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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152259/prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-risk-of-undernutrition-in-hospitalised-children-with-liver-disease
#1
Ronghua Yu, Yizhong Wang, Yongmei Xiao, Lili Mo, Aishu Liu, Dan Li, Ting Ge, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
Nutritional status of 380 hospitalised children aged from 1 month to 5 years with liver disease was evaluated in a single paediatric centre. The total prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z (HAZ) < -2), underweight (weight-for-age Z (WAZ) < -2) and wasting (weight-for-height Z < -2) was 9·8, 9·0 and 7·9 %, respectively. The overall nutritional risk (-2 ≤ Z < -1) of stunting, underweight and wasting was 11·8, 12·9 and 12·6 %. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly higher in children with cholestasis than children without cholestasis (stunting, 17·5 %/4·4 %, P < 0·001, and underweight, 14·9 %/4·9 %, P < 0·001)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150339/hair-concentration-of-trace-elements-and-growth-in-homeless-children-aged-6years-results-from-the-enfams-study
#2
Lucia Fábelová, Stéphanie Vandentorren, Cécile Vuillermoz, Robert Garnier, Sandrine Lioret, Jérémie Botton
BACKGROUND: Growth is an important indicator of health in early childhood. This is a critical developmental period, during which a number of factors, including exposure to metals, might play a role in later physical and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between exposure to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and physical growth of children from homeless families aged <6years. METHODS: This study was based on data of the cross-sectional survey (ENFAMS), which was conducted by the Observatoire du Samu Social on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in the Paris region during winter 2013...
November 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145827/maternal-iodine-status-during-lactation-and-infant-weight-and-length-in-henan-province-china
#3
Jin Yang, Lin Zhu, Xiaofeng Li, Heming Zheng, Zhe Wang, Zongyu Hao, Yang Liu
BACKGROUND: Infants are very sensitive to iodine deficiency. Breastfed infants are dependent on maternal iodine intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal iodine status during lactation and infant weight and length. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate maternal iodine status and infant anthropometric measures in Henan Province, China. Only exclusive breastfeeding mothers and their infants < 6 months of age (n = 747) were included in our final analysis...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132614/early-childhood-linear-growth-faltering-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-as-a-whole-population-condition-analysis-of-179-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-64-countries-1993-2015
#4
Daniel E Roth, Aditi Krishna, Michael Leung, Joy Shi, Diego G Bassani, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. METHODS: Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125239/hippocampal-sparing-approach-in-fractionated-stereotactic-brain-vmat-radio-therapy-a-retrospective-feasibility-analysis
#5
Maria Daniela Falco, Stefano Giancaterino, Marco D'Andrea, Ramon Gimenez De Lorenzo, Marianna Trignani, Luciana Caravatta, Clelia Di Carlo, Saide Di Biase, Albina Allajbej, Domenico Genovesi
Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques for fractioned stereotactic brain radiotherapy (FSBRT) can achieve highly conformal dose distribution to intracranial lesions. However, they can potentially increase the dose to hippocampus (H) causing neurocognitive toxicity during the first four months after irradiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of hippocampal-sparing (HS) treatment plans in 22 patients with brain metastasis treated with VMAT technique. Firstly, we retrospectively analyzed hippocampal doses in all 22 VMAT original (not hippocampal-sparing, NHS) plans...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070563/low-serum-%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-other-metabolites-are-associated-with-poor-linear-growth-in-young-children-from-rural-malawi
#6
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ximin Li, Norman Salem, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Kenneth M Maleta, Klaus Kraemer, Mark J Manary
Background: Stunting affects ∼25% of children <5 y of age and is associated with impaired cognitive and motor development and increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood.Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify altered metabolic pathways associated with child stunting.Design: We measured 677 serum metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study of 400 Malawian children aged 12-59 mo, of whom 62% were stunted...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064574/adolescent-mothers-anthropometrics-and-grandmothers-schooling-predict-infant-anthropometrics-in-ethiopia-india-peru-and-vietnam
#7
Whitney Schott, Elisabetta Aurino, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
We investigated intergenerational associations of adolescent mothers' and grandmothers' anthropometrics and schooling with adolescent mothers' offspring's anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We examined birthweight (n = 283), birthweight Z-score (BWZ), conditional growth in weight-for-age Z-score (cWAZ, residuals from a regression of WAZ at last survey round on BWZ, sex, and age), and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) of children born to older cohort adolescent girls in the Young Lives study. Our key independent variables were adolescent mothers' body size: HAZ and body-mass-index-for-age Z-score (BMIZ) at age 8, conditional HAZ (cHAZ, residuals from a regression of HAZ at the end of a growth period on prior HAZ, age, and sex), conditional BMIZ growth (cBMIZ, calculated analogously), and grandmaternal BMIZ, HAZ, and schooling...
October 24, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047376/women-s-education-level-amplifies-the-effects-of-a-livelihoods-based-intervention-on-household-wealth-child-diet-and-child-growth-in-rural-nepal
#8
Laurie C Miller, Neena Joshi, Mahendra Lohani, Beatrice Rogers, Shubh Mahato, Shibani Ghosh, Patrick Webb
BACKGROUND: Many organizations seek to alleviate poverty in the developing world, often focusing their interventions on women. The role, status, and education of women are fundamentally important facets of development. Thus, understanding the interaction of women's educational level and the response to interventions is important. Therefore, we examined the impact of educational level of household adults on responses to a livestock-based community intervention. METHODS: Six pair-matched communities in 3 districts of Nepal (Chitwan/Nawalparasi/Nuwakot), were randomly assigned to receive community development activities via women's self-help groups at baseline or 1 year later...
October 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018582/effect-of-low-dose-versus-higher-dose-antenatal-iron-supplementation-on-child-health-outcomes-at-36-months-of-age-in-viet-nam-longitudinal-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Sarah Hanieh, Tran T Ha, Julie A Simpson, Sabine Braat, Tran T Thuy, Thach D Tran, Janet King, Tran Tuan, Jane Fisher, Beverley-Ann Biggs
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation (IFA) is currently recommended for pregnant women in populations where anaemia prevalence among pregnant women is <20% or if daily iron is not acceptable. The effect of providing lower doses of antenatal elemental iron through intermittent regimes on longer-term health outcomes in childhood is unclear. METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and May 2014 in Viet Nam among children of 36 months of age, born to women previously enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation (daily IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation (60 mg elemental iron))...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960326/birth-weight-and-prepubertal-body-size-predict-menarcheal-age-in-india-peru-and-vietnam
#11
Elisabetta Aurino, Whitney Schott, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
Evidence on the associations of birth weight and prepubertal nutritional status with menarcheal age for low- and middle-income countries is limited. We investigated these relationships using the Young Lives younger cohort for 2001 Indian, Peruvian, and Vietnamese girls born in 2001-2002. Girls were followed at approximately ages 1, 5, 8, and 12 years. Weibull survival models estimated hazards of earlier menarche on the basis of birth weight Z-scores (BWZ), and age-8 BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIZ) and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ)...
September 28, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901592/child-stunting-is-associated-with-weaker-human-capital-among-native-amazonians
#12
Eduardo A Undurraga, Jere R Behrman, Susan D Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R Leonard, Steven T Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A Godoy
OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ<-2), moderately stunted (-2 ≤ HAZ≤-1), and nonstunted (HAZ>-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872620/electron-beam-welding-of-in792-ds-effects-of-pass-speed-and-pwht-on-microstructure-and-hardness
#13
Giuliano Angella, Giuseppe Barbieri, Riccardo Donnini, Roberto Montanari, Maria Richetta, Alessandra Varone
Electron Beam (EB) welding has been used to realize seams on 2 mm-thick plates of directionally solidified (DS) IN792 superalloy. The first part of this work evidenced the importance of pre-heating the workpiece to avoid the formation of long cracks in the seam. The comparison of different pre-heating temperatures (PHT) and pass speeds (v) allowed the identification of optimal process parameters, namely PHT = 300 °C and v = 2.5 m/min. The microstructural features of the melted zone (MZ); the heat affected zone (HAZ), and base material (BM) were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-hardness tests...
September 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835364/home-and-community-based-growth-monitoring-to-reduce-early-life-growth-faltering-an-open-label-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Günther Fink, Rachel Levenson, Sarah Tembo, Peter C Rockers
Background: Despite the continued high prevalence of faltering growth, height monitoring remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries.Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether providing parents with information on their child's height can improve children's height and developmental outcomes.Design: Villages in Chipata District, Zambia (n = 127), were randomly assigned with equal probability to 1 of 3 groups: home-based growth monitoring (HBGM), community-based growth monitoring including nutritional supplementation for children with stunted growth (CBGM+NS), and control...
October 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831091/low-habitual-dietary-calcium-and-linear-growth-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-results-from-the-china-health-and-nutrition-survey
#15
Aiping Fang, Keji Li, He Li, Meihan Guo, Jingjing He, Xin Shen, Jie Song
Evidences from clinical trials and meta-analyses of calcium supplementation in linear growth have given conflicting results, and few longitudinal studies have investigated the long-term associations between dietary calcium and linear growth, especially in the population with low-calcium plant-based diets. We investigated the prospective associations of low habitual dietary calcium with adult height and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) from adolescence to adulthood among 2019 adolescents from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821317/growth-patterns-in-early-childhood-better-trajectories-in-afro-ecuadorians-independent-of-sex-and-socioeconomic-factors
#16
Sheila Maria Alvim Matos, Leila D Amorim, Ana Clara P Campos, Mauricio L Barreto, Laura C Rodrigues, Yadira A Morejón, Martha E Chico, Philip J Cooper
The first years of life are the most dynamic period for childhood growth. There are limited data available on growth patterns of infants and children living in rural Latin America. The aim of this study was to describe the growth patterns from birth to 5years in children living in a rural District of tropical coastal Ecuador using data from a birth cohort of 2404 neonates. We hypothesize that there would be growth differences according to ethnicity and sex. Evaluations were conducted at birth or until 2weeks of age and at 7, 13, 24, 36 and 60months during clinic and home visits...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805177/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-safety-and-acceptability-of-a-fish-protein-isolate-in-the-nutrition-of-children-under-36-months-of-age
#17
Theresa J Ochoa, Nelly Baiocchi, Gladys Valdiviezo, Vanessa Bullon, Miguel Campos, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a fish protein isolate (FPi), administered over 6 months, on the growth of children aged 6-36 months, measured by Z-scores of height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ), compared with the standard meal without FPi; and to determine the safety and acceptability of FPi daily consumption. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized community-based controlled trial. For 6 months, the centres received either FPi replacing 50 % of total proteins in the diet or standard protein...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796794/factors-associated-with-stunting-in-healthy-children-aged-5-years-and-less-living-in-bangui-rca
#18
Pascale Vonaesch, Laura Tondeur, Sébastien Breurec, Petula Bata, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Thierry Frank, Alain Farra, Clotaire Rafaï, Tamara Giles-Vernick, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Philippe Sansonetti, Muriel Vray
Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794097/diagnostic-delay-in-canadian-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-more-common-in-crohn-s-disease-and-associated-with-decreased-height
#19
Amanda Ricciuto, Jennifer R Fish, Diane E Tomalty, Nicholas Carman, Eileen Crowley, Cynthia Popalis, Aleixo Muise, Thomas D Walters, Anne M Griffiths, Peter C Church
OBJECTIVES: To determine time to diagnosis in a paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort and the relative contribution of the component intervals, and to identify factors associated with diagnostic delay. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study SETTING: Single-centre study including children with incident IBD at the Hospital for Sick Children diagnosed between December 2013 and December 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Time to diagnosis and its subintervals were determined and patient, disease and institutional factors were tested for associations...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775373/association-of-maternal-gestational-weight-gain-with-their-offspring-s-anthropometric-outcomes-at-late-infancy-and-6-years-old-mediating-roles-of-birth-weight-and-breastfeeding-duration
#20
J X Liu, X Xu, J H Liu, J W Hardin, R Li
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies examining the potential mediating roles of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on the pathways between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring anthropometric outcomes are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed data from the mother-child pairs in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) in late infancy (n=1 548) and at the year six follow-up (n=1 514) study. Child anthropometrics included age- and sex-specific Z scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), height/length-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height/length (WHZ), and body mass index (BMIZ)...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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