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adverse childhood events

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#1
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770960/interventions-for-increasing-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-in-children-aged-five-years-and-under
#2
REVIEW
Rebecca K Hodder, Kate M O'Brien, Fiona G Stacey, Rebecca J Wyse, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Flora Tzelepis, Erica L James, Kate M Bartlem, Nicole K Nathan, Rachel Sutherland, Emma Robson, Sze Lin Yoong, Luke Wolfenden
BACKGROUND: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under...
May 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#3
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755375/influence-of-crhr1-polymorphisms-and-childhood-abuse-on-suicide-attempts-in-affective-disorders-a-gxe-approach
#4
Birgit Ludwig, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Alexandra Bernegger, Romina Koller, Qingzhong Wang, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor D Kapusta, Helmuth Haslacher, Martin Aigner, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
Background: Previous studies have shown that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) is closely involved in the development of affective disorders. Given that early life events are also linked to dysregulation of the same system, there might be an association between childhood adversities and suicidal behavior in affective disorders, moderated by HPA-axis genes. We aimed to investigate a potential association between childhood trauma and previous suicide attempts in affective disorder patients, moderated by variants of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744873/methylphenidate-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-and-adolescents-assessment-of-adverse-events-in-non-randomised-studies
#5
REVIEW
Ole Jakob Storebø, Nadia Pedersen, Erica Ramstad, Maja Lærke Kielsholm, Signe Sofie Nielsen, Helle B Krogh, Carlos R Moreira-Maia, Frederik L Magnusson, Mathilde Holmskov, Trine Gerner, Maria Skoog, Susanne Rosendal, Camilla Groth, Donna Gillies, Kirsten Buch Rasmussen, Dorothy Gauci, Morris Zwi, Richard Kirubakaran, Sasja J Håkonsen, Lise Aagaard, Erik Simonsen, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable effects on ADHD symptoms, but the true magnitude of the effect is unknown. Concerning adverse events associated with the treatment, our systematic review of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) demonstrated no increase in serious adverse events, but a high proportion of participants suffered a range of non-serious adverse events...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741289/grommets-ventilation-tubes-for-recurrent-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Roderick P Venekamp, Paul Mick, Anne Gm Schilder, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common childhood illnesses. While many children experience sporadic AOM episodes, an important group suffer from recurrent AOM (rAOM), defined as three or more episodes in six months, or four or more in one year. In this subset of children AOM poses a true burden through frequent episodes of ear pain, general illness, sleepless nights and time lost from nursery or school. Grommets, also called ventilation or tympanostomy tubes, can be offered for rAOM...
May 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741125/association-between-parental-hospital-treated-somatic-illnesses-in-childhood-and-later-mental-disorders-among-offspring-up-to-early-adulthood-an-explorative-study-in-the-1987-finnish-birth-cohort
#7
Marko Merikukka, Sami Räsänen, Helinä Hakko, Tiina Ristikari, Mika Gissler, Mika Niemelä
AIMS: Earlier studies on the associations between parental somatic illnesses and children's psychological wellbeing have focused on the most common somatic illnesses or on specific groups of illnesses. In this study, we aimed to systematically examine whether parental somatic illnesses, diagnosed during an offspring's childhood, are associated with later mental disorders of the offspring and, if so, identify which parental somatic illnesses in particular increase the likelihood for later mental disorders among the offspring...
May 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739238/gambling-problems-and-the-impact-of-family-in-uk-armed-forces-veterans
#8
Glen Dighton, Elystan Roberts, Alice E Hoon, Simon Dymond
Background and aims International evidence indicates elevated problem gambling rates in armed forces veterans compared with the general population. Gambling problems adversely impact one's family, and family-related variables may increase vulnerability to gambling-related harm. Little is known, however, about gambling problems in the United Kingdom (UK) veterans or to what extent family variables, such as parenting history and experience of domestic violence, influence veterans' gambling. Methods We compared veterans (n = 257) and sex- and age-matched controls (n = 514) drawn from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey on gambling, financial management, domestic violence, childhood parental presence, and experience of stressful life events...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735620/adverse-childhood-experiences-aces-an-important-element-of-a-comprehensive-approach-to-the-opioid-crisis
#9
Elizabeth Cuervo Tilson
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic life events that are linked to more than 40 poor adult health outcomes. Up to two-thirds of drug use problems may be traced back to ACEs [1]. Investing in the resiliency of our children is an important component of a comprehensive approach to the opioid epidemic.
May 2018: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723829/quality-of-life-at-the-retirement-transition-life-course-pathways-in-an-early-baby-boom-birth-cohort
#10
Josephine M Wildman, Suzanne Moffatt, Mark Pearce
Promoting quality of life (QoL) in later life is an important policy goal. However, studies using prospective data to explore the mechanisms by which earlier events influence QoL in older age are lacking. This study is the first to use prospective data to investigate pathways by which a range of measures of life-course socioeconomic status contribute to later-life QoL. The study uses data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study cohort (N = 1142), an early 'baby-boom' birth cohort born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne, an industrial city in north-east England...
April 12, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720076/paediatric-active-enhanced-disease-surveillance-paeds-annual-report-2015-prospective-hospital-based-surveillance-for-serious-paediatric-conditions
#11
Jocelynne E McRae, Helen E Quinn, Kristine Macartney
Introduction: The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment for selected serious childhood conditions, particularly vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS data is used to better understand these conditions, inform policy and practice under the National Immunisation Program, and enable rapid public health responses for certain conditions of public health importance...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708457/a-proposed-explanation-for-thunderstorm-asthma-and-leukemia-risk-near-high-voltage-power-lines-a-supported-hypothesis
#12
Mary Redmayne
Thunderstorm asthma and increased childhood leukemia risk near high-voltage power lines (HVPL) are occurrences whose mechanism of effect is not fully understood. This paper proposes and discusses a key similarity: both thunderstorms and HVPL generate a high enough electrical field in the environment to ionize nearby air and air-borne particles. I argue that the repeatedly demonstrated acute asthma response to pollen-laden air during thunderstorms is largely due to ionization of air-borne allergens, which adhere more readily and in greater quantity in the lungs than non-ionized particles...
April 30, 2018: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703717/fifty-years-of-preventing-and-treating-childhood-behaviour-disorders-a-systematic-review-to-inform-policy-and-practice
#13
REVIEW
Charlotte Waddell, Christine Schwartz, Caitlyn Andres, Jenny Lou Barican, Donna Yung
QUESTION: Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) start early and persist, incurring high individual and collective costs. To inform policy and practice, we therefore asked: What is the best available research evidence on preventing and treating these disorders? STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: We sought randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions addressing the prevention or treatment of behaviour problems in individuals aged 18 years or younger...
May 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697579/acid-suppressing-drugs-and-a-low-1-level-of-antithrombin-as-risk-factors-for-l-asparaginase-associated-pancreatitis-a-case-control-study-in-the-japan-association-of-childhood-leukemia-study-jacls
#14
Yoshiko Hashii, Makoto Yoshida, Junichi Hara, Shinichiro Nishimura, Keiko Yumura-Yagi, Keizo Horibe, Tatsutoshi Nakahata
L-Asparaginase has significantly improved outcome for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and has become an essential component of multiagent chemotherapy. However, there are many adverse events due to L-asparaginase, including acute pancreatitis. The pathology of L-asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) remains unclear. We compared patients who developed AAP (n=29) and random matched controls (n=36) who had been enrolled in the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study of the ALL-02 protocol...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697466/perioperative-considerations-for-airway-management-and-drug-dosing-in-obese-children
#15
Jerrold Lerman, Karin Becke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood obesity, a phenomenon that is increasing globally, holds substantial relevance for pediatric anesthesia. In particular, understanding the nuances of airway management and drug dosing in obese children can be daunting. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory adverse events and challenges in managing the airway may be anticipated. In addition, drug-dosing strategies for the obese child are complex and poorly understood although recent advances have clarified the optimal dosing for anesthetics in these children...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694816/azithromycin-to-reduce-childhood-mortality-in-sub-saharan-africa
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeremy D Keenan, Robin L Bailey, Sheila K West, Ahmed M Arzika, John Hart, Jerusha Weaver, Khumbo Kalua, Zakayo Mrango, Kathryn J Ray, Catherine Cook, Elodie Lebas, Kieran S O'Brien, Paul M Emerson, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that mass distribution of a broad-spectrum antibiotic agent to preschool children would reduce mortality in areas of sub-Saharan Africa that are currently far from meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. METHODS: In this cluster-randomized trial, we assigned communities in Malawi, Niger, and Tanzania to four twice-yearly mass distributions of either oral azithromycin (approximately 20 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo...
April 26, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679816/poor-mental-health-among-low-income-women-in-the-u-s-the-roles-of-adverse-childhood-and-adult-experiences
#17
Joshua P Mersky, Colleen E Janczewski, Jenna C Nitkowski
RATIONALE: It is well established that exposure to a greater number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes. Given the predictive validity of ACE scores and other cumulative risk metrics, a similar measurement approach may advance the study of risk in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence and interrelations of 10 adverse adult experiences, including household events such as intimate partner violence and extrafamilial events such as crime victimization...
April 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670618/bcg-and-adverse-events-in-the-context-of-leprosy
#18
Renate Richardus, Anouk van Hooij, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Korshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk
Background: Notwithstanding its beneficial immunoprophylactic outcomes regarding leprosy and childhood TB, BCG vaccination may cause adverse events, particularly of the skin. However, this local hyper-immune reactivity cannot be predicted before vaccination, nor is its association with protection against leprosy known. In this study we investigated the occurrence of adverse events after BCG (re)vaccination in contacts of leprosy patients and analyzed whether the concomitant systemic anti-mycobacterial immunity was associated with these skin manifestations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649074/parental-bereavement-in-young-children-living-in-south-africa-and-malawi-understanding-mental-health
#19
A Macedo, L Sherr, M Tomlinson, S Skeen, K J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Parental loss is a major stressful event found to increase risk of mental health problems in childhood. Yet, some children show resilient adaptation in the face of adversity across time. SETTING: This study explores predictors of mental health resilience among parentally bereaved children in South Africa and Malawi, and their cumulative effect. The study also explores whether predictors of resilience differed between orphaned and non-orphaned children...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610292/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-to-mitigate-cancer-treatment-related-adverse-events
#20
Matthias Pinter, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Rakesh K Jain
Treatment-related side effects are a major clinical problem in cancer treatment. They lead to reduced compliance to therapy as well as increased morbidity and mortality. Well-known are the sequelae of chemotherapy on the heart, especially in childhood cancer survivors. Therefore, measures to mitigate the adverse events of cancer therapy may improve health and quality of life in cancer patients, both in short and long term. The renin angiotensin system (RAS) affects all hallmarks of cancer, and blockage of the RAS is associated with an improved outcome in several cancer types...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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