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hazardous materials

Joong Kon Park, Mazhar Ul-Islam, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Shaukat Khan, Tahseen Kamal, Salman Ul-Islam, Nasrullah Shah
BACKGROUND: Cellulose being the most abundant polymer has been widely utilized in multiple applications. Its impressive nanofibril arrangement has provoked its applications in numerous fields. Recent trends have been shifted to produce composites of nanocellulose for numerous applications among which the most important ones are its use in medical and environmental prospective. This review has basically focused the development of nanocellulose composites and its applications in resolving environmental hazards...
October 18, 2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Justyna Rajchert, Monika Rosa, Joanna Pawłowska, Milosz Parczewski, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska
BACKGROUND Despite excellent transplantation results, there is a vulnerable period of time in the post-transplant management of pediatric liver recipients, which is the time when a child becomes an adolescent. This period of psychological distress influences compliance and may result in premature transplant failure and graft loss. We performed a retrospective review of pediatric liver transplant recipients, transferred to our service for adults, in order to identify key issues associated with transition into the adult care...
October 18, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Ana Blasco, Carmen Bellas, Leyre Goicolea, Ana Muñiz, Víctor Abraira, Ana Royuela, Susana Mingo, Juan Francisco Oteo, Arturo García-Touchard, Francisco Javier Goicolea
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Thrombus aspiration allows analysis of intracoronary material in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Our objective was to characterize this material by immunohistology and to study its possible association with patient progress. METHODS: This study analyzed a prospective cohort of 142 patients undergoing primary angioplasty with positive coronary aspiration. Histological examination of aspirated samples included immunohistochemistry stains for the detection of plaque fragments...
October 10, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Jitka Sosnovcová, Marián Rucki, Hana Bendová
AIM: The presented work characterized components of food contact materials (FCM) with potential to bind to estrogen receptor (ER) and cause adverse effects in the human organism. METHODS: The QSAR Toolbox, software application designed to identify and fill toxicological data gaps for chemical hazard assessment, was used. Estrogen receptors are much less of a lock-and-key interaction than highly specific ones. The ER is nonspecific enough to permit binding with a diverse array of chemical structures...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Abhijit Deka, Sreedeep Sekharan
It is important to determine the contaminant retention characteristics of materials when assessing their suitability for use as liners in landfill sites. Sand-bentonite mixtures are commonly used as liners in the construction of landfill sites for industrial and hazardous wastes. Sand is considered to be a passive material with a negligible chemical retention capacity; fly ash, however, offers the additional advantage of adsorbing the heavy metals present in landfill leachates. There have been few studies of the contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes...
October 14, 2016: Waste Management & Research
Hideki Kumagai, Koji Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Imagawa, Shun Inoue, Janyerkye Tulyeu, Mamoru Tanaka, Takanori Yamagata
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a treatment designed to correct gut dysbiosis by administration of feces from a healthy volunteer. It is still unclear whether FMT for children with ulcerative colitis (UC) is effective or hazardous. Here we describe a young patient to have received FMT for UC. A three-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with severe active UC, and treated with aminosalicylates and various immunosuppressive drugs. As remission was not achieved, we decided to try FMT before colectomy...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Sara Nørgaard Sørensen, Hans-Christian Holten Lützhøft, Rose Rasmussen, Anders Baun
Aquatic toxicity testing of nanoparticles (NPs) is challenged by their dynamic behavior in test suspensions. The resulting difficulties in controlling and characterizing exposure concentrations are detrimental to the generation of concentration-response data needed for hazard identification of NPs. This study explores the applicability of short-term (1, 2 and 3h) pulse exposures as means to keep the exposure stable and at the same time disclose acute and chronic effects of AgNPs and CuONPs in D. magna. Dissolution, agglomeration and sedimentation were found to have less influence on exposure concentrations during 1-3h pulses than for 24-48h continuous exposures...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Theresa Rosenkranz, Johannes Kisser, Walter W Wenzel, Markus Puschenreiter
Phytomining could represent an innovative low-cost technology for the selective recovery of valuable trace elements from secondary resources. In this context the potential of phytomining from waste incineration bottom ash was tested in a pot experiment. Fresh bottom ash was acidified, leached to reduce salinity and amended with organic material to obtain a suitable substrate for plant growth. Two hyperaccumulator species, Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. lusitanicum and Sedum plumbizincicola as well as three metal tolerant species, Brassica napus, B...
October 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Xianlai Zeng, Congren Yang, Joseph F Chiang, Jinhui Li
Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) has become a global problem, due to its potential environmental pollution and human health risk, and its containing valuable resources (e.g., metals, plastics). Recycling for e-waste will be a necessity, not only to address the shortage of mineral resources for electronics industry, but also to decline environmental pollution and human health risk. To systematically solve the e-waste problem, more attention of e-waste management should transfer from macroscopic to microscopic scales...
October 7, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Esmaeil Zarei, Ali Azadeh, Nima Khakzad, Iraj Mohammadfam
Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Bin Nian Zhong, Guang Tao Fei, Wen Biao Fu, Xin Xin Gong, Xu Dong Gao, Li De Zhang
Tellurium nanowires (NWs) are attractive one-dimensional materials for many applications, yet most synthesis processes require hazardous chemical reducing agents and extreme operating conditions. Here we described a solvothermal synthesis of Te NWs using a non-toxic reducing agent, ascorbic acid. Then the Te NWs were assembled into a well-aligned film through a stirring-assisted oil-water-air interface assembly method and a Te NWs photodetector was fabricated which is sensitive to infrared radiation. The photodetector based on the well-aligned Te NWs film had a series of more excellent photoelectric properties than that based on those being randomly oriented...
September 28, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Predrag Korica, Andreja Cirman, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn
An often suggested method for waste prevention is substitution of currently-used materials with materials which are less bulky, contain less hazardous components or are easier to recycle. For policy makers it is important to have tools available that provide information on the impact of this substitution on the changes in total amounts of waste generated and managed. The purpose of this paper is to see how much changes in the mix of 15 waste streams generated in eight economic sectors from 30 European countries have influenced the amounts of waste generated and managed in the period 2004-2012...
November 2016: Waste Management & Research
Valeriia Grigel, Dorian Dupont, Kim De Nolf, Zeger Hens, Mickael D Tessier
Despite their various potential applications, InAs colloidal quantum dots have attracted considerably less attention than more classical II-VI materials because of their complex syntheses that require hazardous precursors. Recently, amino-phosphine has been introduced as a cheap, easy-to-use and efficient phosphorus precursor to synthesize InP quantum dots. Here, we use aminopnictogen precursors to implement a similar approach for synthesizing InAs quantum dots. We develop a two-step method based on the combination of aminoarsine as the arsenic precursor and aminophosphine as the reducing agent...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jae-Hun Kim, Eun Sook Ko, Yaeji Lim, Kyung Soo Lee, Boo-Kyung Han, Eun Young Ko, Soo Yeon Hahn, Seok Jin Nam
Purpose To determine the relationship between tumor heterogeneity assessed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging texture analysis and survival outcomes in patients with primary breast cancer. Materials and Methods Between January and August 2010, texture analysis of the entire primary breast tumor in 203 patients was performed with T2-weighted and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted subtraction MR imaging for preoperative staging. Histogram-based uniformity and entropy were calculated. To dichotomize texture parameters for survival analysis, the 10-fold cross-validation method was used to determine cutoff points in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
October 4, 2016: Radiology
Jeong Hee Yoon, Jeong Min Lee, Eunju Kim, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Joon Koo Han
Purpose To determine whether B1 inhomogeneity-corrected volumetric T1 maps of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are able to demonstrate global liver function and functional heterogeneity in patients with cirrhosis and to investigate their relationship with the development of hepatic insufficiency and decompensation. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved retrospective study with waiver of informed consent included 234 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging, including B1 inhomogeneity-corrected volumetric T1 mapping...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Bashir Zikria, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Frank W Roemer, Ali Guermazi, Shadpour Demehri
Purpose To investigate the risk of radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) progression evaluated in subjects with and those without underlying osteoarthritis at baseline and knee replacement (KR) associated with meniscal surgery in subjects with and those without a reported history of preceding knee trauma. Materials and Methods The HIPAA-compliant protocol was approved by the institutional review boards of the participating centers. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Subjects who underwent meniscal surgery with a preceding knee trauma at baseline (n = 564) and those without (n = 147) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort (n = 4796)...
October 3, 2016: Radiology
Xu Zhen, Wei Cheng Ng, Fendy, Yen Wah Tong, Yanjun Dai, Koon Gee Neoh, Chi-Hwa Wang
In Singapore, approximately 30t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Kelvin L Walls, Mikael Boulic, John W D Boddy
The United Nations "25 × 25 Strategy" of decreasing non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases, by 25% by 2025 does not appear to take into account all causes of NCDs. Its focus is on a few diseases, which are often linked with life-style factors with "voluntary" "modifiable behavioral risk factors" causes tending towards an over-simplification of the issues. We propose to add some aspects of our built environment related to hazardous building materials, and detailed form of the construction of infrastructure and buildings, which we think are some of the missing causes of NCDs...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Robert N Parker, Tristram C Hales, Simon M Mudd, Stuart W D Grieve, José A Constantine
Shallow landslides, triggered by extreme rainfall, are a significant hazard in mountainous landscapes. The hazard posed by shallow landslides depends on the availability and strength of colluvial material in landslide source areas and the frequency and intensity of extreme rainfall events. Here we investigate how the time taken to accumulate colluvium affects landslide triggering rate in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA and how this may affect future landslide hazards. We calculated the failure potential of 283 hollows by comparing colluvium depths to the minimum (critical) soil depth required for landslide initiation in each hollow...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sebastian Heger, Kerstin Bluhm, Julia Brendt, Philipp Mayer, Nico Anders, Andreas Schäffer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert
Only few information on the potential toxic effectiveness of biofuels are available. Due to increasing worldwide demand for energy and fuels during the past decades, biofuels are considered as a promising alternative for fossil fuels in the transport sector. Hence, more information on their hazard potentials are required to understand the toxicological impact of biofuels on the environment. In the German Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass" design processes for economical, sustainable and environmentally friendly biofuels are investigated...
2016: PloS One
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