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primary hypercholesterolemia

L Baila-Rueda, A Cenarro, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, R Mateo-Gallego, A M Bea-Sanz, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedi, F Civeira
Some oxysterols are precursors of bile acid synthesis and play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. However, if they are involved in the pathogeny of genetic hypercholesterolemia has not been previously explored. We have studied non-cholesterol sterol markers of cholesterol synthesis (lanosterol and desmosterol) and oxysterols (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol) in 200 affected subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, negative for mutations in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and APOE genes (non-FH GH) and 100 normolipemic controls...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sang-Hyun Kim, Sang-Ho Jo, Sang-Cheol Lee, Sung-Yoon Lee, Myung-Ho Yoon, Hyang-Lim Lee, Nae-Hee Lee, Jong-Won Ha, Nam-Ho Lee, Dong-Woon Kim, Gyu-Rok Han, Min-Su Hyon, Deok-Gyu Cho, Chang-Gyu Park, Young-Dae Kim, Gyu-Hyung Ryu, Cheol-Ho Kim, Kee-Sik Kim, Myung-Ho Chung, Sung-Chul Chae, Ki-Bae Seung, Byung-Hee Oh
PURPOSE: A fixed-dose combination of a stain and an antihypertensive drug may be useful for the treatment of patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. It may also improve patient drug compliance to help control risk factors of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the blood pressure-lowering and cholesterol-lowering effect of a fixed-dose combination of irbesartan-atorvastatin compared with monotherapy by either agent over an 8-week treatment period. METHODS: Patients with comorbid hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were screened for this randomized, double-blind, Phase III study...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Shahram Ala, Mina Alvandipour, Majid Saeedi, Maliheh Hamidian, Afshin Shiva, Nasrin Rahmani, Fatemeh Faramarzi
BACKGROUND: Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor widely used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of coronary heart disease and has various pleiotropic effects. In this study, the efficacy of atorvastatin emulgel (2 %) in reducing postoperative pain at rest, pain during defecation and analgesic requirement after open hemorrhoidectomy was investigated. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with third- and fourth-degree hemorrhoids undergoing open hemorrhoidectomy were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Xianhui Qin, Jianping Li, J David Spence, Yan Zhang, Youbao Li, Xiaobin Wang, Binyan Wang, Ningling Sun, Fang Chen, Jingxuan Guo, Delu Yin, Liming Sun, Genfu Tang, Mingli He, Jia Fu, Yefeng Cai, Xiuli Shi, Ping Ye, Hong Chen, Shuiping Zhao, Mao Chen, Chuanyu Gao, Xiangqing Kong, Fan Fan Hou, Yining Huang, Yong Huo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether folic acid supplementation can independently reduce the risk of first stroke associated with elevated total cholesterol levels in a subanalysis using data from the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial), a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 20 702 hypertensive adults without a history of major cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of an enalapril 10-mg and a folic acid 0...
October 11, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Ibrahim Al-Zakwani, Abdullah Shehab, Ali T Al-Hinai, Wael Al Mahmeed, Mohamed Arafah, Omer Al Tamimi, Mahmoud Al Awadhi, Faisal Al Anazi, Haitham Amin, Khalid Al Nemer, Shorook Al Herz, Othman Metwally, Akram Alkhadra, Mohammed Fakhry, Hossam Elghetany, Abdel Razak Medani, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, Obaid Al Jassim, Omar Al Hallaq, Fahad Omar, Ahmed S Baslaib, Khalid Al Waili, Khamis Al Hashmi, Vasilios Athyros, Khalid Al Rasadi
BACKGROUND: Few studies assessed gender disparity in lipid goal attainment in the Arabian Gulf. Hence, we estimated gender gaps in lipid target achievements among patients at high and very high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS). METHODS: The study (conducted between November 22, 2009 and July 7, 2010) included 4,384 patients (≥18 years) on lipid lowering drugs at high and very ASCVD risk status from outpatient clinics of 177 specialists and primary care physicians in 6 Arabian Gulf countries...
October 2, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Maya S Safarova, Hongfang Liu, Iftikhar J Kullo
BACKGROUND: Little is known about prevalence, awareness, and control of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To address these knowledge gaps, we developed an ePhenotyping algorithm for rapid identification of FH in electronic health records (EHRs) and deployed it in the Screening Employees And Residents in the Community for Hypercholesterolemia (SEARCH) study. METHODS: We queried a database of 131,000 individuals seen between 1993 and 2014 in primary care practice to identify 5992 (mean age 52 ± 13 years, 42% men) patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥190 mg/dL, triglycerides <400 mg/dL and without secondary causes of hyperlipidemia...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Doris Handschel, Michiel Etienne Janssens, Marion Gericke, Stef De Reys, Helmut Borberg
BACKGROUND: As COBE Spectra has been replaced in many parts of the world, we describe a new protocol for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis performed on familial hypercholesterolemia patients for the Spectra Optia platform. METHODS: For all procedures, after administering a bolus of heparin of 2,500 U, 10,000 U of heparin added to a 600 ml ACD-A bag was used as anticoagulant (AC). In a first phase (A), 16 apheresis procedures with COBE Spectra using an inlet:AC ratio of 25:1 were compared to 18 LDL-apheresis treatments with Spectra Optia at split Inlet:AC ratios of 16:1/18:1 or 20:1/25:1...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Seth J Baum, Daniel Soffer, P Barton Duell
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal co-dominant disorder marked by extremely high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and concomitant premature vascular disease. FH is caused by mutations that most commonly affect three genes integrally involved in the LDL receptor's ability to clear LDL particles from the circulation. Primary intervention efforts to lower LDL cholesterol have centered on therapies that upregulate the LDL receptor. Unfortunately, most patients are insufficiently responsive to traditional LDL-lowering medications...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Gennaro Giustino, Ioannis Mastoris, Usman Baber, Samantha Sartori, Gregg W Stone, Martin B Leon, Patrick W Serruys, Adnan Kastrati, Stephan Windecker, Marco Valgimigli, George D Dangas, Clemens Von Birgelen, Pieter C Smits, David Kandzari, Soren Galatius, William Wijns, P Gabriel Steg, Giulio G Stefanini, Melissa Aquino, Marie-Claude Morice, Edoardo Camenzind, Giora Weisz, Raban V Jeger, Takeshi Kimura, Ghada W Mikhail, Dipti Itchhaporia, Laxmi Mehta, Rebecca Ortega, Hyo-Soo Kim, Alaide Chieffo, Roxana Mehran
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic impact of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents (DES). BACKGROUND: The clinical correlates and the prognostic significance of CAC in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DES remain unclear. METHODS: Patient-level data from female participants in 26 randomized trials of DES were pooled...
September 26, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
P J Labrador Gómez, S González Sanchidrián, J M Fuentes Rodríguez, J R Gómez-Martino Arroyo
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Dyslipidaemias are a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of our study was to analyse lipid profile in general population, prevalence, and trend in five years. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2014, all biochemical controls from Primary Care in 18 years-old adults were analysed. We used as reference for lipid levels those stablished for the European Society Cardiology and Hypertension. When several controls from same patient were found, the best and worst levels were used for prevalence...
September 16, 2016: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
María de Los Ángeles Ríos-Rodríguez, María Rosa García-Cerdán, Ana Rosa Calonge-Vallejo, Laia Tobella-Andreu, José Miguel Baena-Díez, Helmut Schröder
OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility and results of the self-reported short diet quality screener (sDQS) in Primary Care. The variables associated with difficulty and inadequate diet are also determined. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with 196 participants aged >18 years with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or hypercholesterolaemia, consecutively included from 4 Primary Health Care Centres in Barcelona. The main variables collected were, age, sex, educational level, cardiovascular risk factors, body mass index, time to complete the sDQS, degree of difficulty, and diet score: inadequate diet ≤18, adequate in some aspects 19-27, adequate >27...
September 17, 2016: Enfermería Clínica
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Eli M Roth, Patrick M Moriarty, Jean Bergeron, Gisle Langslet, Garen Manvelian, Jian Zhao, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Daniel J Rader
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In previous phase III studies, the PCSK9 monoclonal antibody alirocumab was administered at doses of 75 or 150 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W). CHOICE I (NCT01926782) evaluated 300 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W) in patients on either maximally tolerated statin or no statin, both ± other lipid-lowering therapies. METHODS: CHOICE I included patients with hypercholesterolemia at moderate-to-very-high cardiovascular risk. Patients were randomized to alirocumab 300 mg Q4W, 75 mg Q2W (calibrator arm), or placebo for 48 weeks, with dose adjustment for either alirocumab arm to 150 mg Q2W at Week (W) 12 if at W8 LDL-C levels were >70/100 mg/dL (1...
August 31, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Erik Stroes, John R Guyton, Norman Lepor, Fernando Civeira, Daniel Gaudet, Gerald F Watts, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Guillaume Lecorps, Garen Manvelian, Michel Farnier
BACKGROUND: The PCSK9 antibody alirocumab (75 mg every 2 weeks; Q2W) as monotherapy reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by 47%. Because the option of a monthly dosing regimen is convenient, ODYSSEY CHOICE II evaluated alirocumab 150 mg Q4W in patients with inadequately controlled hypercholesterolemia and not on statin (majority with statin-associated muscle symptoms), receiving treatment with fenofibrate, ezetimibe, or diet alone. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were randomly assigned to placebo, alirocumab 150 mg Q4W or 75 mg Q2W (calibrator arm), with dose adjustment to 150 mg Q2W at week (W) 12 if W8 predefined LDL-C target levels were not met...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Henry N Ginsberg, Daniel J Rader, Frederick J Raal, John R Guyton, Marie T Baccara-Dinet, Christelle Lorenzato, Robert Pordy, Erik Stroes
PURPOSE: Even with statins and other lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), many patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) continue to have elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. ODYSSEY HIGH FH (NCT01617655) assessed the efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 monoclonal antibody, versus placebo in patients with heFH and LDL-C ≥ 160 mg/dl despite maximally tolerated statin ± other LLT. METHODS: Patients were randomized to subcutaneous alirocumab 150 mg or placebo every 2 weeks (Q2W) for 78 weeks...
October 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Valeria Guglielmi, Alfonso Bellia, Serena Pecchioli, Gerardo Medea, Damiano Parretti, Davide Lauro, Paolo Sbraccia, Massimo Federici, Iacopo Cricelli, Claudio Cricelli, Francesco Lapi
BACKGROUND: There are some inconsistencies on prevalence estimates of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in general population across Europe due to variable application of its diagnostic criteria. We aimed to investigate the FH epidemiology in Italy applying the Dutch Lipid Clinical Network (DLCN) score, and two alternative diagnostic algorithms to a primary care database. METHODS: We performed a retrospective population-based study using the Health Search IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database (HSD) and including active (alive and currently registered with their general practitioners (GPs)) patients on December 31, 2014...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Massimo Salvetti
Control of lipid levels is one of the most effective strategies for cardiovascular (CV) event prevention. In fact, many clinical trials have clearly demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, primarily with statins, reduces major CV events and mortality. The evidence from these trials has been useful in designing the cholesterol treatment guidelines, which are mainly aimed at preventing and managing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, available data indicate that a large proportion of patients fail to achieve lipid goals, and this is particularly frequent in patients at high or very high CV risk...
September 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Liv Mundal, Marit B Veierød, Thomas Halvorsen, Kirsten B Holven, Leiv Ose, Per Ole Iversen, Grethe S Tell, Trond P Leren, Kjetil Retterstøl
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. The primary aim of the present study was to describe sex differences in incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease leading to hospitalisation in a complete cohort of genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this registry study data on 5538 patients with verified genotyped familial hypercholesterolaemia were linked to data on all Norwegian cardiovascular disease hospitalisations, and hospitalisations due to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, congenital heart defects and diabetes...
August 24, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Jun Shiraishi, Takeshi Nakamura, Akira Shikuma, Keisuke Shoji, Marie Nishikawa, Takashi Yanagiuchi, Daisuke Ito, Masayoshi Kimura, Eigo Kishita, Yusuke Nakagawa, Masayuki Hyogo, Takahisa Sawada, Hiroyuki Yamada, Akiyoshi Matsumuro, Takeshi Shirayama, Makoto Kitamura, Yoshio Kohno, Keizo Furukawa, Satoaki Matoba
A J-shaped or U-shaped curve phenomenon might exist between systolic blood pressure (SBP) or pulse pressure (PP) at admission and in-hospital mortality in Japanese patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, data regarding a relationship between mean blood pressure (MBP) at admission and in-hospital outcome in AMI patients undergoing primary PCI are still lacking in Japan.A total of 1,413 primary PCI-treated AMI patients were classified into quintiles based on admission MBP (< 79 n = 283, 79-91 n = 285, 92-103 n = 285, 104-115 n = 279, and ≥ 116 mmHg n = 281)...
September 28, 2016: International Heart Journal
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