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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100200/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-anaemia-among-children-aged-6-to-59%C3%A2-months-in-namutumba-district-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Fiona Kuziga, Yeka Adoke, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is one of the major causes of death among children under five years in Africa, with a prevalence of 64.6% among pre-school children. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Namutumba district in East-central Uganda to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among children aged 6 to 59 months. METHODS: We conducted a household survey in 376 randomly selected households. One child aged 6 to 59 months was randomly sampled from each selected household...
January 18, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098147/nanoparticle-induced-unusual-melting-and-solidification-behaviours-of-metals
#2
Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Chezheng Cao, Xiaochun Li
Effective control of melting and solidification behaviours of materials is significant for numerous applications. It has been a long-standing challenge to increase the melted zone (MZ) depth while shrinking the heat-affected zone (HAZ) size during local melting and solidification of materials. In this paper, nanoparticle-induced unusual melting and solidification behaviours of metals are reported that effectively solve this long-time dilemma. By introduction of Al2O3 nanoparticles, the MZ depth of Ni is increased by 68%, while the corresponding HAZ size is decreased by 67% in laser melting at a pulse energy of 0...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096416/infrastructure-mitigates-the-sensitivity-of-child-growth-to-local-agriculture-and-rainfall-in-nepal-and-uganda
#3
Gerald E Shively
This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065186/differential-effects-of-dietary-diversity-and-maternal-characteristics-on-linear-growth-of-children-aged-6-59-months-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis
#4
Dickson A Amugsi, Zacharie T Dimbuene, Elizabeth W Kimani-Murage, Blessing Mberu, Alex C Ezeh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differential effects of dietary diversity (DD) and maternal characteristics on child linear growth at different points of the conditional distribution of height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from nationally representative cross-sectional samples of singleton children aged 0-59 months, born to mothers aged 15-49 years. The outcome variable was child HAZ. Quantile regression was used to perform the multivariate analysis...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049661/height-in-healthy-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-assessment
#5
Mahesh Karra, S V Subramanian, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: Despite rapid economic development and reductions in child mortality worldwide, continued high rates of early childhood stunting have put the global applicability of international child-height standards into question. OBJECTIVES: We used population-based survey data to identify children growing up in healthy environments in low- and middle-income countries and compared the height distribution of these children to the height distribution of the reference sample established by the WHO...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044425/immediate-effects-of-diamond-burr-debridement-in-patients-with-spontaneous-chronic-corneal-epithelial-defects-light-and-electron-microscopic-evaluation
#6
Charlotte Dawson, Carolina Naranjo, Belen Sanchez-Maldonado, Georgina V Fricker, Rose N Linn-Pearl, Natalia Escanilla, Christiane Kafarnik, David J Gould, Rick F Sanchez, Marian Matas-Riera
PURPOSE: To evaluate immediate effects of diamond burr debridement (DBD) on the cornea of canine patients diagnosed with spontaneous chronic corneal epithelial defects (SCCEDs). ANIMALS STUDIED: Eight client owned dogs with SCCEDs. METHODS: Nine eyes from eight dogs with SCCEDs underwent superficial keratectomy (SK). The ulcerated area was divided into quadrants with a 300-micron restricted depth knife. Two of four quadrants underwent DBD for 40-60 s...
January 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030557/anthropometric-improvement-among-hiv-infected-pre-school-children-following-initiation-of-first-line-anti-retroviral-therapy-implications-for-follow-up
#7
Atnafu Mekonnen Tekleab, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Ababi Zergaw Giref, Damte Shimelis, Meseret Gebre
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifesaving intervention for HIV infected children. There is a scarcity of data on immunological recovery and its relation with growth indicators among HIV infected young children. The current study aims to assess the pattern of anthropometric Z-score improvement following initiation of first-line ART among under-five children and the relationship between anthropometric Z-score improvement and immunologic recovery. METHODS: We included under-five children who were on first-line ART at five major hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027671/nutrition-status-of-primary-school-students-in-two-rural-regions-of-guinea-bissau
#8
Edward Saltzman, Nina Schlossman, Carrie A Brown, Ionela Balan, Paul Fuss, Payal Batra, Augusto Braima de Sa, Mary Kyla Shea, William M Pruzensky, Carlito Bale, Susan B Roberts
BACKGROUND: The nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in Africa has received relatively little attention in comparison to that of younger children. We surveyed primary school students in Guinea-Bissau, a nation that is among the poorest in the world. OBJECTIVE: Anthropometry and prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency were assessed in schoolchildren participating in International Partnership for Human Development's school feeding program in 2 regions of Guinea-Bissau...
January 1, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003204/nonviolent-civil-insecurity-is-negatively-associated-with-subsequent-height-for-age-in-children-aged-5-y-born-between-1998-and-2014-in-rural-areas-of-africa
#9
Amelia F Darrouzet-Nardi
BACKGROUND: Civil wars and wars between states have occurred less frequently since the start of the 21st century, but civil insecurity outside the contexts of official wars continues to plague many parts of the world. The nutritional consequences of civil insecurity may disproportionately affect children, especially if experienced during sensitive developmental periods. OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the associations between localized nonviolent and violent civil insecurity during key child nutritional periods and subsequent height-for-age z scores (HAZs) in 145,948 children born between 1998 and 2014 in Africa and examined the type of place of residence as a mediating factor...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958249/physical-growth-and-nutritional-status-assessment-of-school-children-in-enugu-nigeria
#10
J N Eze, T Oguonu, N C Ojinnaka, B C Ibe
BACKGROUND: Physical growth of a child is a reflection of its state of nutrition. In some developing countries such as Nigeria with changing economy and rapidly growing population, the nutritional status of the children is a reflection of the general well-being of the society. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which participants were selected using a multistage sampling method. Heights and weights of randomly selected school children aged 6-12 years were measured using standard protocols...
January 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916873/the-effect-of-low-dose-iron-and-zinc-intake-on-child-micronutrient-status-and-development-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Nicolai Petry, Ibironke Olofin, Erick Boy, Moira Donahue Angel, Fabian Rohner
Adequate supply of micronutrients during the first 1000 days is essential for normal development and healthy life. We aimed to investigate if interventions administering dietary doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of iron and zinc within the window from conception to age 2 years have the potential to influence nutritional status and development of children. To address this objective, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and quasi-randomized fortification, biofortification, and supplementation trials in women (pregnant and lactating) and children (6-23 months) delivering iron or zinc in doses up to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) levels was conducted...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895519/portal-hypertension-an-uncommon-clinical-manifestation-of-takayasu-arteritis-in-a-9-year-old-child
#12
Cristina N Herrera, Javier E Tomala-Haz
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is the third most common childhood vasculitis and its clinical manifestations depend on the arteries involved. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple aneurysms in carotid and iliac arteries, subclavian and coronary arteries, and abdominal aorta. At the age of 7 years, he presented with recurrent fever and hepatosplenomegaly. An angio-computed tomography scan showed aneurysms in the left subclavian artery, abdominal aorta, and both proximal iliac arteries. He was diagnosed with TA and was treated with corticosteroids, aspirin, and enalapril...
2016: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853226/i-can-haz-more-science-emoji-host-of-nerd-icons-proposed
#13
Katherine Bourzac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
17, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852422/differential-effects-of-young-maternal-age-on-child-growth
#14
Soo Hyun Yu, John Mason, Jennifer Crum, Claudia Cappa, David R Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15-24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849229/maternal-depression-and-child-development-evidence-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-s-western-region-cohort-study
#15
Alexandra Brentani, Günther Fink
Introduction: While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Method: Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824883/biomarkers-of-environmental-enteropathy-are-positively-associated-with-immune-responses-to-an-oral-cholera-vaccine-in-bangladeshi-children
#16
Muhammad Ikhtear Uddin, Shahidul Islam, Naoshin S Nishat, Motaher Hossain, Tanzeem Ahmed Rafique, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Mohammad Rubel Hoq, Yue Zhang, Amit Saha, Jason B Harris, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Edward T Ryan, Daniel T Leung, Firdausi Qadri
Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV). We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821693/nonnative-cattle-ownership-diet-and-child-height-for-age-evidence-from-the-2011-uganda-demographic-and-health-survey
#17
Jamie Lynn Fierstein, Misha Eliasziw, Beatrice Lorge Rogers, Janet E Forrester
In underresourced settings where domestic animals and children often cohabitate, there is limited evidence about the net impact of domestic animal ownership on child health. We analyzed the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey to determine whether household ownership of native cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, pigs, and nonnative cattle was associated with child height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), and to assess the influence of diet on this association in rural and urban environments. Using weighted multivariable linear regression, we found that nonnative cattle ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 0 to < 2 years of age (+1...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806975/reference-ranges-for-midupper-arm-circumference-upper-arm-muscle-area-and-upper-arm-fat-area-in-us-children-and-adolescents-aged-1-20-y
#18
O Yaw Addo, John H Himes, Babette S Zemel
BACKGROUND: Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) has long been used in anthropometric assessments of nutritional status in field settings, especially in emergency situations, but percentile ranges for healthy, well-nourished children are currently unavailable. OBJECTIVE: We developed reference curves for MUAC and derived measures of arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) on the basis of the population used in the current CDC body mass index growth charts. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional MUAC and triceps (triceps skinfold thickness) data from 32,952 US children aged 1-20 y...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806066/prevalence-and-predictors-of-malnutrition-among-guatemalan-children-at-2-years-of-age
#19
Jason M Nagata, James Gippetti, Stefan Wager, Alejandro Chavez, Paul H Wise
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. RESULTS: Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704160/are-stunted-young-indonesian-children-more-likely-to-be-overweight-thin-or-have-high-blood-pressure-in-adolescence
#20
Cut Novianti Rachmi, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, Mu Li, Louise Alison Baur
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether stunted young children are at greater risk of (1) overweight/obesity or thinness, and (2) high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescence. METHODS: A secondary data analysis using the Indonesian Family Life Survey waves 1 (1993) to 4 (2007). We generated a 14-year follow-up cohort (1993-2007) and two 7-year cohorts (1993-2000 and 2000-2007) of children aged 2.0-4.9 years. Stunting (HAZ < -2), thinness (BMIZ < -2), and overweight/obesity (BMIZ > +1) were determined based upon the WHO Child Growth Standards...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
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