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Dendritic spines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545678/rapid-synaptogenesis-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-is-induced-by-a-single-cocaine-administration-and-stabilized-by-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-interacting-kinase-1-activity
#1
Marc Dos Santos, Marine Salery, Benoit Forget, Maria Alexandra Garcia Perez, Sandrine Betuing, Thomas Boudier, Peter Vanhoutte, Jocelyne Caboche, Nicolas Heck
BACKGROUND: Repeated cocaine exposure produces new spine formation in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) of the nucleus accumbens. However, an acute exposure to cocaine can trigger long-lasting synaptic plasticity in SPNs leading to behavioral alterations. This raises the intriguing question as to whether a single administration of cocaine could enduringly modify striatal connectivity. METHODS: A three-dimensional morphometric analysis of presynaptic glutamatergic boutons and dendritic spines was performed on SPNs 1 hour and 1 week after a single cocaine administration...
March 29, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#2
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542068/reduced-cortical-excitatory-synapse-number-in-apoe4-mice-is-associated-with-increased-calcineurin-activity
#3
Aidan L Neustadtl, Charisse N Winston, Maia Parsadanian, Bevan S Main, Sonia Villapol, Mark P Burns
Synaptic loss is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is associated with the onset of cognitive decline and the loss of executive function. The strongest genetic risk factor for AD is the APOE4 allele, which results in both a greater risk of developing AD as well as an earlier age of onset of AD. Dendritic spines, the anatomical substrate of the excitatory synapse, are reduced in the cortex of humanized APOE4 mice but the reason for this synaptic decline is unknown. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphatase, is a mediator of dendritic spine retraction...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541473/relationship-between-synaptic-ampar-and-spine-dynamics-impairments-in-the-fxs-mouse
#4
Anand Suresh, Anna Dunaevsky
Structural dynamics of dendritic spines are important for memory and learning and are impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome. Spine dynamics are regulated by activity-dependent mechanisms that involve modulation of AMPA receptors (AMPAR); however, the relationship between AMPAR and spine dynamics in vivo and how these are altered in FXS mouse model is not known. Here, we tracked AMPAR and spines over multiple days in vivo in the cortex and found that dendritic spines in the fmr1 KO mouse were denser, smaller, had higher turnover rates and contained less sGluA2 compared to littermate controls...
May 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540658/overexpression-of-the-dyrk1a-gene-dual-specificity-tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated-kinase-1a-induces-alterations-of-the-serotoninergic-and-dopaminergic-processing-in-murine-brain-tissues
#5
Jacqueline London, Claude Rouch, Linh Chi Bui, Elodie Assayag, Benoit Souchet, Fabrice Daubigney, Hind Medjaoui, Serge Luquet, Christophe Magnan, Jean Maurice Delabar, Julien Dairou, Nathalie Janel
Trisomy 21 (T21) or Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability and affects around 5 million persons worldwide. Neuroanatomical phenotypes associated with T21 include slight reduction of brain size and weight, abnormalities in several brain areas including spines dysgenesis, dendritic morphogenesis, and early neuroanatomical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. Monoamine neurotransmitters are involved in dendrites development, functioning of synapses, memory consolidation, and their levels measured in the cerebrospinal fluid, blood, or brain areas that are modified in individuals with T21...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539872/the-role-of-app-in-structural-spine-plasticity
#7
REVIEW
Elena Montagna, Mario M Dorostkar, Jochen Herms
Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in neurons. The full-length protein has cell-adhesion and receptor-like properties, which play roles in synapse formation and stability. Furthermore, APP can be cleaved by several proteases into numerous fragments, many of which affect synaptic function and stability. This review article focuses on the mechanisms of APP in structural spine plasticity, which encompasses the morphological alterations at excitatory synapses. These occur as changes in the number and morphology of dendritic spines, which correspond to the postsynaptic compartment of excitatory synapses...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537641/remembrance-of-things-overlooked-the-discovery-of-dendritic-spine-function
#8
Curtis E Margo, Lynn E Harman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536263/axodendritic-sorting-and-pathological-missorting-of-tau-is-isoform-specific-and-determined-by-axon-initial-segment-architecture
#9
Hans Zempel, Frank Dennissen, Yatender Kumar, Julia Luedtke, Jacek Biernat, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow
Subcellular mislocalization of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Six Tau isoforms, differentiated by the presence or absence of a second repeat or of N-terminal inserts, exist in the human CNS but their physiological and pathological differences have long remained remain elusive. Here, we investigated the properties and distributions of human and rodent Tau isoforms in primary forebrain rodent neurons. We found that the Tau-Diffusion-Barrier (TDB), located within the Axon-Initial-Segment (AIS), controls retrograde (axon-to-soma) and anterograde (soma-to-axon) traffic of Tau...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533515/perivascular-aqp4-dysregulation-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-area-after-traumatic-brain-injury-is-alleviated-by-adenosine-a2a-receptor-inactivation
#10
Zi-Ai Zhao, Ping Li, Shi-Yang Ye, Ya-Lei Ning, Hao Wang, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Yan Zhao, Zhuo-Hang Zhang, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce cognitive dysfunction due to the regional accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (p-tau). However, the factors that cause p-tau to concentrate in specific brain regions remain unclear. Here, we show that AQP4 polarization in the perivascular astrocytic end feet was impaired after TBI, which was most prominent in the ipsilateral brain tissue surrounding the directly impacted region and the contralateral hippocampal CA1 area and was accompanied by increased local p-tau, changes in dendritic spine density and morphology, and upregulation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528849/extracellular-low-n-oligomers-of-tau-cause-selective-synaptotoxicity-without-affecting-cell-viability
#11
Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Ram Reddy Chandupatla, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Eckhard Mandelkow
INTRODUCTION: Tau-mediated toxicity in Alzheimer's disease is thought to operate through low-n oligomers, rather than filamentous aggregates. However, the nature of oligomers and pathways of toxicity are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated structural and functional aspects of highly purified oligomers of a pro-aggregant tau species. METHODS: Purified oligomers of the tau repeat domain were characterized by biophysical and structural methods. Functional aspects were investigated by cellular assays ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) bromide assay of cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase release assay [for cell toxicity], reactive oxygen species production, and calcium assay), combined with analysis of neuronal dendritic spines exposed to oligomers...
May 18, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524815/anchoring-high-concentrations-of-syngap-at-postsynaptic-densities-via-liquid-liquid-phase-separation
#12
Menglong Zeng, Guanhua Bai, Mingjie Zhang
SynGAP, encoded by SYNGAP1, is a Ras/Rap GTPase activator specifically expressed in the nervous systems. SynGAP is one of the most abundant proteins in the postsynaptic densities (PSDs) of excitatory synapses and acts as a critical synaptic activity brake by tuning down synaptic GTPase activities. Mutations of SYNGAP1 have been frequently linked to brain disorders including intellectual disability, autisms, and seizure. SynGAP has been shown to undergo fast dispersions from synapses in response to stimulations, a strategy that neurons use to control the specific activities of the enzyme within the tiny, semi-open compartments in dendritic spines...
May 19, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523281/imaging-membrane-potential-changes-from-dendritic-spines-using-computer-generated-holography
#13
Dimitrii Tanese, Ju-Yun Weng, Valeria Zampini, Vincent De Sars, Marco Canepari, Balazs Rozsa, Valentina Emiliani, Dejan Zecevic
Electrical properties of neuronal processes are extraordinarily complex, dynamic, and, in the general case, impossible to predict in the absence of detailed measurements. To obtain such a measurement one would, ideally, like to be able to monitor electrical subthreshold events as they travel from synapses on distal dendrites and summate at particular locations to initiate action potentials. It is now possible to carry out these measurements at the scale of individual dendritic spines using voltage imaging. In these measurements, the voltage-sensitive probes can be thought of as transmembrane voltmeters with a linear scale, which directly monitor electrical signals...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523233/a-new-method-allowing-long-term-potentiation-recordings-in-hippocampal-organotypic-slices
#14
Paula Paci, Sylvain Gabriele, Laurence Ris
BACKGROUND: Hippocampal organotypic slices are used to improve the understanding of synaptic plasticity mechanisms because they allow longer term studies compared to acute slices. However, it is more delicate to keep cultures alive in the recording system outside in vitro conditions. Experiments from the organotypic cultures are common but the handling of slices is rarely described in the literature, even though tissue preservation is crucial. Instruments are sometimes required to extract the slices from the culture inserts but this approach is delicate and can lead to damage, given how strongly the slices are attached to the insert...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522792/transgenic-autoinhibition-of-p21-activated-kinase-exacerbates-synaptic-impairments-and-fronto-dependent-behavioral-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Cyril Bories, Dany Arsenault, Myriam Lemire, Cyntia Tremblay, Yves De Koninck, Frédéric Calon
Defects in p21-activated kinase (PAK) lead to dendritic spine abnormalities and are sufficient to cause cognition impairment. The decrease in PAK in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is suspected to underlie synaptic and dendritic disturbances associated with its clinical expression, particularly with symptoms related to frontal cortex dysfunction. To investigate the role of PAK combined with Aβ and tau pathologies (3xTg-AD mice) in the frontal cortex, we generated a transgenic model of AD with a deficit in PAK activity (3xTg-AD-dnPAK mice)...
May 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522733/activation-of-perk-elicits-memory-impairment-through-inactivation-of-creb-and-downregulation-of-psd95-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Tanusree Sen, Rajaneesh Gupta, Helen Kaiser, Nilkantha Sen
The PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) a transmembrane protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of PERK serve as a key sensor of ER-stress which has been implicated in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The loss of memory is one of the most common symptoms following TBI; however, the precise role of PERK activation in memory impairment after TBI has not been well elucidated. Here we have shown that blocking the activation of PERK using GSK2656157 prevents the loss of dendritic spines and rescues memory deficits following TBI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522608/altered-learning-memory-and-social-behavior-in-type-1-taste-receptor-subunit-3-knockout-mice-is-associated-with-neuronal-dysfunction
#17
Bronwen Martin, Rui Wang, Wei-Na Cong, Caitlin M Daimon, Wells W Wu, Bin Ni, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, William H Wood, Yongqing Zhang, Harmonie Etienne, Jaana van Gastel, Abdelkrim Azmi, Jonathan Janssens, Stuart Maudsley
The type 1 taste receptor member 3 (T1R3) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in sweet taste perception. Besides the tongue, the T1R3 receptor is highly expressed in brain areas implicated in cognition, including the hippocampus and cortex. As cognitive decline is often preceded by significant metabolic or endocrinological dysfunctions, regulated by the sweet taste perception system, we hypothesized that a disruption of the sweet taste perception in the brain could have a key role in the development of cognitive dysfunction...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521247/cognitive-performance-of-juvenile-monkeys-after-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment
#18
Mari S Golub, Edward P Hackett, Casey E Hogrefe, Csaba Leranth, John D Elsworth, Robert H Roth
Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention...
May 1, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516904/lhx1-5-control-dendritogenesis-and-spine-morphogenesis-of-purkinje-cells-via-regulation-of-espin
#19
Nga Chu Lui, Wing Yip Tam, Caiji Gao, Jian-Dong Huang, Chi Chiu Wang, Liwen Jiang, Wing Ho Yung, Kin Ming Kwan
In the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells (PCs) receive signals from different inputs through their extensively branched dendrites and serve as an integration centre. Defects in the dendritic development of PCs thus disrupt cerebellar circuitry and cause ataxia. Here we report that specific inactivation of both Lhx1 and Lhx5 in postnatal PCs results in ataxic mutant mice with abnormal dendritic development. The PCs in the mutants have reduced expression of Espin, an F-actin cytoskeleton regulator. We show that Espin expression is transcriptionally activated by Lhx1/5...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#20
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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