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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901592/child-stunting-is-associated-with-weaker-human-capital-among-native-amazonians
#1
Eduardo A Undurraga, Jere R Behrman, Susan D Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R Leonard, Steven T Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A Godoy
OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ<-2), moderately stunted (-2 ≤ HAZ≤-1), and nonstunted (HAZ>-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872620/electron-beam-welding-of-in792-ds-effects-of-pass-speed-and-pwht-on-microstructure-and-hardness
#2
Giuliano Angella, Giuseppe Barbieri, Riccardo Donnini, Roberto Montanari, Maria Richetta, Alessandra Varone
Electron Beam (EB) welding has been used to realize seams on 2 mm-thick plates of directionally solidified (DS) IN792 superalloy. The first part of this work evidenced the importance of pre-heating the workpiece to avoid the formation of long cracks in the seam. The comparison of different pre-heating temperatures (PHT) and pass speeds (v) allowed the identification of optimal process parameters, namely PHT = 300 °C and v = 2.5 m/min. The microstructural features of the melted zone (MZ); the heat affected zone (HAZ), and base material (BM) were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-hardness tests...
September 5, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835364/home-and-community-based-growth-monitoring-to-reduce-early-life-growth-faltering-an-open-label-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Günther Fink, Rachel Levenson, Sarah Tembo, Peter C Rockers
Background: Despite the continued high prevalence of faltering growth, height monitoring remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries.Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether providing parents with information on their child's height can improve children's height and developmental outcomes.Design: Villages in Chipata District, Zambia (n = 127), were randomly assigned with equal probability to 1 of 3 groups: home-based growth monitoring (HBGM), community-based growth monitoring including nutritional supplementation for children with stunted growth (CBGM+NS), and control...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831091/low-habitual-dietary-calcium-and-linear-growth-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-results-from-the-china-health-and-nutrition-survey
#4
Aiping Fang, Keji Li, He Li, Meihan Guo, Jingjing He, Xin Shen, Jie Song
Evidences from clinical trials and meta-analyses of calcium supplementation in linear growth have given conflicting results, and few longitudinal studies have investigated the long-term associations between dietary calcium and linear growth, especially in the population with low-calcium plant-based diets. We investigated the prospective associations of low habitual dietary calcium with adult height and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) from adolescence to adulthood among 2019 adolescents from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821317/growth-patterns-in-early-childhood-better-trajectories-in-afro-ecuadorians-independent-of-sex-and-socioeconomic-factors
#5
Sheila Maria Alvim Matos, Leila D Amorim, Ana Clara P Campos, Mauricio L Barreto, Laura C Rodrigues, Yadira A Morejón, Martha E Chico, Philip J Cooper
The first years of life are the most dynamic period for childhood growth. There are limited data available on growth patterns of infants and children living in rural Latin America. The aim of this study was to describe the growth patterns from birth to 5years in children living in a rural District of tropical coastal Ecuador using data from a birth cohort of 2404 neonates. We hypothesize that there would be growth differences according to ethnicity and sex. Evaluations were conducted at birth or until 2weeks of age and at 7, 13, 24, 36 and 60months during clinic and home visits...
August 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805177/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-safety-and-acceptability-of-a-fish-protein-isolate-in-the-nutrition-of-children-under-36-months-of-age
#6
Theresa J Ochoa, Nelly Baiocchi, Gladys Valdiviezo, Vanessa Bullon, Miguel Campos, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a fish protein isolate (FPi), administered over 6 months, on the growth of children aged 6-36 months, measured by Z-scores of height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ), compared with the standard meal without FPi; and to determine the safety and acceptability of FPi daily consumption. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized community-based controlled trial. For 6 months, the centres received either FPi replacing 50 % of total proteins in the diet or standard protein...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796794/factors-associated-with-stunting-in-healthy-children-aged-5-years-and-less-living-in-bangui-rca
#7
Pascale Vonaesch, Laura Tondeur, Sébastien Breurec, Petula Bata, Liem Binh Luong Nguyen, Thierry Frank, Alain Farra, Clotaire Rafaï, Tamara Giles-Vernick, Jean Chrysostome Gody, Ionela Gouandjika-Vasilache, Philippe Sansonetti, Muriel Vray
Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794097/diagnostic-delay-in-canadian-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-is-more-common-in-crohn-s-disease-and-associated-with-decreased-height
#8
Amanda Ricciuto, Jennifer R Fish, Diane E Tomalty, Nicholas Carman, Eileen Crowley, Cynthia Popalis, Aleixo Muise, Thomas D Walters, Anne M Griffiths, Peter C Church
OBJECTIVES: To determine time to diagnosis in a paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort and the relative contribution of the component intervals, and to identify factors associated with diagnostic delay. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study SETTING: Single-centre study including children with incident IBD at the Hospital for Sick Children diagnosed between December 2013 and December 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Time to diagnosis and its subintervals were determined and patient, disease and institutional factors were tested for associations...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775373/association-of-maternal-gestational-weight-gain-with-their-offspring-s-anthropometric-outcomes-at-late-infancy-and-6-years-old-mediating-roles-of-birth-weight-and-breastfeeding-duration
#9
J X Liu, X Xu, J H Liu, J W Hardin, R Li
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal studies examining the potential mediating roles of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on the pathways between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring anthropometric outcomes are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed data from the mother-child pairs in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) in late infancy (n=1 548) and at the year six follow-up (n=1 514) study. Child anthropometrics included age- and sex-specific Z scores for weight-for-age (WAZ), height/length-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height/length (WHZ), and body mass index (BMIZ)...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772953/neutron-diffraction-evaluation-of-near-surface-residual-stresses-at-welds-in-1300-mpa-yield-strength-steel
#10
Ebrahim Harati, Leif Karlsson, Lars-Erik Svensson, Thilo Pirling, Kamellia Dalaei
Evaluation of residual stress in the weld toe region is of critical importance. In this paper, the residual stress distribution both near the surface and in depth around the weld toe was investigated using neutron diffraction, complemented with X-ray diffraction. Measurements were done on a 1300 MPa yield strength steel welded using a Low Transformation Temperature (LTT) consumable. Near surface residual stresses, as close as 39 µm below the surface, were measured using neutron diffraction and evaluated by applying a near surface data correction technique...
May 29, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772893/multi-objective-optimization-of-friction-stir-welding-process-parameters-of-aa6061-t6-and-aa7075-t6-using-a-biogeography-based-optimization-algorithm
#11
Mehran Tamjidy, B T Hang Tuah Baharudin, Shahla Paslar, Khamirul Amin Matori, Shamsuddin Sulaiman, Firouz Fadaeifard
The development of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has provided an alternative approach for producing high-quality welds, in a fast and reliable manner. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of the dissimilar friction stir welding of AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys. The FSW process parameters such as tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, tilt angle, and tool offset influence the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded joints significantly. A mathematical regression model is developed to determine the empirical relationship between the FSW process parameters and mechanical properties, and the results are validated...
May 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772500/creep-rupture-of-the-simulated-haz-of-t92-steel-compared-to-that-of-a-t91-steel
#12
Yu-Quan Peng, Tai-Cheng Chen, Tien-Jung Chung, Sheng-Long Jeng, Rong-Tan Huang, Leu-Wen Tsay
The increased thermal efficiency of fossil power plants calls for the development of advanced creep-resistant alloy steels like T92. In this study, microstructures found in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a T92 steel weld were simulated to evaluate their creep-rupture-life at elevated temperatures. An infrared heating system was used to heat the samples to 860 °C (around AC1), 900 °C (slightly below AC3), and 940 °C (moderately above AC3) for one minute, before cooling to room temperature. The simulated specimens were then subjected to a conventional post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 750 °C for two hours, where both the 900 °C and 940 °C simulated specimens had fine grain sizes...
February 8, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739505/valorisation-of-softwood-bark-through-extraction-of-utilizable-chemicals-a-review
#13
REVIEW
M Jablonsky, J Nosalova, A Sladkova, A Haz, F Kreps, J Valka, S Miertus, V Frecer, M Ondrejovic, J Sima, I Surina
Softwood bark is an important source for producing chemicals and materials as well as bioenergy. Extraction is regarded as a key technology for obtaining chemicals in general, and valorizing bark as a source of such chemicals in particular. In this paper, properties of 237 compounds identified in various studies dealing with extraction of softwood bark were described. Finally, some challenges and perspectives on the production of chemicals from bark are discussed.
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731918/the-associations-of-height-for-age-weight-for-age-and-weight-for-height-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Jeremy M Schraw, Ann T Henson, Michael E Scheurer, Michele R Forman
Height at diagnosis has been analyzed in connection with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most prior studies have compared cases to national reference data derived from previous birth cohorts. Our objective was to determine the association of height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at time of diagnosis with the odds ratio (OR) of ALL in a case-control study (N=498) with a contemporaneous population of age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched controls. We hypothesized that cases would have greater mean HAZ at time of diagnosis/interview, after adjustment for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712155/economic-activity-and-patterns-of-infant-growth-in-a-high-altitude-district-of-peru
#15
Morgan K Hoke
OBJECTIVES: Changing economic activities bring significant cultural, epidemiological, and nutritional transitions. Infancy represents a critical period when rapid growth and metabolic programming occur, making infants particularly vulnerable to long-lasting biological changes due to such transitions. This paper examines the relationship between residence in distinct economic production zones (urban, herding, and dairy) and early growth in a highland district of Peru. METHODS: The length, weight, body mass index, and triceps skinfold of 93 infants (55 boys and 38 girls, aged 2 to 24 months) from 3 economic zones were measured at two time points 6 months apart...
July 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712150/the-effect-of-young-children-s-faeces-disposal-practices-on-child-growth-evidence-from-34-countries
#16
Valerie Bauza, Jeremy S Guest
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the relationship between child faeces disposal and child growth in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We analysed caregiver responses and anthropometric data from Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2014) for 202 614 children under five and 82 949 children under two to examine the association between child faeces disposal and child growth. RESULTS: Child faeces disposal in an improved toilet was associated with reduced stunting for children under five [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 0...
July 16, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709101/the-impact-of-prenatal-perfluoroalkyl-substances-exposure-on-neonatal-and-child-growth
#17
Mei-Huei Chen, Sharon Ng, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Ching-Chun Lin, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are wildly distributed environmental pollutants. Laboratory mice exposed prenatally to PFASs develop smaller birth weight but are more likely to become obese in adulthood. The evidences in human studies are still inconclusive. METHODS: The participants were 429 mother-infant pairs from Taiwan Birth Panel Study. These children were followed serially and growth data were collected through face to face interviews and records in Child Healthcare Handbooks until 108months of age...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684015/bioimpedance-spectroscopy-measurements-of-phase-angle-and-height-for-age-are-predictive-of-outcome-in-children-following-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#18
L V Marino, R Meyer, M Johnson, C Newell, C Johnstone, A Magee, K Sykes, S A Wootton, J V Pappachan
OBJECTIVE: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often growth restricted (low weight- and/or height-for-age) which may increase risk of poor post operative resilience. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to determine body composition in different clinical settings and has been shown to mark differences in nutritional state and clinical outcome. In disease conditions were fluid is not normally distributed it is proposed that raw impedance values and BIS derived phase-angle may serve as prognostic indicators of clinical outcome...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669228/open-defecation-explains-differences-in-nutritional-status-between-bengali-and-tribal-children-in-the-chittagong-hill-tracts-of-bangladesh
#19
Sheela S Sinharoy, Jillian L Waid, Matthew C Freeman, Aryeh D Stein
OBJECTIVE: We describe differences in linear growth as measured by height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between children from Bengali and tribal populations in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and examine factors associated with HAZ in both groups. DESIGN: We used nutritional surveillance data collected in Bangladesh from 2003 to 2006 to analyze HAZ among 12,006 children aged 6-23 months and conducted multivariate linear regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to quantify the relative contribution of independent variables to differences in HAZ between Bengali and tribal children...
July 1, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644306/the-associations-of-height-for-age-weight-for-age-and-weight-for-height-with-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
Jeremy M Schraw, Ann T Henson, Michael E Scheurer, Michele R Forman
Height at diagnosis has been analyzed in connection with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Most prior studies have compared cases to national reference data derived from previous birth cohorts. Our objective was to determine the association of height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at time of diagnosis with the odds ratio (OR) of ALL in a case-control study (N=498) with a contemporaneous population of age-matched, sex-matched, and ethnicity-matched controls. We hypothesized that cases would have greater mean HAZ at time of diagnosis/interview, after adjustment for weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ)...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
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