygenation breakpoint (Δ[O2HbMb-HHbMb]-BP) and compare this breakpoint to ventilatory thresholds during a maximal incremental test across sexes and training status. Second, to assess reproducibility of NIRS signals and exercise thresholds and investigate confounding effects of adipose tissue thickness on NIRS measurements...
2016: PloS One
Shehab M Abd El-Kader, Osama H Al-Jiffri, Fadwa M Al-Shreef
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a main risk for morbidity, associated with alterations in systemic inflammation. Recent studies proved that morbidity and mortality of COPD is related to systemic inflammation as it contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, increase of inflammatory cytokines adversely affects quality of life, alteration in ventilatory and skeletal muscles functions. Moreover, exercise training has many beneficial effects in correction of the adverse effects of COPD...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Kristen E Elstner, John W Read, Omar Rodriguez-Acevedo, Kevin Ho-Shon, John Magnussen, Nabeel Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: A rarely used technique for enabling closure of large ventral hernias with loss of domain is preoperative progressive pneumoperitoneum (PPP), which uses intermittent insufflation to gradually stretch the contracted abdominal wall muscles, increasing the capacity of the abdominal cavity. This allows the re-introduction of herniated viscera into the abdominal cavity and assists in closure of giant hernias which may otherwise be considered inoperable. METHODS: This was a prospective study assessing 16 patients between 2013 and 2015 with multi-recurrent ventral hernia...
August 29, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Norio Hotta, Kaoru Yamamoto, Hisayoshi Ogata, Patrick Maher, Naoya Okumura, Koji Ishida
Previous research has shown an exaggeration in exercise hyperpnea 2 days after eccentric exercise (ECC). Enhancement in central command has been suggested as one candidate to account for this effect given that ECC-induced neuromuscular dysfunction increases relative exercise intensity, thus resulting in reinforcement of effort sense. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to elucidate whether the degree of alteration in effort sense caused by ECC affects exercise hyperpnea. Ten subjects performed 20-s single-arm extension-flexion exercises with weight strapped to the wrist, and ventilatory response was measured before (Pre) and 2 days after ECC (D2)...
2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
J Díaz-Crespo, Y Vázquez-Mambrilla, F García-Herrera
The increased use of surgery as a treatment or as an alternative for improvement means that we have a larger number of patients in the operating theatre, including those who suffer from rare diseases. Poland Syndrome is a rare congenital disease associated with muscle development. These patients may have a broad spectrum of abnormalities, which include thoracic anomalies, which can alter the ventilatory management at the level of the airway; the possible onset of malignant hyperthermia. This leads the anaesthetist to take certain preventive measures...
August 17, 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
François Vermeulen, Gilles Garcia, Vincent Ninane, Pierantonio Laveneziana
Limitation of activity is the most cited symptom described by uncontrolled asthma patients. Assessment of activity limitation can be undertaken through several ways, more or less complex, subjective or objective. Yet little is known about the link between patients sensations and objective measurements. The present review reports the current knowledge regarding activity limitation and symptom perception (i.e., exertional dyspnea) in adult patients with asthma. This work is based on references indexed by PubMed, irrespective of the year of publication...
August 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Sarah M Greising, Carlos B Mantilla, Gary C Sieck
The diaphragm muscle must be able to generate sufficient forces to accomplish a range of ventilatory and non-ventilatory behaviors throughout life. Measurements of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) can be conducted during eupnea, hypoxia (10 % O2)-hypercapnia (5 % CO2), chemical airway stimulation (i.e., sneezing), spontaneously occurring deep breaths (i.e., sighs), sustained airway or tracheal occlusion, and maximal efforts elicited via bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation, representing the full range of motor behaviors available by the diaphragm muscle...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hui C Choo, Kazunori Nosaka, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Mohammed Ihsan, Chow C Yeo, Chris R Abbiss
This study compared the effect of postexercise water immersion (WI) at different temperatures on common femoral artery blood flow (CFA), muscle (total haemoglobin; tHb) and skin perfusion (cutaneous vascular conductance; CVC), assessed by Doppler ultrasound, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and laser Doppler flowmetry, respectively. Given that heat stress may influence the vascular response during cooling, nine men cycled for 25 min at the first ventilatory threshold followed by intermittent 30-s cycling at 90% peak power until exhaustion at 32·8 ± 0·4°C and 32 ± 5% RH...
July 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Graham R Scott, Victoria Matey, Julie-Anne Mendoza, Kathleen M Gilmour, Steve F Perry, Vera M F Almeida-Val, Adalberto L Val
Air breathing in fish is commonly believed to have arisen as an adaptation to aquatic hypoxia. The effectiveness of air breathing for tissue O2 supply depends on the ability to avoid O2 loss as oxygenated blood from the air-breathing organ passes through the gills. Here, we evaluated whether the armoured catfish (Hypostomus aff. pyreneusi)-a facultative air breather-can avoid branchial O2 loss while air breathing in aquatic hypoxia, and we measured various other respiratory and metabolic traits important for O2 supply and utilization...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Baptiste Chéhère, Valérie Bougault, Alice Gicquello, Benoit Wallaert
INTRODUCTION: The 6-minute stepper test (6MST) has been used as an alternative to the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to assess exercise tolerance in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Recent data suggest that the tests may involve different energy pathways and cardiorespiratory responses. We thus aimed to compare the cardiorespiratory responses of ILD patients during the 6MWT and the 6MST. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with ILD were randomised to perform both tests in the order 6MST→6MWT (n=16) or 6MWT→6MST (n=15)...
July 18, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Robin S Howard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the mechanisms and abnormalities of respiratory function in neuromuscular disease is critical to supporting the patient and maintaining ventilation in the face of acute or chronic progressive impairment. RECENT FINDINGS: Retrospective clinical studies reviewing the care of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and myasthenia have shown a disturbingly high mortality following step-down from intensive care. This implies high dependency and rehabilitation management is failing despite evidence that delayed improvement can occur with long-term care...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
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