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Dendritic spines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912711/increased-hippocampal-probdnf-contributes-to-memory-impairments-in-aged-mice
#2
Mona Buhusi, Chris Etheredge, Ann-Charlotte Granholm, Catalin V Buhusi
Memory decline during aging or accompanying neurodegenerative diseases, represents a major health problem. Neurotrophins have long been considered relevant to the mechanisms of aging-associated cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Mature Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its precursor (proBDNF) can both be secreted in response to neuronal activity and exert opposing effects on neuronal physiology and plasticity. In this study, biochemical analyses revealed that increased levels of proBDNF are present in the aged mouse hippocampus relative to young and that the level of hippocampal proBDNF inversely correlates with the ability to perform in a spatial memory task, the water radial arm maze (WRAM)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911966/fluoxetine-administration-during-adolescence-attenuates-cognitive-and-synaptic-deficits-in-adult-3%C3%A3-tgad-mice
#3
Dong-Sheng Sun, Li-Feng Gao, Li Jin, Hao Wu, Qun Wang, You Zhou, Shuhao Fan, Xia Jiang, Dan Ke, Hao Lei, Jian-Zhi Wang, Gong-Ping Liu
Fluoxetine (FLX) has broad neurobiological functions and neuroprotective effects; however, the preventive effects of FLX on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been reported. Here, we studied whether adolescent administration of fluoxetine can prevent memory deficits in AD transgenic mice that harbour PS1m146v, APPswe and TauP301L mutations (3 × TgAD). FLX was applied through peritoneal injection to the mice at postnatal day 35 (p35) for 15 consecutive days, and the effects of FLX were observed at 6-month...
September 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904093/sodium-dynamics-in-pyramidal-neuron-dendritic-spines-synaptically-evoked-entry-predominantly-through-ampa-receptors-and-removal-by-diffusion
#4
Kenichi Miyazaki, William N Ross
Dendritic spines are key elements underlying synaptic integration and cellular plasticity, but many features of these important structures are not known or are controversial. We examined these properties with newly developed simultaneous sodium and calcium imaging that had single spine resolution in pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices from either sex. Indicators for both ions were loaded through the somatic patch pipette, which also recorded electrical responses. Fluorescence changes were detected with a high speed, low noise CCD camera...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904092/map1b-light-chain-modulates-synaptic-transmission-via-ampa-receptor-intracellular-trapping
#5
Rocío Palenzuela, Yolanda Gutiérrez, Jonathan E Draffin, Argentina Lario, Marion Benoist, José A Esteban
The regulated transport of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) to the synaptic membrane is a key mechanism to determine the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. In this work, we uncovered a new role for the microtubule-associated protein MAP1B, in modulating the access of AMPARs to the postsynaptic membrane. Using mice and rats of either sex, we show that MAP1B light chain (LC) accumulates in the somatodendritic compartment of hippocampal neurons, where it forms immobile complexes on microtubules that limit vesicular transport...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900386/altered-developmental-expression-of-the-astrocyte-secreted-factors-hevin-and-sparc-in-the-fragile-x-mouse-model
#6
Jessica Wallingford, Angela L Scott, Kelly Rodrigues, Laurie C Doering
Astrocyte dysfunction has been indicated in many neurodevelopmental disorders, including Fragile X Syndrome (FXS). FXS is caused by a deficiency in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates the translation of numerous mRNAs and its loss disturbs the composition of proteins important for dendritic spine and synapse development. Here, we investigated whether the astrocyte-derived factors hevin and SPARC, known to regulate excitatory synapse development, have altered expression in FXS. Specifically, we analyzed the expression of these factors in wild-type (WT) mice and in fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) knock-out (KO) mice that lack FMRP expression...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900187/electrostatics-of-non-neutral-biological-microdomains
#7
J Cartailler, Z Schuss, D Holcman
Voltage and charge distributions in cellular microdomains regulate communications, excitability, and signal transduction. We report here new electrical laws in a biological cell, which follow from a nonlinear electro-diffusion model. These newly discovered laws derive from the geometrical cell-membrane properties, such as membrane curvature, volume, and surface area. The electro-diffusion laws can now be used to predict and interpret voltage distribution in cellular microdomains such as synapses, dendritic spine, cilia and more...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#8
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and with typical symptoms such as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities and personality changes, that are thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioural phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#9
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899819/information-content-of-dendritic-spines-after-motor-learning
#10
Davide Viggiano, Luisa Speranza, Marianna Crispino, Gian Carlo Bellenchi, Umberto di Porzio, Attilio Iemolo, Elvira De Leonibus, Floriana Volpicelli, Carla Perrone-Capano
Dendritic spines, small protrusions emerging from the dendrites of most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, are highly dynamic structures and their shape and number is continuously modulated by memory formation and other adaptive changes of the brain. In this study, using a behavioral paradigm of motor learning, we applied the non-linear analysis of dendritic spines to study spine complexity along dendrites of cortical and subcortical neural systems, such as the basal ganglia, that sustain important motor learning processes...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891791/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-idol-regulates-synaptic-apoer2-levels-and-is-important-for-plasticity-and-learning
#11
Jie Gao, Mate Marosi, Jinkuk Choi, Jennifer M Achiro, Sangmok Kim, Sandy Li, Klara Otis, Kelsey C Martin, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Peter Tontonoz
Neuronal ApoE receptors are linked to learning and memory, but the pathways governing their abundance, and the mechanisms by which they affect the function of neural circuits are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL determines synaptic ApoER2 protein levels in response to neuronal activation and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis and plasticity. IDOL-dependent changes in ApoER2 abundance modulate dendritic filopodia initiation and synapse maturation. Loss of IDOL in neurons results in constitutive overexpression of ApoER2 and is associated with impaired activity-dependent structural remodeling of spines and defective LTP in primary neuron cultures and hippocampal slices...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890419/arc-protein-a-flexible-hub-for-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition
#12
REVIEW
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Sudarshan Patil, Maria Steene Eriksen, Clive R Bramham
Mammalian excitatory synapses express diverse types of synaptic plasticity. A major challenge in neuroscience is to understand how a neuron utilizes different types of plasticity to sculpt brain development, function, and behavior. Neuronal activity-induced expression of the immediate early protein, Arc, is critical for long-term potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission, homeostatic synaptic scaling, and adaptive functions such as long-term memory formation. However, the molecular basis of Arc protein function as a regulator of synaptic plasticity and cognition remains a puzzle...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890345/prosapip1-dependent-synaptic-adaptations-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-drive-alcohol-intake-seeking-and-reward
#13
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Jung Hoon Shin, Feng Liu, Martin F Adrover, Samuel A Sakhai, Marcelo F Lopez, Khanhky Phamluong, William C Griffin, Howard C Becker, Kevin J Bender, Veronica A Alvarez, Dorit Ron
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a transducer of local dendritic translation, participates in learning and memory processes as well as in mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. Using an unbiased RNA-seq approach, we identified Prosapip1 as a novel downstream target of mTORC1 whose translation and consequent synaptic protein expression are increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice excessively consuming alcohol. We demonstrate that alcohol-dependent increases in Prosapip1 levels promote the formation of actin filaments, leading to changes in dendritic spine morphology of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs)...
September 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889007/selective-deletion-of-the-oxytocin-gene-remodels-the-number-and-shape-of-dendritic-spines-in-the-medial-amygdala-of-males-with-and-without-sexual-experience
#14
Roberta Oriques Becker, Alberto A Rasia-Filho, Márcia Giovenardi
Oxytocin has central actions that modulate synaptic plasticity and the occurrence of social behavior in rodents. The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) composes a sexually dimorphic neural circuit for the display of male sexual behavior. Local dendritic spines are notably plastic and affected by context-dependent social stimuli. Here, we examined the effects of the selective deletion of the OT gene (OTKO) in the number and shape of Golgi-impregnated dendritic spines in the MePD of näive and sexually experienced (SexExp) male mice (n=6 each group)...
September 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887132/structure-and-diversity-of-human-dendritic-spines-evidenced-by-a-new-three-dimensional-reconstruction-procedure-for-golgi-staining-and-light-microscopy
#15
Roman Reberger, Aline Dall'Oglio, Claudio R Jung, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
BACKGROUND: Different approaches aim to unravel detailed morphological features of neural cells. Dendritic spines are multifunctional units that reflect cellular connectivity, synaptic strength and plasticity. NEW METHOD: A novel three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction procedure is introduced for visualization of dendritic spines from human postmortem brain tissue using brightfield microscopy. The segmentation model was based on thresholding the intensity values of the dendrite spine image along 'z' stacks...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883020/increased-gsnor-expression-during-aging-impairs-cognitive-function-and-decreases-s-nitrosation-of-camkii%C3%AE
#16
Yuying Zhang, Kaiyuan Wu, Wenting Su, Deng-Feng Zhang, Ping Wang, Xinhua Qiao, Qin Yao, Zengqiang Yuan, Yong-Gang Yao, Guanghui Liu, Chen Zhang, Limin Liu, Chen Chang
As the population ages, an increasing number of people suffer from age-related cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here, we found that S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), the key enzyme that metabolizes intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and regulates S-nitrosation, was significantly increased in the hippocampus of both aging humans and mice. Transgenic mice overexpressing GSNOR exclusively in neurons showed cognitive impairment in behavioral tests, including the Morris water maze, fear conditioning and the Y-maze test...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882412/a-flavonoid-agonist-of-the-trkb-receptor-for-bdnf-improves-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-ds
#17
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Sandra Guidi, Marco Emili, Beatrice Uguagliati, Maria Elisa Salvalai, Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli, Roberto Rimondini, Renata Bartesaghi
Intellectual disability is the unavoidable hallmark of Down syndrome (DS), with a heavy impact on public health. Reduced neurogenesis and impaired neuron maturation are considered major determinants of altered brain function in DS. Since the DS brain starts at a disadvantage, attempts to rescue neurogenesis and neuron maturation should take place as soon as possible. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays a key role in brain development by specifically binding to tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB)...
September 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880744/the-effects-of-phenylethanoid-glycosides-derived-from-herba-cistanche-on-cognitive-deficits-and-antioxidant-activities-in-male-samp8-mice
#18
Jian-Xin Jia, Xu-Sheng Yan, Zhi-Ping Cai, Wei Song, Dong-Sheng Huo, Bai-Feng Zhang, He Wang, Zhan-Jun Yang
Cognitive deficits are closely associated with hippocampal synaptic changes. Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhG), derived from Herba cistanche, are known to exert protective effects on cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms of this herbal extract on cognitive performance remain unclear. The aim of this study was thus to examine the protective mechanism attributed to PhG on cognitive deficits in an AD senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model. Cognitive deficit parameters examined included (1) Morris water maze (MWM) assessing cognitive performance and (2) quantification of dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 region by Golgi staining, a molecular biomarker of synaptic function...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880414/levodopa-treatment-and-dendritic-spine-pathology
#19
REVIEW
Haruo Nishijima, Tatsuya Ueno, Yukihisa Funamizu, Shinya Ueno, Masahiko Tomiyama
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Levodopa is the most effective treatment for the motor symptoms of PD. However, chronic oral levodopa treatment can lead to various motor and nonmotor complications because of nonphysiological pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation in the brain. Examinations of autopsy cases with PD have revealed a decreased number of dendritic spines of striatal neurons. Animal models of PD have revealed altered density and morphology of dendritic spines of neurons in various brain regions after dopaminergic denervation or dopaminergic denervation plus levodopa treatment, indicating altered synaptic transmission...
September 7, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878396/rhoa-rock-inhibition-reverses-synaptic-remodeling-and-motor-and-cognitive-deficits-caused-by-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Shalaka Mulherkar, Karen Firozi, Wei Huang, Mohammad Danish Uddin, Raymond J Grill, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Claudia Robertson, Kimberley F Tolias
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes extensive neural damage, often resulting in long-term cognitive impairments. Unfortunately, effective treatments for TBI remain elusive. The RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target since it is activated by TBI and can promote the retraction of dendritic spines/synapses, which are critical for information processing and memory storage. To test this hypothesis, RhoA-ROCK signaling was blocked by RhoA deletion from postnatal neurons or treatment with the ROCK inhibitor fasudil...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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