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adverse childhood events

Janine M Swingle, Mischa Tursich, Jonathan M Cleveland, Steven N Gold, Sue Fields Tolliver, Landon Michaels, Laura N Kupperman-Caron, Maria Garcia-Larrieu, Nicole A Sciarrino
Prevention programs often encourage sexually abused children to disclose without fully considering the potential for adverse consequences. This study examined the impact of disclosure on abuse cessation and later adult symptomatology. A clinical sample of 301 adult survivors completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES/IES-R), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Participants were divided into 3 groups: Nondisclosure (n=221), Disclosure/Abuse Ended (n=25), and Disclosure/Abuse Continued (n=55). Multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for abuse characteristics (age of onset, penetration, and number of perpetrators) and other trauma exposure, revealed significant differences in psychiatric symptom severity among the three groups, Wilks' λ=0...
October 20, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Stefanie C Vuotto, Kevin R Krull, Chenghong Li, Kevin C Oeffinger, Daniel M Green, Sunita K Patel, Deokumar Srivastava, Marilyn Stovall, Kirsten K Ness, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Tara M Brinkman
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to examine associations between childhood cancer therapies, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Participants included 5021 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 32.0 years [standard deviation, 7.6 years] with a time since diagnosis of 23.2 years [standard deviation, 4.5 years]) who completed measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
S A Stansfeld, C Clark, M Smuk, C Power, T Davidson, B Rodgers
BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. METHOD: At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Dokyoung Sophia You, Mary W Meagher
OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. METHODS: After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing...
October 13, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Drew A Kingston, Franklyn J Graham, Raymond A Knight
Hypersexuality, or extreme normophilic sexual urges and behaviors, is a controversial construct that was recently considered as a candidate disorder for the DSM-5 and was rejected. It was also rejected for inclusion in Section III (Conditions for Further Study). Nonetheless, it has been found to be an important predictor of recidivism among sex offenders, and it continues to be discussed widely in the literature. In the present study, we investigated the developmental roots of this construct in a sample of 529 adult male sexual offenders, who were administered the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression...
October 17, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Venu Duddu, Abdulhakim Rhouma, Masood Qureshi, Imran Bashir Chaudhry, Terry Drake, Altaf Sumra, Nusrat Husain
Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983)...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
K Roelofs, J Pasman
Conversion disorder (CD) has traditionally been ascribed to psychologic factors such as trauma, stress, or emotional conflict. Although reference to the psychologic origin of CD has been removed from the criteria list in DSM-5, many theories still incorporate CD as originating from adverse events. This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on stressful life events in CD and discusses current cognitive and neurobiologic models linking psychologic stressors with conversion symptomatology. In addition, we propose a neurobiologic stress model integrating those cognitive models with neuroendocrine stress research and propose that stress and stress-induced changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may result in cognitive alterations, that in turn contribute to experiencing conversion symptoms...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Surabhi Dayal, Priyadarshini Sahu, Nidhi Gupta
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A combination of narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy plus topical tacrolimus has been used in adult vitiligo but has not yet been explored in children. We therefore sought to highlight the efficacy of this synergistic combination in childhood vitiligo. The objective was to study the clinical efficacy and safety of a combination of NBUVB with topical tacrolimus ointment 0.03% in childhood vitiligo. METHOD: In this open-label study, 20 children, 4 to 14 years of age, with symmetrical vitiligo lesions were enrolled for 24 weeks...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Eli Puterman, Alison Gemmill, Deborah Karasek, David Weir, Nancy E Adler, Aric A Prather, Elissa S Epel
Stress over the lifespan is thought to promote accelerated aging and early disease. Telomere length is a marker of cell aging that appears to be one mediator of this relationship. Telomere length is associated with early adversity and with chronic stressors in adulthood in many studies. Although cumulative lifespan adversity should have bigger impacts than single events, it is also possible that adversity in childhood has larger effects on later life health than adult stressors, as suggested by models of biological embedding in early life...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Joanne M Langley, Naresh Aggarwal, Azhar Toma, Scott A Halperin, Shelly A McNeil, Laurence Fissette, Walthere Dewé, Maarten Leyssen, Jean-François Toussaint, Ilse Dieussaert
BACKGROUND:  RSV is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost pre-existing immune responses, providing passive protection to the newborn through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody. METHODS:  In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV protein F vaccine engineered to preferentially maintain pre-fusion conformation (RSV-PreF), 128 healthy men 18-44 years old were randomized to one dose of a RSV-PreF vaccine containing 10, 30 or 60 µg of RSV-PreF antigen with or without alum adjuvant, or control, and followed for one year for safety and immunogenicity outcomes...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carla Campbell, Rachael Greenberg, Deepa Mankikar, Ronald D Ross
The failure by the city of Flint, Michigan to properly treat its municipal water system after a change in the source of water, has resulted in elevated lead levels in the city's water and an increase in city children's blood lead levels. Lead exposure in young children can lead to decrements in intelligence, development, behavior, attention and other neurological functions. This lack of ability to provide safe drinking water represents a failure to protect the public's health at various governmental levels...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Monique J Brown, Saba W Masho, Robert A Perera, Briana Mezuk, River A Pugsley, Steven A Cohen
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs...
September 29, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Rosan Luijcks, Catherine J Vossen, Suzanne Roggeveen, Jim van Os, Hermie J Hermens, Richel Lousberg
Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0-11 years) and adolescence (12-17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Na Hee Lee, Young Bae Choi, Eun-Sang Yi, Soo Hyun Lee, Hee-Jin Kim, Ji Won Lee, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Keon Hee Yoo
Monosomal karyotype (MK) is known as a far end of the unfavorable cytogenetics in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), while available data in childhood AML is scarce. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and prognostic value of MK with retrospectively analyzed 119 patients newly diagnosed with childhood de novo AML. Ten patients (8.4%) revealed to have MK. All MK-positive (MK(+)) AML were associated with complex cytogenetic abnormalities and belonged to the cytogenetic adverse-risk group. Nine of MK(+) patients (90%) achieved complete remission...
September 15, 2016: Leukemia Research
Nicholas Guenzel, Julia Houfek, Shinobu Watanabe-Galloway
Diseases of obesity have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Childhood adversity has been associated with adult obesity in the general public, but has not been examined among people with mental illness. This study used a secondary analysis to examine childhood adversity and body mass index in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Among females, a history of physical abuse from parents or paternal emotional neglect was associated with an increased risk for obesity (OR = 3...
September 28, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Leonie K Elsenburg, Nynke Smidt, Aart C Liefbroer
OBJECTIVE: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been investigated to date. METHODS: Data are from 2188 children participating at T1 (10-12 years), T3 (14-18 years), and/or T5 (21-23 years) of the prospective Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey cohort study...
September 27, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Christine T Lauren, Donald V Belsito, Kimberly D Morel, Philip LaRussa
Routine childhood immunizations have resulted in great reductions in vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Vaccine-related adverse events, albeit rare, can be of significant consequence. Although anaphylaxis, or type I hypersensitivity, is recognized as a potential reaction after vaccination, delayed type hypersensitivity or type IV reactions are less so. We present a case of persistent subcutaneous nodules and sterile abscesses in the setting of delayed type hypersensitivity to aluminum, confirmed by patch testing and recurrence on re-exposure...
September 27, 2016: Pediatrics
Victoria J Forster, Frederik W van Delft, Susan F Baird, Shona Mair, Roderick Skinner, Christina Halsey
PURPOSE: Methotrexate administration is associated with frequent adverse neurological events during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here, we present evidence to support the role of common drug interactions and low vitamin B12 levels in potentiating methotrexate neurotoxicity. METHODS: We review the published evidence and highlight key potential drug interactions as well as present clinical evidence of severe methotrexate neurotoxicity in conjunction with nitrous oxide anesthesia and measurements of vitamin B12 levels among pediatric leukemia patients during therapy...
September 22, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Yin Ting Cheung, Noah D Sabin, Wilburn E Reddick, Deepa Bhojwani, Wei Liu, Tara M Brinkman, John O Glass, Scott N Hwang, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy is observed in some children undergoing chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, although its effects on long-term outcomes is unknown. This study examines the associations between acute leukoencephalopathy and neurobehavioural, neurocognitive, and brain white matter imaging outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy without cranial radiation. METHODS: In this longitudinal analysis, we used data of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, TN, USA) who had been treated between June 1, 2000, and Oct 31, 2010...
October 2016: Lancet Haematology
Annette Weiss, Grit Sommer, Rahel Kasteler, Katrin Scheinemann, Michael Grotzer, Martin Kompis, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Auditory complications are an adverse event of childhood cancer treatment, especially common in children treated with platinum chemotherapy or cranial radiation. Variation between diagnostic childhood cancer groups has rarely been studied, and we do not know if the burden of auditory complications has changed over the last decades. PROCEDURE: Within the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to all survivors who were diagnosed at age 16 years or less between 1976 and 2005...
September 21, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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