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primary hypercholesterolemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213520/cholesterol-up-regulates-neuronal-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-girk-channel-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Anna N Bukiya, Serdar Durdagi, Sergei Noskov, Avia Rosenhouse-Dantsker
Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154305/efficacy-and-safety-of-lomitapide-in-japanese-patients-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Mariko Harada-Shiba, Katsunori Ikewaki, Atsushi Nohara, Yoshihiko Otsubo, Koji Yanagi, Masayuki Yoshida, Qing Chang, Pamela Foulds
AIM: There is an unmet need in Japan for more optimal lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) who respond inadequately to available drug therapies and/or apheresis, to achieve goals of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction by 50% or to <100 mg/dL. METHODS: In this study, Japanese patients with HoFH on stable LLT and diet were treated with lomitapide, initiated at 5 mg/day and escalated to maximum tolerated dose (up to 60 mg/day) over 14 weeks...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146662/child-parent-familial-hypercholesterolemia-screening-in-primary-care
#3
LETTER
Aroon D Hingorani, Marta Futema, Steve Humphries
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138920/association-between-statin-use-and-prevalence-of-exercise-related-injuries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-amateur-runners-in-the-netherlands
#4
Esmée A Bakker, Silvie Timmers, Maria T E Hopman, Paul D Thompson, André L M Verbeek, Thijs M H Eijsvogels
BACKGROUND: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the first-choice therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some maintain that statins cause adverse musculoskeletal outcomes in highly active individuals, but few studies have examined the effects of statins on exercise-related injuries. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the prevalence of exercise-related injuries between runners who do or do not use statins. METHODS: Amateur runners (n = 4460) completed an extensive online questionnaire on their exercise patterns and health status...
January 30, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130659/pitavastatin-a-review-in-hypercholesterolemia
#5
Sheridan M Hoy
Oral pitavastatin (Livalo(®); Livazo(®)) is a competitive HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that is available in the EU for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in adults with primary hypercholesterolemia and combined (mixed) dyslipidemia. In short-term, phase III or IV studies in this patient population, pitavastatin 1-4 mg once daily was generally no less effective than presumed equipotent dosages of atorvastatin and simvastatin (including in patients with type 2 diabetes or ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors) and was superior to pravastatin (including in patients aged ≥65 years) in lowering LDL-C levels...
January 27, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123161/estimated-prevalence-of-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#6
Hirotoshi Ohmura, Yoshifumi Fukushima, Atsushi Mizuno, Koichiro Niwa, Yohei Kobayashi, Toshiaki Ebina, Kazuo Kimura, Shun Ishibashi, Hiroyuki Daida
Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) represents a strong risk for development of premature coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the majority of patients with FH are undiagnosed and the prevalence likely represents an underestimate in most countries. In Japan, the possible contribution of FH to the development of CAD may be higher because of the low incidence of CAD among the general population. We estimated the prevalence of heterozygous FH by measuring Achilles tendon thickness (ATT) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
February 7, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076703/a-systematic-review-to-assess-the-adherence-and-persistence-with-statins
#7
Sohan Deshpande, Ruben G W Quek, Carol A Forbes, Shelley de Kock, Jos Kleijnen, Shravanthi R Gandra, Ross J Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To identify and assess studies published over a 10-year period up to February 2016 which measure adherence or persistence with statins, to summarise their methods, strengths and weaknesses and to summarise evidence linking statin adherence/persistence with risk of cardiovascular events. METHODS: Electronic databases and abstracts from four major cardiovascular disease conferences were searched from January 2005 to February 2016. The study selection process was performed by two reviewers working independently...
January 11, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034582/an-evidence-based-guide-to-cholesterol-lowering-guidelines
#8
REVIEW
David D Waters, S Matthijs Boekholdt
Since 2014, guidelines for the management of lipid disorders to reduce cardiovascular (CV) events have been updated in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Canada. Some of these guidelines are almost entirely evidence-based whereas others are a mix of evidence and expert opinion. Guidelines differ on such simple questions as to whether blood samples should be fasting or nonfasting, and whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or another lipid parameter should be the primary focus of treatment...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030655/percutaneous-coronary-intervention-with-bioresorbable-scaffolds-in-a-young-child
#9
Tamim M Nazif, Sanjog Kalra, Ziad A Ali, Dimitrios Karmpaliotis, Mariel E Turner, Thomas J Starc, Yang Cao, Charles C Marboe, Michael B Collins, Martin B Leon, Ajay J Kirtane
Importance: Although much less frequent than in adults, coronary artery disease requiring revascularization may develop in children because of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or other underlying conditions. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) may have advantages over metallic coronary stents in this population. Objective: To present a case of the successful treatment of unstable, multivessel coronary artery disease in a child with PCI with BRS implantation...
December 28, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029315/left-ventricular-dysfunction-with-trastuzumab-therapy-is-primary-prevention-the-best-option
#10
Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Eitan Amir
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018766/differentiation-of-lung-cancer-empyema-and-abscess-through-the-investigation-of-a-dry-cough
#11
Brittany Urso, Scott Michaels
An acute dry cough results commonly from bronchitis or pneumonia. When a patient presents with signs of infection, respiratory crackles, and a positive chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pneumonia is more common. Antibiotic failure in a patient being treated for community-acquired pneumonia requires further investigation through chest computed tomography. If a lung mass is found on chest computed tomography, lung empyema, abscess, and cancer need to be included on the differential and managed aggressively. This report describes a 55-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of obesity, recovered alcoholism, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension, presenting with an acute dry cough in the primary care setting...
November 24, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998915/adolescent-diet-quality-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-middle-aged-women
#12
Christina C Dahm, Andrea K Chomistek, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Kenneth J Mukamal, A Heather Eliassen, Howard D Sesso, Kim Overvad, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, Stephanie E Chiuve
BACKGROUND: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) focuses on treatment of risk factors, including hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated whether a healthy diet in adolescence prevents development of clinical risk factors or incidence of CVD in adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the time to the first development of ≥1 clinical risk factor (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, or type 2 diabetes mellitus) or CVD in relation to a high school Alternative Healthy Eating Index (HS-AHEI) within the Nurses' Health Study II...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956003/lipid-modifying-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-anacetrapib-added-to-ongoing-statin-therapy-in-patients-with-hypercholesterolemia-or-low-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol
#13
Christie M Ballantyne, Sukrut Shah, Uma Kher, John A Hunter, Geraldine G Gill, Michael D Cressman, Tanya B Ashraf, Amy O Johnson-Levonas, Yale B Mitchel
To assess the effects of anacetrapib added to statin ± other lipid-modifying therapies in patients with hypercholesterolemia and not at their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal (as per National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III [NCEP ATP III] guidelines) and in those with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Patients on a stable dose of moderate/high-intensity statin ± other lipid-modifying therapies with LDL-C ≥70, ≥100, ≥130, or ≥160 mg/dl for very high, high, moderate, and low coronary heart disease risk, respectively, or at LDL-C goal with HDL-C ≤40 mg/dl, were randomized 1:1:1, stratified by background therapy use, to anacetrapib 100 mg (n = 153), anacetrapib 25 mg (n = 152), or placebo (n = 154) for 24 weeks, followed by a 12-week off-drug reversal phase...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927204/different-effect-of-hypercholesterolemia-on-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients-based-on-coronary-artery-disease-or-myocardial-infarction
#14
Yi-Chun Lin, Yen-Chung Lin, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Tzen-Wen Chen, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Chiung-Chi Peng, Mai-Szu Wu
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of total cholesterol (TC) levels and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients demonstrated conflicting results. The differenct effect of Hypercholesterolemia on HD patients based on the presence of myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System (TWRDS) between 2005 and 2012. Patients were divided into MI/CAD or non-MI/CAD group. The primary outcome was three-year mortality...
December 8, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920648/synchronous-adenocarcinoma-of-the-colon-and-rectal-carcinoid
#15
Vamshidhar Vootla, Rafeeq Ahmed, Masooma Niazi, Bhavna Balar, Suresh Nayudu
Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma...
September 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910804/sudden-cardiac-death-a-nationwide-cohort-study-among-the-young
#16
Bjarke Risgaard
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889901/a-novel-approach-to-screening-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-large-public-venue
#17
Megan Campbell, Jessa Humanki, Heather Zierhut
The primary aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a public health screening program to identify individuals at high risk of familial hypercholesterolemia through a novel screening approach at a large public venue. A finger-prick, non-fasting lipid panel was obtained, and a survey which consisted of 44 open- and close-ended questions divided into four sections: medical and family history of FH, opinions of cascade genetic testing, patient activation, and demographics was completed. A total of 971 participants met criteria and completed a cholesterol screen...
January 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886619/open-label-therapy-with-alirocumab-in-patients-with-heterozygous-familial-hypercholesterolemia-results-from-three-years-of-treatment
#18
Robert Dufour, Jean Bergeron, Daniel Gaudet, Robert Weiss, G Kees Hovingh, Zhizhi Qing, Feng Yang, Matthew Andisik, Albert Torri, Robert Pordy, Daniel A Gipe
BACKGROUND: PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C levels in trials of up to 78weeks' duration in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). We report results from 3years of an ongoing open-label treatment extension (NCT01576484) to a 12-week double-blind trial in HeFH patients (NCT01266876). METHODS: Patients who completed the parent study and were receiving stable daily statin±ezetimibe could enter the open-label extension, where they received alirocumab 150mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) subcutaneously (n=58)...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844136/-ecs-guidelines-2016-dyslipidaemias
#19
D Sinning, U Landmesser
Dyslipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its progression towards clinical complications, such as acute coronary syndromes and stroke. In August 2016 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) issued new joint guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias. In these new guidelines, the concept of treating patients to a risk-based low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol target is reinforced. The task force considers LDL cholesterol as the primary target for dyslipidaemia treatment, whereas high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is not recommended as a treatment target (based on the failure of HDL cholesterol elevation treatment strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in recent studies)...
December 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794106/cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-patients-with-genetically-verified-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-norway-during-1992-2013
#20
Liv Mundal, Jannicke Igland, Leiv Ose, Kirsten B Holven, Marit B Veierød, Trond P Leren, Kjetil Retterstøl
Background Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia have increased cardiovascular disease mortality but the magnitude of the increased risk is uncertain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate all causes of death and place and manner of deaths in a large sample of genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Design, methods and results In this registry study data on 5518 patients with genotyped familial hypercholesterolemia were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry during 1992-2013...
January 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
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