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hazardous materials

Ayaka Sato, Yuya Ikeda, Koichi Yamaguchi, Varun Vohra
Facile detection and the identification of hazardous organic solvents are essential for ensuring global safety and avoiding harm to the environment caused by industrial wastes. Here, we present a simple method for the fabrication of silver-coated monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticle photonic structures that are embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. These hybrid materials exhibit a strong green iridescence with a reflectance peak at 550 nm that originates from the close-packed arrangement of the nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Nermeen M Abu-Elala, Huda O AbuBakr, Marwa S Khattab, Samah H Mohamed, Maha A El-Hady, Rehab A Ghandour, Rania E Morsi
Despite the potential antimicrobial and water purification benefits of chitosan-based nanocomposites, there are growing concerns regarding the hazards of leached nanoparticles (NPs) to the in-contact circumference. The antibacterial performance of the nanocomposites of chitosan with silver and copper NPs and carbon nanotubes was assessed with an emphasis on their impact on fish health. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of each preparation and the growth curves of Aeromonas hydrophila exposed to different nanocomposites were measured...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rashmi Agarwalla, Rambha Pathak, Mitasha Singh, Farzana Islam, Mamta Parashar
Background: Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage on daily basis. They work in vulnerable conditions and awareness regarding occupational and environmental hazard is essential for them. Objective: To study the effectiveness of awareness program on various occupational health hazards among the ragpickers. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was conducted from May through October 2016 among the ragpickers living near field practice area of Department of Community Medicine and those living in slum areas around HAHC Hospital, New Delhi, India...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
B K Rout, B K Sikdar
Background: With the growing numbers of iron ore pelletization industries in India, various impacts on environment and health in relation to the workplace will rise. Therefore, understanding the hazardous process is crucial in the development of effective control measures. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Control measures (HIRAC) acts as an effective tool of Occupational Health Assessment. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all the possible hazards at different workplaces of an iron ore pelletizing industry, to conduct an occupational health risk assessment, to calculate the risk rating based on the risk matrix, and to compare the risk rating before and after the control measures...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Martin Eckardt, Annemarie Greb, Thomas J Simat
Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) is a new material for the production of baby bottles. PPSU is a polyether plastic formally composed of bisphenol S (BPS) and 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl (DHBP), which both have slight endocrine activities in in-vitro-tests. So far, little is known about the presence and the release of potentially hazardous substances from PPSU baby bottles. In our present study, we present a three step approach for the analysis of PPSU starting with polymer characterization in terms of chemical structure, total oligomer content and hydrolytic stability...
March 14, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Philipp Strauss, Hans-Peter Marti, Christian Beisland, Andreas Scherer, Vegard Lysne, Sabine Leh, Arnar Flatberg, Even Koch, Vidar Beisvag, Lea Landolt, Trude Skogstrand, Øystein Eikrem
Novel predictive tools for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been increasingly investigated for their predictive value, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy archives may potentially be a valuable source of miRNA sequencing material, as they remain an underused resource. Core biopsies of both cancerous and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from patients ( n = 12) undergoing nephrectomy. After small RNA-seq, several analyses were performed, including classifier evaluation, obesity-related inquiries, survival analysis using publicly available datasets, comparisons to the current literature and ingenuity pathway analyses...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Junghyun Lee, Miran Hahm, Da-An Huh, Sang-Hoon Byeon
The purpose of this study was to classify hazards at an industrial level and evaluate the exposure risks of workers exposed to dimethylformamide (DMF) used as a solvent in the workplace and to determine industries that need priority measures in managing DMF exposure. We calculated hazard quotients at an industrial level. The exposure data of DMF in the workplace were obtained from the work environment monitoring program provided by the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency. The evaluation was conducted on textile manufacturing, leather manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and rubber manufacturing industries, which have many unit work sites handling DMF...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shinichiro Kamiya, Shingo Iwano, Hiroyasu Umakoshi, Rintaro Ito, Hironori Shimamoto, Shota Nakamura, Shinji Naganawa
Purpose To investigate the relationship between the postoperative prognosis of patients with part-solid non-small cell lung cancer and the solid component size acquired by using three-dimensional (3D) volumetry software on multidetector computed tomographic (CT) images. Materials and Methods A retrospective study by using preoperative multidetector CT data with 0.5-mm section thickness, clinical records, and pathologic reports of 96 patients with primary subsolid non-small cell lung cancer (47 men and 49 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 66 years ± 8) were reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Radiology
Hao Wang, William P Lustig, Jing Li
Toxic and hazardous chemical species are ubiquitous, predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities, and pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Thus, the sensing and subsequent capture of these chemicals, especially in the gas or vapor phase, are of extreme importance. To this end, metal-organic frameworks have attracted significant interest, as their high porosity and wide tunability make them ideal for both applications. These tailorable framework materials are particularly promising for the specific sensing and capture of targeted chemicals, as they can be designed to fit a diverse range of required conditions...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Niels Kanstrup, Thorsten J S Balsby
Plastic litter in the marine environment is a major global issue. Discarded plastic shotgun ammunition shells and discharged wads are an unwelcome addition and feature among the top ten litter items found on reference beaches in Denmark. To understand this problem, its scale and origins, collections were made by volunteers along Danish coastal shorelines. In all 3669 plastic ammunition items were collected at 68 sites along 44.6 km of shoreline. The collected items were scored for characteristic variables such as gauge and length, shot type, and the legibility of text, the erosion, and the presence of metallic components...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Cheng Fang, Ounali S Jaffer, Gibran T Yusuf, Eleni Konstantatou, Daniel J Quinlan, Kosh Agarwal, Alberto Quaglia, Paul S Sidhu
Purpose To identify the minimum number of measurements required for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis by using point shear-wave elastography (pSWE) and determine whether the use of a reliability indicator such as interquartile range [IQR]-to-median ratio will affect diagnostic performance. Materials and Methods Ten liver shear-wave velocity (SWV) measurements by pSWE were obtained in 232 participants. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between the median of the first two through the first nine measurements and all 10 measurements were calculated; the minimum number of measurements with ICC greater than 0...
March 6, 2018: Radiology
Keonhee Kim, Chaehong Park, Youngdae Yoon, Soon-Jin Hwang
Cyanobacteria synthesize various harmful materials, including off-flavor substances and toxins, that are regarded as potential socio-economic and environmental hazards in freshwater systems, however, their production is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated the potential and properties of harmful materials produced by cyanobacteria, depending on temperature, and undertook a phylogenetic analysis of cyanobacteria present in the North Han River (South Korea). Production potentials were evaluated using gene-specific probes, and the harmful material production properties of strains showing positive potentials were further characterized at different temperatures in the range 15 to 30 °C...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katherine S Carlos, Lowri S deJager, Timothy H Begley
PVC is a common food contact material that is usually plasticized to increase its flexibility. Phthalates are one class of chemical compounds that are often used as plasticizers in PVC in a wide range of industries. They may be used in packaging materials for foods and can also be found in components of certain food processing equipment such as conveyor belts and tubing. Transfer of plasticizers from packaging to foods can occur. In recent years, there has been increased interest in understanding the health effects of phthalates, as well as the possible human exposure levels...
March 6, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Sang-Uk Lee, Minah Soh, Vin Ryu, Chul-Eung Kim, Subin Park, Sungwon Roh, In-Hwan Oh, Hye-Young Lee, SungKu Choi
Background: Schizophrenia is a recurrent, debilitating disease that is rarely curable. Rapid intervention after the first episode of schizophrenia has been shown to positively affect the prognosis. Unfortunately, basic data is scarce on first-episode schizophrenia in Korean patients making it difficult to create a comprehensive list of risk factors for relapse. This study aims to investigate the demographic characteristics and institutional factors of patients with first-episode schizophrenia in order to identify risk factors for relapse...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Fatma Omrane, Imed Gargouri, Moncef Khadhraoui, Boubaker Elleuch, Denis Zmirou-Navier
BACKGROUND: Sfax is a very industrialized city located in the southern region of Tunisia where heavy metals (HMs) pollution is now an established matter of fact. The health of its residents mainly those engaged in industrial metals-based activities is under threat. Indeed, such workers are being exposed to a variety of HMs mixtures, and this exposure has cumulative properties. Whereas current HMs exposure assessment is mainly carried out using direct air monitoring approaches, the present study aims to assess health risks associated with chronic occupational exposure to HMs in industry, using a modeling approach that will be validated later on...
March 5, 2018: BMC Public Health
Dedong He, Liming Zhang, Yutong Zhao, Yi Mei, Dingkai Chen, Sufang He, Yongming Luo
Waste adsorbents generated from treating Cr(VI) containing wastewater are hazardous materials and generally landfilled or treated by acid or base desorption, with concomitant high cost and toxic effects. The present work shows that these Cr-adsorbents can be reused as highly efficient catalysts for treating sulfur-containing VOCs (CH3SH), not only avoiding the economic and environmental impact from the conventional approaches, but also achieving the efficient treatment of sulfur-containing waste gas. Importantly, these reused Cr-adsorbents exhibit enhanced activity and stability compared with the catalysts reported elsewhere, indicating a new avenue of green chemistry...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Thamrong Lertudomphonwanit, Michael P Kelly, Keith H Bridwell, Lawrence G Lenke, Steven J McAnany, Prachya Punyarat, Timothy P Bryan, Jacob M Buchowski, Lukas P Zebala, Brenda A Sides, Karen Steger-May, Munish C Gupta
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Risk factors associated with rod fracture (RF) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery fused to the sacrum remain debatable and the impact of RF on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after ASD surgery has not been investigated. PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for RF and determine PROs change associated with RF after ASD surgery fused to the sacrum. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective single-center cohort...
February 28, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Johan Knutsson, Claudia Priwin, Anne-Charlotte Hessén-Söderman, Andreas Rosenblad, Magnus von Unge
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of tympanostomy ventilation tube material (silicone vs fluoroplastic) and shape (short vs long) regarding time to extrusion, occurrence of otorrhea, occlusion, tube removal and occurrence of persistent perforation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Four different types of ventilation tubes were used; Long Armstrong tubes, Donaldson tubes, Shepard tubes and straight tubes, representing four specific combinations of VT material (silicone or fluoroplastic) and shape (short, double flanged or long, single flanged)...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
R Biczak, M Turek, B Pawłowska, E Różycka-Sokołowska, B Marciniak, M Deska, P Krupa, I Jatulewicz, J Skalik, P Bałczewski
2,2'-Thiodiacetates with their excellent complexing properties may be used as metal extraction agents, fluorescent and superparamagnetic materials, antibacterial and anticancer medical agents, however there are no data concerning the environmental impact of 2,2'-thiodiacetates derivatives and data definying the potential hazard connected with their use. This study describes the ecotoxicity assessment of seven 2,2'-thiodiacetates with non-metallic, alkyl and aryl ammonium cations, which were obtained in an environmentally friendly, solvent-free syntheses...
February 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jie Li, Xiangxue Wang, Guixia Zhao, Changlun Chen, Zhifang Chai, Ahmed Alsaedi, Tasawar Hayat, Xiangke Wang
Highly efficient removal of metal ion pollutants, such as toxic and nuclear waste-related metal ions, remains a serious task from the biological and environmental standpoint because of their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Recently, highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with excellent chemical stability and abundant functional groups, have represented a new addition to the area of capturing various types of hazardous metal ion pollutants. This review focuses on recent progress in reported MOFs and MOF-based composites as superior adsorbents for the efficient removal of toxic and nuclear waste-related metal ions...
March 2, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
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