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primary hypercholesterolemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076703/a-systematic-review-to-assess-the-adherence-and-persistence-with-statins
#1
Sohan Deshpande, Ruben G W Quek, Carol A Forbes, Shelley de Kock, Jos Kleijnen, Shravanthi R Gandra, Ross J Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess studies published over a 10-year period up to February 2016 which measure adherence or persistence with statins, to summarise their methods, strengths and weaknesses and to summarise evidence linking statin adherence/persistence with risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: Electronic databases and abstracts from four major cardiovascular disease conferences were searched from January 2005 to February 2016. The study selection process was performed by two reviewers working independently...
January 11, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034582/an-evidence-based-guide-to-cholesterol-lowering-guidelines
#2
REVIEW
David D Waters, S Matthijs Boekholdt
Since 2014, guidelines for the management of lipid disorders to reduce cardiovascular (CV) events have been updated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Canada. Some of these guidelines are almost entirely evidence-based whereas others are a mix of evidence and expert opinion. Guidelines differ on such simple questions as to whether blood samples should be fasting or nonfasting, and whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or another lipid parameter should be the primary focus of treatment...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030655/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-with-bioresorbable-scaffolds-in-a-young-child
#3
Tamim M Nazif, Sanjog Kalra, Ziad A Ali, Dimitrios Karmpaliotis, Mariel E Turner, Thomas J Starc, Yang Cao, Charles C Marboe, Michael B Collins, Martin B Leon, Ajay J Kirtane
Importance: Although much less frequent than in adults, coronary artery disease requiring revascularization may develop in children because of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or other underlying conditions. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) may have advantages over metallic coronary stents in this population. Objective: To present a case of the successful treatment of unstable, multivessel coronary artery disease in a child with PCI with BRS implantation...
December 28, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029315/left-ventricular-dysfunction-with-trastuzumab-therapy-is-primary-prevention-the-best-option
#4
Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Eitan Amir
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018766/differentiation-of-lung-cancer-empyema-and-abscess-through-the-investigation-of-a-dry-cough
#5
Brittany Urso, Scott Michaels
An acute dry cough results commonly from bronchitis or pneumonia. When a patient presents with signs of infection, respiratory crackles, and a positive chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pneumonia is more common. Antibiotic failure in a patient being treated for community-acquired pneumonia requires further investigation through chest computed tomography. If a lung mass is found on chest computed tomography, lung empyema, abscess, and cancer need to be included on the differential and managed aggressively. This report describes a 55-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of obesity, recovered alcoholism, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension, presenting with an acute dry cough in the primary care setting...
November 24, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998915/adolescent-diet-quality-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-middle-aged-women
#6
Christina C Dahm, Andrea K Chomistek, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Kenneth J Mukamal, A Heather Eliassen, Howard D Sesso, Kim Overvad, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, Stephanie E Chiuve
BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) focuses on treatment of risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether a healthy diet in adolescence prevents development of clinical risk factors or incidence of CVD in adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the time to the first development of ≥1 clinical risk factor (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or type 2 diabetes mellitus) or CVD in relation to a high school Alternative Healthy Eating Index (HS-AHEI) within the Nurses' Health Study II...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956003/lipid-modifying-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-anacetrapib-added-to-ongoing-statin-therapy-in-patients-with-hypercholesterolemia-or-low-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol
#7
Christie M Ballantyne, Sukrut Shah, Uma Kher, John A Hunter, Geraldine G Gill, Michael D Cressman, Tanya B Ashraf, Amy O Johnson-Levonas, Yale B Mitchel
To assess the effects of anacetrapib added to statin ± other lipid-modifying therapies in patients with hypercholesterolemia and not at their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal (as per National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III [NCEP ATP III] guidelines) and in those with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Patients on a stable dose of moderate/high-intensity statin ± other lipid-modifying therapies with LDL-C ≥70, ≥100, ≥130, or ≥160 mg/dl for very high, high, moderate, and low coronary heart disease risk, respectively, or at LDL-C goal with HDL-C ≤40 mg/dl, were randomized 1:1:1, stratified by background therapy use, to anacetrapib 100 mg (n = 153), anacetrapib 25 mg (n = 152), or placebo (n = 154) for 24 weeks, followed by a 12-week off-drug reversal phase...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927204/different-effect-of-hypercholesterolemia-on-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients-based-on-coronary-artery-disease-or-myocardial-infarction
#8
Yi-Chun Lin, Yen-Chung Lin, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Tzen-Wen Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Chiung-Chi Peng, Mai-Szu Wu
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of total cholesterol (TC) levels and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients demonstrated conflicting results. The differenct effect of Hypercholesterolemia on HD patients based on the presence of myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) between 2005 and 2012. Patients were divided into MI/CAD or non-MI/CAD group. The primary outcome was three-year mortality...
December 8, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920648/synchronous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-colon-and-rectal-carcinoid
#9
Vamshidhar Vootla, Rafeeq Ahmed, Masooma Niazi, Bhavna Balar, Suresh Nayudu
Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910804/sudden-cardiac-death-a-nationwide-cohort-study-among-the-young
#10
Bjarke Risgaard
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889901/a-novel-approach-to-screening-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-large-public-venue
#11
Megan Campbell, Jessa Humanki, Heather Zierhut
The primary aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a public health screening program to identify individuals at high risk of familial hypercholesterolemia through a novel screening approach at a large public venue. A finger-prick, non-fasting lipid panel was obtained, and a survey which consisted of 44 open- and close-ended questions divided into four sections: medical and family history of FH, opinions of cascade genetic testing, patient activation, and demographics was completed. A total of 971 participants met criteria and completed a cholesterol screen...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886619/open-label-therapy-with-alirocumab-in-patients-with-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-results-from-three-years-of-treatment
#12
Robert Dufour, Jean Bergeron, Daniel Gaudet, Robert Weiss, G Kees Hovingh, Zhizhi Qing, Feng Yang, Matthew Andisik, Albert Torri, Robert Pordy, Daniel A Gipe
BACKGROUND: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C levels in trials of up to 78weeks' duration in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). We report results from 3years of an ongoing open-label treatment extension (NCT01576484) to a 12-week double-blind trial in HeFH patients (NCT01266876). METHODS: Patients who completed the parent study and were receiving stable daily statin±ezetimibe could enter the open-label extension, where they received alirocumab 150mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) subcutaneously (n=58)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844136/-ecs-guidelines-2016-dyslipidaemias
#13
D Sinning, U Landmesser
Dyslipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its progression towards clinical complications, such as acute coronary syndromes and stroke. In August 2016 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) issued new joint guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. In these new guidelines, the concept of treating patients to a risk-based low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol target is reinforced. The task force considers LDL cholesterol as the primary target for dyslipidaemia treatment, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is not recommended as a treatment target (based on the failure of HDL cholesterol elevation treatment strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in recent studies)...
December 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794106/cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-patients-with-genetically-verified-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-norway-during-1992-2013
#14
Liv Mundal, Jannicke Igland, Leiv Ose, Kirsten B Holven, Marit B Veierød, Trond P Leren, Kjetil Retterstøl
Background Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia have increased cardiovascular disease mortality but the magnitude of the increased risk is uncertain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate all causes of death and place and manner of deaths in a large sample of genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Design, methods and results In this registry study data on 5518 patients with genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry during 1992-2013...
January 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783906/child-parent-familial-hypercholesterolemia-screening-in-primary-care
#15
David S Wald, Jonathan P Bestwick, Joan K Morris, Ken Whyte, Lucy Jenkins, Nicholas J Wald
Background Child-parent screening for familial hypercholesterolemia has been proposed to identify persons at high risk for inherited premature cardiovascular disease. We assessed the efficacy and feasibility of such screening in primary care practice. Methods We obtained capillary blood samples to measure cholesterol levels and to test for familial hypercholesterolemia mutations in 10,095 children 1 to 2 years of age during routine immunization visits. Children were considered to have positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia if their cholesterol level was elevated and they had either a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation or a repeat elevated cholesterol level 3 months later...
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769814/bile-acid-synthesis-precursors-in-subjects-with-genetic-hypercholesterolemia-negative-for-ldlr-apob-pcsk9-apoe-mutations-association-with-lipids-and-carotid-atherosclerosis
#16
L Baila-Rueda, A Cenarro, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, R Mateo-Gallego, A M Bea-Sanz, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedi, F Civeira
Some oxysterols are precursors of bile acid synthesis and play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. However, if they are involved in the pathogeny of genetic hypercholesterolemia has not been previously explored. We have studied non-cholesterol sterol markers of cholesterol synthesis (lanosterol and desmosterol) and oxysterols (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol) in 200 affected subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, negative for mutations in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and APOE genes (non-FH GH) and 100 normolipemic controls...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754176/sy-15-2-endothelial-epigenetics-and-its-role-in-mediating-biomechanical-stress-of-hypertension
#17
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742464/blood-pressure-and-cholesterol-lowering-efficacy-of-a-fixed-dose-combination-with-irbesartan-and-atorvastatin-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-hypercholesterolemia-a-randomized-double-blind-factorial-multicenter-phase-iii-study
#18
Sang-Hyun Kim, Sang-Ho Jo, Sang-Cheol Lee, Sung-Yoon Lee, Myung-Ho Yoon, Hyang-Lim Lee, Nae-Hee Lee, Jong-Won Ha, Nam-Ho Lee, Dong-Woon Kim, Gyu-Rok Han, Min-Su Hyon, Deok-Gyu Cho, Chang-Gyu Park, Young-Dae Kim, Gyu-Hyung Ryu, Cheol-Ho Kim, Kee-Sik Kim, Myung-Ho Chung, Sung-Chul Chae, Ki-Bae Seung, Byung-Hee Oh
PURPOSE: A fixed-dose combination of a stain and an antihypertensive drug may be useful for the treatment of patients with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. It may also improve patient drug compliance to help control risk factors of cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the blood pressure-lowering and cholesterol-lowering effect of a fixed-dose combination of irbesartan-atorvastatin compared with monotherapy by either agent over an 8-week treatment period. METHODS: Patients with comorbid hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were screened for this randomized, double-blind, Phase III study...
October 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738832/effects-of-topical-atorvastatin-2%C3%A2-on-posthemorrhoidectomy-pain-and-wound-healing-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Shahram Ala, Mina Alvandipour, Majid Saeedi, Maliheh Hamidian, Afshin Shiva, Nasrin Rahmani, Fatemeh Faramarzi
BACKGROUND: Atorvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor widely used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of coronary heart disease and has various pleiotropic effects. In this study, the efficacy of atorvastatin emulgel (2 %) in reducing postoperative pain at rest, pain during defecation and analgesic requirement after open hemorrhoidectomy was investigated. METHODS: A total of 66 patients with third- and fourth-degree hemorrhoids undergoing open hemorrhoidectomy were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729579/folic-acid-therapy-reduces-the-first-stroke-risk-associated-with-hypercholesterolemia-among-hypertensive-patients
#20
Xianhui Qin, Jianping Li, J David Spence, Yan Zhang, Youbao Li, Xiaobin Wang, Binyan Wang, Ningling Sun, Fang Chen, Jingxuan Guo, Delu Yin, Liming Sun, Genfu Tang, Mingli He, Jia Fu, Yefeng Cai, Xiuli Shi, Ping Ye, Hong Chen, Shuiping Zhao, Mao Chen, Chuanyu Gao, Xiangqing Kong, Fan Fan Hou, Yining Huang, Yong Huo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We sought to determine whether folic acid supplementation can independently reduce the risk of first stroke associated with elevated total cholesterol levels in a subanalysis using data from the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial), a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 20 702 hypertensive adults without a history of major cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of an enalapril 10-mg and a folic acid 0...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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