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Dendritic spines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809922/increased-signaling-by-the-autism-related-engrailed-2-protein-enhances-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-alters-synaptic-structural-matching-and-exaggerates-protein-synthesis
#1
Asma Soltani, Solène Lebrun, Gilles Carpentier, Giulia Zunino, Sandrine Chantepie, Auriane Maïza, Yuri Bozzi, Claire Desnos, François Darchen, Olivier Stettler
Engrailed 1 (En1) and 2 (En2) code for closely related homeoproteins acting as transcription factors and as signaling molecules that contribute to midbrain and hindbrain patterning, to development and maintenance of monoaminergic pathways, and to retinotectal wiring. En2 has been suggested to be an autism susceptibility gene and individuals with autism display an overexpression of this homeogene but the mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed in the present study the effect of exogenously added En2 on the morphology of hippocampal cells that normally express only low levels of Engrailed proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#2
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808012/bdnf-trkb-controls-cocaine-induced-dendritic-spines-in-rodent-nucleus-accumbens-dissociated-from-increases-in-addictive-behaviors
#3
Ethan M Anderson, Anne Marie Wissman, Joyce Chemplanikal, Nicole Buzin, Daniel Guzman, Erin B Larson, Rachael L Neve, Eric J Nestler, Christopher W Cowan, David W Self
Chronic cocaine use is associated with prominent morphological changes in nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) neurons, including increases in dendritic spine density along with enhanced motivation for cocaine, but a functional relationship between these morphological and behavioral phenomena has not been shown. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling through tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) receptors in NACsh neurons is necessary for cocaine-induced dendritic spine formation by using either localized TrkB knockout or viral-mediated expression of a dominant negative, kinase-dead TrkB mutant...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803923/stress-induced-neural-reorganization-a-conceptual-framework-linking-depression-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer A Ross, Gediminas Gliebus, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Chronic stress is a risk factor for a number of physiological disorders including cardiovascular disease, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders, as well as psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. There are a number of underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms altered in the course of chronic stress, which may increase the vulnerability of individuals to develop psychiatric disorders such as depression, and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). This is evident in the influence of stress on large-scale brain networks, including the resting state Default Mode Network (DMN), the effects of stress on neuronal circuitry and architecture, and the cellular and molecular adaptations to stress, which may render individuals with stress related psychiatric disorders more vulnerable to neurodegenerative disease later in life...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798977/risperidone-and-aripiprazole-alleviate-prenatal-valproic-acid-induced-abnormalities-in-behaviors-and-dendritic-spine-density-in-mice
#5
Yuta Hara, Yukio Ago, Atsuki Taruta, Shigeru Hasebe, Haruki Kawase, Wataru Tanabe, Shinji Tsukada, Takanobu Nakazawa, Hitoshi Hashimoto, Toshio Matsuda, Kazuhiro Takuma
RATIONALE: Rodents exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) exhibit autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like behavioral abnormalities. We recently found that prenatal VPA exposure causes hypofunction of the prefrontal dopaminergic system in mice. This suggests that the dopaminergic system may be a potential pharmacological target for treatment of behavioral abnormalities in ASD patients. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we examined the effects of antipsychotic drugs, which affect the dopaminergic system, on the social interaction deficits, recognition memory impairment, and reduction in dendritic spine density in the VPA mouse model of ASD...
August 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796260/clinical-grade-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reverse-cognitive-aging-via-improving-synaptic-plasticity-and-endogenous-neurogenesis
#6
Ning Cao, Tuling Liao, Jiajing Liu, Zeng Fan, Quan Zeng, Junnian Zhou, Haiyun Pei, Jiafei Xi, Lijuan He, Lin Chen, Xue Nan, Yali Jia, Wen Yue, Xuetao Pei
Cognitive aging is a leading public health concern with the increasing aging population, but there is still lack of specific interventions directed against it. Recent studies have shown that cognitive function is intimately affected by systemic milieu in aging brain, and improvement of systemic environment in aging brain may be a promising approach for rejuvenating cognitive aging. Here, we sought to study the intervention effects of clinical-grade human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on cognitive aging in a murine model of aging...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790172/postsynaptic-density-95-psd-95-serine-561-phosphorylation-regulates-a-conformational-switch-and-bidirectional-dendritic-spine-structural-plasticity
#7
Qian Wu, Miao Sun, Laura P Bernard, Huaye Zhang
PSD-95 is a major synaptic scaffolding protein that plays a key role in bidirectional synaptic plasticity, which is a process important for learning and memory. It is known that PSD-95 shows increased dynamics upon induction of plasticity. Yet the underlying structural and functional changes in PSD-95 that mediate its role in plasticity remain unclear. Here we show that phosphorylation of PSD-95 at Ser561 in its GK domain, which is mediated by the partitioning defective 1 (Par1) kinases, regulates a conformational switch and is important for bidirectional plasticity...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774570/expression-of-the-glua2-subunit-of-glutamate-receptors-is-required-for-the-normal-dendritic-differentiation-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#8
Masahiko Tanaka, Tomomi Senda, Naohide Hirashima
Cerebellar Purkinje cells differentiate the most elaborate dendritic trees among neurons in the brain and constitute the principal part of cerebellar neuronal circuitry. In the present study, we examined the role of the GluA2 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors in the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells. Since mature Purkinje cells express the GluA2 subunit, AMPA receptors on them exhibit a low Ca(2+) permeability. Does this expression of GluA2, leading to the loss of Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptors, have a positive significance in the dendritic differentiation of Purkinje cells? To answer this question, we introduced GluA2 siRNA into immature Purkinje cells in cerebellar cell cultures using a single-cell electroporation technique...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771976/hdac3-negatively-regulates-spatial-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Xiaolei Zhu, Sulei Wang, Linjie Yu, Jiali Jin, Xing Ye, Yi Liu, Yun Xu
The accumulation and deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) is a key neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of AD, while the specific HDAC isoforms associated with cognitive improvement are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the role of HDAC3 in the pathogenesis of AD. Nuclear HDAC3 is significantly increased in the hippocampus of 6- and 9-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) mice compared with that in age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice...
August 3, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768195/attenuation-of-synaptic-potentials-in-dendritic-spines
#10
Taekyung Kwon, Masayuki Sakamoto, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
Dendritic spines receive the majority of excitatory inputs in many mammalian neurons, but their biophysical properties and exact role in dendritic integration are still unclear. Here, we study spine electrical properties in cultured hippocampal neurons using an improved genetically encoded voltage indicator (ArcLight) and two-photon glutamate uncaging. We find that back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) fully invade dendritic spines. However, uncaging excitatory post-synaptic potentials (uEPSPs) generated by glutamate photorelease, ranging from 4 to 27 mV in amplitude, are attenuated by up to 4-fold as they propagate to the parent dendrites...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761413/curcuma-longa-l-extract-improves-the-cortical-neural-connectivity-during-the-aging-process
#11
REVIEW
Gonzalo Flores
Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761082/selective-activation-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-prevents-stress-induced-synapse-loss-and-perceptual-defects
#12
C-C Chen, J Lu, R Yang, J B Ding, Y Zuo
Stress, a prevalent experience in modern society, is a major risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. Although sensorimotor abnormalities are often present in these disorders, little is known about how stress affects the sensory cortex. Combining behavioral analyses with in vivo synaptic imaging, we show that stressful experiences lead to progressive, clustered loss of dendritic spines along the apical dendrites of layer (L) 5 pyramidal neurons (PNs) in the mouse barrel cortex, and such spine loss closely associates with deteriorated performance in a whisker-dependent texture discrimination task...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760951/cdk5-dependent-phosphorylation-of-liprin%C3%AE-1-mediates-neuronal-activity-dependent-synapse-development
#13
Huiqian Huang, Xiaochen Lin, Zhuoyi Liang, Teng Zhao, Shengwang Du, Michael M T Loy, Kwok-On Lai, Amy K Y Fu, Nancy Y Ip
The experience-dependent modulation of brain circuitry depends on dynamic changes in synaptic connections that are guided by neuronal activity. In particular, postsynaptic maturation requires changes in dendritic spine morphology, the targeting of postsynaptic proteins, and the insertion of synaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, it is critical to understand how neuronal activity controls postsynaptic maturation. Here we report that the scaffold protein liprinα1 and its phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) are critical for the maturation of excitatory synapses through regulation of the synaptic localization of the major postsynaptic organizer postsynaptic density (PSD)-95...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760460/different-patterns-of-motor-activity-induce-differential-plastic-changes-in-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-motor-cortex-of-rats-a-golgi-study
#14
Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Diana C González-Tapia, Nestor I Martínez-Torres, David González-Tapia, Ignacio González-Burgos
Rehabilitation is a process which favors recovery after brain damage involving motor systems, and neural plasticity is the only real resource the brain has for inducing neurobiological events in order to bring about re-adaptation. Rats were placed on a treadmill and made to walk, in different groups, at different velocities and with varying degrees of inclination. Plastic changes in the spines of the apical and basal dendrites of fifth-layer pyramidal neurons in the motor cortices of the rats were detected after study with the Golgi method...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758202/sodium-channel-subtypes-are-differentially-localized-to-pre-and-post-synaptic-sites-in-rat-hippocampus
#15
Kenneth W Johnson, Karl F Herold, Teresa A Milner, Hugh C Hemmings, Jimcy Platholi
Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (Nav ) modulate neuronal excitability, but the roles of the various Nav subtypes in specific neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission are unclear. We investigated expression of the three major brain Nav subtypes (Nav 1.1, Nav 1.2, Nav 1.6) in area CA1 and dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus. Using light and electron microscopy, we found labeling for all three Nav subtypes on dendrites, dendritic spines, and axon terminals, but the proportion of pre- and post-synaptic labeling for each subtype varied within and between subregions of CA1 and dentate gyrus...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755918/indeterminate-dendritic-cell-tumor-in-thoracic-spine-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Sze Kiat Tan, Lee Onn Chieng, Karthik Madhavan, Andrew Rosenberg, Ian Cote
Indeterminate dendritic cell tumor (IDCT) is an extremely rare hematological disorder with poorly understood pathogenesis. Occasionally encountered by hematologists, unusual presentations of IDCT have never been reported in the spine literature. The authors report a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with progressively worsening axial thoracic back pain radiating to his sides for three months. MRI revealed a large 3-cm enhancing mass at the T9 vertebral body with an exophytic component causing significant canal stenosis...
July 26, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751858/distinct-localization-of-snap47-protein-in-gabaergic-and-glutamatergic-neurons-in-the-mouse-and-the-rat-hippocampus
#17
Agnieszka Münster-Wandowski, Heike Heilmann, Felix Bolduan, Thorsten Trimbuch, Yuchio Yanagawa, Imre Vida
Synaptosomal-associated protein of 47 kDa (SNAP47) isoform is an atypical member of the SNAP family, which does not contribute directly to exocytosis and synaptic vesicle (SV) recycling. Initial characterization of SNAP47 revealed a widespread expression in nervous tissue, but little is known about its cellular and subcellular localization in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, in the present study we applied multiple-immunofluorescence labeling, immuno-electron microscopy and in situ hybridization (ISH) and analyzed the localization of SNAP47 in pre- and postsynaptic compartments of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the mouse and rat hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751857/the-bdnf-val-66-met-polymorphism-affects-neuronal-morphology-and-synaptic-transmission-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-from-rett-syndrome-mice
#18
Xin Xu, Jordi Garcia, Rachel Ewalt, Shelly Nason, Lucas Pozzo-Miller
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) has been implicated in several neurological disorders including Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). The human BDNF gene has a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-a methionine (met) substitution for valine (val) at codon 66-that affects BDNF's trafficking and activity-dependent release and results in cognitive dysfunction. Humans that are carriers of the met-BDNF allele have subclinical memory deficits and reduced hippocampal volume and activation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751743/anti-ampa-glua3-antibodies-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-new-molecular-target
#19
B Borroni, J Stanic, C Verpelli, M Mellone, E Bonomi, A Alberici, P Bernasconi, L Culotta, E Zianni, S Archetti, M Manes, S Gazzina, R Ghidoni, L Benussi, C Stuani, M Di Luca, C Sala, E Buratti, A Padovani, F Gardoni
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterised by Tau or TDP43 inclusions. A co-autoimmune aetiology has been hypothesised. In this study, we aimed at defining the pathogenetic role of anti-AMPA GluA3 antibodies in FTD. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-GluA3 antibody dosage was carried out and the effect of CSF with and without anti-GluA3 antibodies was tested in rat hippocampal neuronal primary cultures and in differentiated neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750887/probing-the-interplay-between-dendritic-spine-morphology-and-membrane-bound-diffusion
#20
Max Adrian, Remy Kusters, Cornelis Storm, Casper C Hoogenraad, Lukas C Kapitein
Dendritic spines are protrusions along neuronal dendrites that harbor the majority of excitatory postsynapses. Their distinct morphology, often featuring a bulbous head and small neck that connects to the dendritic shaft, has been shown to facilitate compartmentalization of electrical and cytoplasmic signaling stimuli elicited at the synapse. The extent to which spine morphology also forms a barrier for membrane-bound diffusion has remained unclear. Recent simulations suggested that especially the diameter of the spine neck plays a limiting role in this process...
July 24, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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