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Dendritic spines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723545/spineless-behavior-of-cx3cr1-monocytes-in-response-to-infection
#1
Paul A Muller, Daniel Mucida
Sickness in mammals can lead to cognition deficits, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In a recent Nature Medicine article, Garré et al. (2017) report that sickness-induced cortical dendritic spine loss and impaired memory formation is mediated by CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived TNF-α.
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722508/atg5-and-atg7-dependent-autophagy-in-dopaminergic-neurons-regulates-cellular-and-behavioral-responses-to-morphine
#2
Ling-Yan Su, Rongcan Luo, Qianjin Liu, Jing-Ran Su, Lu-Xiu Yang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Yong-Gang Yao
The molecular basis of chronic morphine exposure remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that macroautophagy/autophagy of dopaminergic neurons would mediate the alterations of neuronal dendritic morphology and behavioral responses induced by morphine. Chronic morphine exposure caused Atg5 (autophagy related 5)- and Atg7 (autophagy related 7)-dependent and dopaminergic neuron-specific autophagy resulting in decreased neuron dendritic spines and the onset of addictive behaviors. In cultured primary midbrain neurons, morphine treatment significantly reduced total dendritic length and complexity, and this effect could be reversed by knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7...
July 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721455/volume-electron-microscopy-of-the-distribution-of-synapses-in-the-neuropil-of-the-juvenile-rat-somatosensory-cortex
#3
A Santuy, J R Rodriguez, J DeFelipe, A Merchan-Perez
Knowing the proportions of asymmetric (excitatory) and symmetric (inhibitory) synapses in the neuropil is critical for understanding the design of cortical circuits. We used focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to obtain stacks of serial sections from the six layers of the juvenile rat (postnatal day 14) somatosensory cortex (hindlimb representation). We segmented in three-dimensions 6184 synaptic junctions and determined whether they were established on dendritic spines or dendritic shafts...
July 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720405/persistent-cognitive-and-morphological-alterations-induced-by-repeated-exposure-of-adolescent-rats-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene
#4
K M Braunscheidel, J T Gass, P J Mulholland, S B Floresco, J J Woodward
While thepsychoactive inhalant toluene causes behavioral effects similarto those produced by other drugs of abuse, the persistent behavioral and anatomical abnormalities induced by toluene exposure are not well known. To mimic human "binge-like" inhalant intoxication, adolescent, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene vapor (57000 ppm) twice daily for five consecutive days. These rats remained in their home cages until adulthood (P60), when they were trained in operant boxes to respond to a palatable food reward and then challenged with several different cognitive tasks...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716964/a-glun2b-selective-nmdar-antagonist-reverses-synapse-loss-and-cognitive-impairment-produced-by-the-hiv-1-protein-tat
#5
Jonathan D Raybuck, Nicholas J Hargus, Stanley A Thayer
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects approximately half of HIV-infected patients. Loss of synaptic connections is a hallmark of many neurocognitive disorders, including HAND. The HIV-1 protein transactivator of transcription (Tat) disrupts synaptic connections both in vitro and in vivo and has been linked to impaired neurocognitive function in humans. In vitro studies have shown that ifenprodil, an antagonist selective for GluN2B-containing NMDARs, reverses synapse loss when applied after Tat...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713243/synaptic-interactome-mining-reveals-p140cap-as-a-new-hub-for-psd-proteins-involved-in-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders
#6
Annalisa Alfieri, Oksana Sorokina, Annie Adrait, Costanza Angelini, Isabella Russo, Alessandro Morellato, Michela Matteoli, Elisabetta Menna, Elisabetta Boeri Erba, Colin McLean, J Douglas Armstrong, Ugo Ala, Joseph D Buxbaum, Alfredo Brusco, Yohann Couté, Silvia De Rubeis, Emilia Turco, Paola Defilippi
Altered synaptic function has been associated with neurological and psychiatric conditions including intellectual disability, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Amongst the recently discovered synaptic proteins is p140Cap, an adaptor that localizes at dendritic spines and regulates their maturation and physiology. We recently showed that p140Cap knockout mice have cognitive deficits, impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), and immature, filopodia-like dendritic spines...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710672/automated-3-d-detection-of-dendritic-spines-from-in-vivo-two-photon-image-stacks
#7
P K Singh, P Hernandez-Herrera, D Labate, M Papadakis
Despite the significant advances in the development of automated image analysis algorithms for the detection and extraction of neuronal structures, current software tools still have numerous limitations when it comes to the detection and analysis of dendritic spines. The problem is especially challenging in in vivo imaging, where the difficulty of extracting morphometric properties of spines is compounded by lower image resolution and contrast levels native to two-photon laser microscopy. To address this challenge, we introduce a new computational framework for the automated detection and quantitative analysis of dendritic spines in vivo multi-photon imaging...
July 14, 2017: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709063/regulation-of-rho-gtpase-proteins-during-spine-structural-plasticity-for-the-control-of-local-dendritic-plasticity
#8
REVIEW
Nathan G Hedrick, Ryohei Yasuda
While it is generally appreciated that learning involves the structural rearrangement of neuronal circuits, the underlying orchestration of molecular events that drives these changes is not as well understood. Recent studies on the spatiotemporal organization of synaptic signaling events have provided new insights into the biochemical underpinnings of various expressions of structural neuronal plasticity, as well as the functional consequences that emerge because of the particular behavior of the molecules involved...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706482/samuroi-a-python-based-software-tool-for-visualization-and-analysis-of-dynamic-time-series-imaging-at-multiple-spatial-scales
#9
Martin Rueckl, Stephen C Lenzi, Laura Moreno-Velasquez, Daniel Parthier, Dietmar Schmitz, Sten Ruediger, Friedrich W Johenning
The measurement of activity in vivo and in vitro has shifted from electrical to optical methods. While the indicators for imaging activity have improved significantly over the last decade, tools for analysing optical data have not kept pace. Most available analysis tools are limited in their flexibility and applicability to datasets obtained at different spatial scales. Here, we present SamuROI (Structured analysis of multiple user-defined ROIs), an open source Python-based analysis environment for imaging data...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701424/more-than-a-mere-supply-of-monomers-g-actin-pools-regulate-actin-dynamics-in-dendritic-spines
#10
Katalin Schlett
Synaptic activity reshapes the morphology of dendritic spines via regulating F-actin arborization. In this issue, Lei et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201612042) reports a novel, G-actin-dependent regulation of actin polymerization within spine heads. They show that actin monomer levels are elevated in spines upon activity, with G-actin immobilized by the local enrichment of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) within the spine plasma membrane.
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700575/synaptic-organization-of-visual-space-in-primary-visual-cortex
#11
M Florencia Iacaruso, Ioana T Gasler, Sonja B Hofer
How a sensory stimulus is processed and perceived depends on the surrounding sensory scene. In the visual cortex, contextual signals can be conveyed by an extensive network of intra- and inter-areal excitatory connections that link neurons representing stimulus features separated in visual space. However, the connectional logic of visual contextual inputs remains unknown; it is not clear what information individual neurons receive from different parts of the visual field, nor how this input relates to the visual features that a neuron encodes, defined by its spatial receptive field...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697947/synaptic-distribution-and-plasticity-in-primary-auditory-cortex-a1-exhibits-laminar-and-cell-specific-changes-in-the-deaf
#12
H Ruth Clemo, Stephen G Lomber, M Alex Meredith
The processing sequence through primary auditory cortex (A1) is impaired by deafness as evidenced by reduced neuronal activation in A1 of cochlear-implanted deaf cats. Such a loss of neuronal excitation should be manifest as changes in excitatory synaptic number and/or size, for which the post-synaptic correlate is the dendritic spine. Therefore, the present study sought evidence for this functional disruption using Golgi-Cox/light microscopic techniques that examined spine-bearing neurons and their dendritic spine features across all laminae in A1 of early-deaf (ototoxic lesion <1 month; raised into adulthood >16 months) and hearing cats...
July 1, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697890/stress-induced-neuronal-colony-stimulating-factor-1-provokes-microglia-mediated-neuronal-remodeling-and-depressive-like-behavior
#13
Eric S Wohleb, Rosemarie Terwilliger, Catharine H Duman, Ronald S Duman
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress exposure causes neuronal atrophy and synaptic deficits in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), contributing to development of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Concomitantly, microglia in the PFC undergo morphological and functional changes following stress exposure, suggesting that microglia contribute to synaptic deficits underlying behavioral consequences. METHODS: Male and female mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to examine the role of neuron-microglia interactions in the medial PFC during development of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors...
June 12, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694754/using-curcumin-to-prevent-structural-and-behavioral-changes-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-sleep-deprivation-in-rats
#14
Ali Noorafshan, Fatemeh Karimi, Saied Karbalay-Doust, Ali Mohammad Kamali
Sleep Deprivation (SD) is known to result in a range of neurological consequences in chronically-afflicted subjects. Curcumin, a natural substance, has neuroprotective properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) of SD rats. Male rats were arbitrarily assigned to nine groups, including control, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), olive oil, SD, SD+curcumin, SD+olive oil, grid, grid+curcumin, and grid+olive oil groups. SD was induced by a multiplatform box containing water...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694464/monocular-deprivation-induces-dendritic-spine-elimination-in-the-developing-mouse-visual-cortex
#15
Yanmei Zhou, Baoling Lai, Wen-Biao Gan
It is well established that visual deprivation has a profound impact on the responsiveness of neurons in the developing visual cortex. The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic connectivity remains unclear. Using transcranial two-photon microscopy, we examined the effect of visual deprivation and subsequent recovery on dendritic spine remodeling of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex. We found that monocular deprivation (MD), but not binocular deprivation (BD), increased dendritic spine elimination over 3 days in the binocular region of 4-week-old adolescent mice...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692454/phosphorylation-of-cyfip2-a-component-of-the-wave-regulatory-complex-regulates-dendritic-spine-density-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-potentially-by-affecting-the-complex-assembly
#16
Yeunkum Lee, Doyoun Kim, Jae Ryun Ryu, Yinhua Zhang, Shinhyun Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Bokyoung Lee, Woong Sun, Kihoon Han
Actin dynamics is a critical mechanism underlying many cellular processes in neurons. The heteropentameric WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC), consisting of WAVE, CYFIP1/2, Nap, Abi, and HSPC300, is a key regulator of actin dynamics that activates the Arp2/3 complex to initiate actin polymerization and branching. The WRC is basally inactive because of intermolecular interactions among the components, which can be modulated by bindings of phospholipids and Rac1, and phosphorylations of WAVE and Abi. However, the phosphorylation of other components of WRC and their functional significance remain largely unknown...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683067/early-postnatal-exposure-to-isoflurane-causes-cognitive-deficits-and-disrupts-development-of-newborn-hippocampal-neurons-via-activation-of-the-mtor-pathway
#17
Eunchai Kang, Danye Jiang, Yun Kyoung Ryu, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Christy D Gray, Michael Xu, Jun H Choi, Sue Junn, Jieun Kim, Jing Xu, Michele Schaefer, Roger A Johns, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming, C David Mintz
Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that early postnatal exposure to anesthetics can lead to lasting deficits in learning and other cognitive processes. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been clarified and there is no treatment currently available. Recent evidence suggests that anesthetics might cause persistent deficits in cognitive function by disrupting key events in brain development. The hippocampus, a brain region that is critical for learning and memory, contains a large number of neurons that develop in the early postnatal period, which are thus vulnerable to perturbation by anesthetic exposure...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681457/pregnancy-improves-cognitive-deficit-and-neuronal-morphology-atrophy-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-aging-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#18
Verónica R Cabrera-Pedraza, María de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, Fidel de la Cruz, Patricia Aguilar-Alonso, Sergio Zamudio, Gonzalo Flores
It is well known that the survival is higher in women compared to men and women have a better survival prognosis than men in some pathologies such as vascular dementia (VD). Our previous reports showed that the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat, an animal model of VD, exhibited dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) at 8 months of age. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, reduces dendritic atrophy and improves the memory process in aged rats...
July 6, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680394/abnormal-development-of-dendrites-in-adult-born-rat-hippocampal-granule-cells-induced-by-cyclophosphamide
#19
Lin Wu, Dandan Guo, Qi Liu, Fei Gao, Xiaochen Wang, Xueying Song, Fuwu Wang, Ren-Zhi Zhan
Although development of cognitive decline in cancer patients who receive chemotherapy is common, the underlying mechanism(s) remains to be identified. As abnormalities in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may serve as substrate for cognitive dysfunction, the present study examines the effect of cyclophosphamide (CPP), a widely prescribed chemotherapeutic agent, on dendritic development of adult-born hippocampal granule cells in the rat. CPP was intraperitoneally injected into male Sprague-Dawley rats once a week for four consecutive weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676753/filopodia-a-rapid-structural-plasticity-substrate-for-fast-learning
#20
Ahmet S Ozcan
Formation of new synapses between neurons is an essential mechanism for learning and encoding memories. The vast majority of excitatory synapses occur on dendritic spines, therefore, the growth dynamics of spines is strongly related to the plasticity timescales. Especially in the early stages of the developing brain, there is an abundant number of long, thin and motile protrusions (i.e., filopodia), which develop in timescales of seconds and minutes. Because of their unique morphology and motility, it has been suggested that filopodia can have a dual role in both spinogenesis and environmental sampling of potential axonal partners...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
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