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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739505/valorisation-of-softwood-bark-through-extraction-of-utilizable-chemicals-a-review
#1
REVIEW
M Jablonsky, J Nosalova, A Sladkova, A Haz, F Kreps, J Valka, S Miertus, V Frecer, M Ondrejovic, J Sima, I Surina
Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Finally, some challenges and perspectives on the production of chemicals from bark are discussed.
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731918/the-associations-of-height-for-age-weight-for-age-and-weight-for-height-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
Jeremy M Schraw, Ann T Henson, Michael E Scheurer, Michele R Forman
Height at diagnosis has been analyzed in connection with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most prior studies have compared cases to national reference data derived from previous birth cohorts. Our objective was to determine the association of height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at time of diagnosis with the odds ratio (OR) of ALL in a case-control study (N=498) with a contemporaneous population of age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched controls. We hypothesized that cases would have greater mean HAZ at time of diagnosis/interview, after adjustment for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#3
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712150/the-effect-of-young-children-s-faeces-disposal-practices-on-child-growth-evidence-from-34-countries
#4
Valerie Bauza, Jeremy S Guest
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between child faeces disposal and child growth in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We analysed caregiver responses and anthropometric data from Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014) for 202,614 children under five and 82,949 children under two to examine the association between child faeces disposal and child growth. RESULTS: Child faeces disposal in an improved toilet was associated with reduced stunting for children under five [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR)=0...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709101/the-impact-of-prenatal-perfluoroalkyl-substances-exposure-on-neonatal-and-child-growth
#5
Mei-Huei Chen, Sharon Ng, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ching-Chun Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are wildly distributed environmental pollutants. Laboratory mice exposed prenatally to PFASs develop smaller birth weight but are more likely to become obese in adulthood. The evidences in human studies are still inconclusive. METHODS: The participants were 429 mother-infant pairs from Taiwan Birth Panel Study. These children were followed serially and growth data were collected through face to face interviews and records in Child Healthcare Handbooks until 108months of age...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684015/bioimpedance-spectroscopy-measurements-of-phase-angle-and-height-for-age-are-predictive-of-outcome-in-children-following-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#6
L V Marino, R Meyer, M Johnson, C Newell, C Johnstone, A Magee, K Sykes, S A Wootton, J V Pappachan
OBJECTIVE: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often growth restricted (low weight- and/or height-for-age) which may increase risk of poor post operative resilience. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to determine body composition in different clinical settings and has been shown to mark differences in nutritional state and clinical outcome. In disease conditions were fluid is not normally distributed it is proposed that raw impedance values and BIS derived phase-angle may serve as prognostic indicators of clinical outcome...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669228/open-defecation-explains-differences-in-nutritional-status-between-bengali-and-tribal-children-in-the-chittagong-hill-tracts-of-bangladesh
#7
Sheela S Sinharoy, Jillian L Waid, Matthew C Freeman, Aryeh D Stein
OBJECTIVE: We describe differences in linear growth as measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between children from Bengali and tribal populations in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and examine factors associated with HAZ in both groups. DESIGN: We used nutritional surveillance data collected in Bangladesh from 2003 to 2006 to analyze HAZ among 12,006 children aged 6-23 months and conducted multivariate linear regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to quantify the relative contribution of independent variables to differences in HAZ between Bengali and tribal children...
July 1, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644306/the-associations-of-height-for-age-weight-for-age-and-weight-for-height-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#8
Jeremy M Schraw, Ann T Henson, Michael E Scheurer, Michele R Forman
Height at diagnosis has been analyzed in connection with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most prior studies have compared cases to national reference data derived from previous birth cohorts. Our objective was to determine the association of height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at time of diagnosis with the odds ratio (OR) of ALL in a case-control study (N=498) with a contemporaneous population of age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched controls. We hypothesized that cases would have greater mean HAZ at time of diagnosis/interview, after adjustment for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609921/first-report-of-the-genus-i-tettigonia-i-linnaeus-orthoptera-tettigoniidae-tettigoniinae-and-record-of-i-tettigonia-i-i-caudata-i-i-caudata-i-charpentier-1842-from-india
#9
Rajendra Nagar, R Swaminathan
The genus Tettigonia Linnaeus (Tettigoniidae; Tettigoniinae) with the type species, Gryllus (Tettigonia) viridissima Linnaeus, 1758 belongs to the tribe Tettigoniini, which is represented by 15 genera and 27 species worldwide (Cigliano et al., 2017). According to the annotated checklist, the subfamily Tettigoniinae includes the only tribe Platycleidini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 with 2 genera and 3 species as reported from India by Shishodia et al. (2010). In a review of Orthoptera from the Eastern Palearctic region, the genus Tettigonia Linnaeus was reported by Storozhenko (1994); additionally, some new species of Tettigonia have been described by Ogawa (2003), Greenwalt and Rust (2014), Chobanov et al...
April 28, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598588/nutritional-outcomes-in-infants-with-food-allergy-after-cardiac-surgery
#10
Wen-Yi Luo, Zhuo-Ming Xu, Li Hong, Qian-Yue Wu, Yue-Yue Zhang
BACKGROUND: Food allergy is a rapidly growing public health concern because of its increasing prevalence, as well as life-threatening potential. There is limited knowledge on the nutritional status for the pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with food allergy. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated both clinical and nutritional outcomes according to the CHD infants with food allergy. METHODS: Forty CHD infants with food allergy and 39 controls were recruited in Shanghai, China...
June 9, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558957/maternal-nutrition-knowledge-and-child-nutritional-outcomes-in-urban-kenya
#11
Bethelhem Legesse Debela, Kathrin M Demmler, Ramona Rischke, Matin Qaim
We examine the link between maternal nutrition knowledge and nutritional outcomes of children and adolescents (5-18 years) measured in terms of height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ). One particular focus is on the role of different types of nutrition knowledge. The analysis builds on household-level and individual-level data collected in urban Kenya in 2012 and 2015. Various regression models are developed and estimated. Results show that maternal nutrition knowledge - measured through an aggregate knowledge score - is positively associated with child HAZ, even after controlling for other influencing factors such as household living standard and general maternal education...
May 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542506/impact-evaluation-of-different-cash-based-intervention-modalities-on-child-and-maternal-nutritional-status-in-sindh-province-pakistan-at-6-mo-and-at-1-y-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Bridget Fenn, Tim Colbourn, Carmel Dolan, Silke Pietzsch, Murtaza Sangrasi, Jeremy Shoham
BACKGROUND: Cash-based interventions (CBIs), offer an interesting opportunity to prevent increases in wasting in humanitarian aid settings. However, questions remain as to the impact of CBIs on nutritional status and, therefore, how to incorporate them into emergency programmes to maximise their success in terms of improved nutritional outcomes. This study evaluated the effects of three different CBI modalities on nutritional outcomes in children under 5 y of age at 6 mo and at 1 y. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a four-arm parallel longitudinal cluster randomised controlled trial in 114 villages in Dadu District, Pakistan...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504464/skeletal-maturity-of-the-hand-in-an-east-african-group-from-sudan
#13
Fadil Elamin, Nihal Abdelazeem, Ahmed Elamin, Duaa Saif, Helen M Liversidge
OBJECTIVES: Studies of skeletal maturity from Africa indicate a delay, reflected in a negative relative skeletal age (RSA). This study aims to evaluate the influence of age, socioeconomic status (SES) and nutritional status on skeletal maturation in a large sample of children from North Sudan. MATERIALS: The sample consisted 665 males and 1018 females from 3-25 years from Khartoum. Height, weight, age of menarche and, SES were recorded of patients attending for dental treatment...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498315/factors-associated-with-stunting-among-children-aged-0-to-59-months-from-the-central-region-of-mozambique
#14
Loida M García Cruz, Gloria González Azpeitia, Desiderio Reyes Súarez, Alfredo Santana Rodríguez, Juan Francisco Loro Ferrer, Lluis Serra-Majem
The objective of this study was to identify the major socio-demographic, health, and environmental determinants of stunting among children aged 0-59 months from the Tete province (Mozambique) and offering useful information for future healthcare strategies and interventions. A case-control study was conducted among 282 (162 boys; 120 girls) children under five years of age from the central region of Mozambique between 1 May and 3 June 2014. Children with stunting (HAZ < -2 SD according to the WHO Child Growth Standards in 2006) were considered as cases and those who had a Z-score < -2 SD were considered as controls...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494007/child-malnutrition-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-meta-analysis-of-demographic-and-health-surveys-2006-2016
#15
Blessing J Akombi, Kingsley E Agho, Dafna Merom, Andre M Renzaho, John J Hall
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the highest levels of child malnutrition globally. Therefore, a critical look at the distribution of malnutrition within its sub-regions is required to identify the worst affected areas. This study provides a meta-analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition indicators (stunting, wasting and underweight) within four sub-regions of sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (2006-2016) of 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486441/bone-mineral-density-in-patients-with-inherited-bone-marrow-failure-syndromes
#16
Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, Neelam Giri, Maya B Lodish, Ninet Sinaii, James C Reynolds, Sharon A Savage, Constantine A Stratakis, Blanche P Alter
BACKGROUNDPatients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) may have several risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in IBMFS and determine associated risk factors.METHODSPatients with IBMFS with at least one Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan were evaluated. Diagnosis of each IBMFS, Fanconi anemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, was confirmed by syndrome-specific tests. Data were gathered on age, height and clinical history...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481997/patterns-of-growth-body-composition-and-lipid-profiles-in-a-south-african-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-and-uninfected-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Sarah M Ramteke, Stephanie Shiau, Marc Foca, Renate Strehlau, Francoise Pinillos, Faeezah Patel, Avy Violari, Afaaf Liberty, Ashraf Coovadia, Louise Kuhn, Stephen M Arpadi
Background.: Prior research in sub-Saharan Africa reports dyslipidemia in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) compared with efavirenz; however, interpretation of findings is limited by lack of comparison data from HIV-uninfected children. Methods.: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of lipid profiles and growth within a larger longitudinal cohort study of perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa...
May 6, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464868/nutritional-status-and-correlated-socio-economic-factors-among-preschool-and-school-children-in-plantation-communities-sri-lanka
#18
Lahiru Sandaruwan Galgamuwa, Devika Iddawela, Samath D Dharmaratne, G L S Galgamuwa
BACKGROUND: Child malnutrition is a major public health concern worldwide, leading to higher morbidity and mortality. It is mostly preventable through public health and economic development. The aim of the present study was to determine socio-economic factors associated with nutritional status among children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among preschool and school going children in three rural communities of Sri Lanka from January to August 2014...
May 2, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443373/association-between-women-s-empowerment-and-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-kalal%C3%A3-district-of-northern-benin
#19
Halimatou Alaofè, Min Zhu, Jennifer Burney, Rosamond Naylor, Taren Douglas
BACKGROUND: Evidence on effectiveness of women's empowerment (WE) to reduce undernutrition is limited in sub-Sahara Africa, and few studies incorporate multidimensional measures of WE. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a WE status, in sum and across leadership, decision-making, mobility, economic security, male involvement in housework, and nonfamily group domains, is associated with women and their children nutritional status in Kalalé district of northern Benin. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2014 Solar Market Garden baseline study: 767 paired reproductive-age women aged 15 to 49 years and children 6 to 59 months old...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422940/body-composition-at-birth-and-height-at-2-years-a-prospective-cohort-study-among-children-in-jimma-ethiopia
#20
Bitiya Admassu, Jonathan C K Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Gregers S Andersen, Victor Owino, Tefera Belachew, Kim F Michaelsen, Mubarek Abera, Rasmus Wibaek, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUNDLow birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess associations between birth BC and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) at 2 years of age.METHODSIn a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at birth and HAZ at 24 ±3 months...
June 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
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