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Cut Novianti Rachmi, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, Mu Li, Louise Alison Baur
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether stunted young children are at greater risk of (1) overweight/obesity or thinness, and (2) high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescence. METHODS: A secondary data analysis using the Indonesian Family Life Survey waves 1 (1993) to 4 (2007). We generated a 14-year follow-up cohort (1993-2007) and two 7-year cohorts (1993-2000 and 2000-2007) of children aged 2.0-4.9 years. Stunting (HAZ < -2), thinness (BMIZ < -2), and overweight/obesity (BMIZ > +1) were determined based upon the WHO Child Growth Standards...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Christopher McClinton, Xinglei Shen, Christopher Lominska, Habeeb Saleh, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Melissa Mitchell, Fen Wang
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set...
September 27, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Yun-Kyu An, Zhiqi Shen, Zhishen Wu
This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board...
2016: Sensors
Mahesh Sarki, Aileen Robertson, Alexandr Parlesak
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in low-and middle income countries such as Nepal. At the same time, high prevalence of chronic undernutrition persists leading to a double burden of malnutrition. AIM: To identify associations between the socioeconomic status of mothers, food security, the food safety environment within the household, and prevalence of stunting and overweight of the children. METHODS: Statistical analysis of socioeconomic, food safety-related and anthropometric data from 289 mother-child dyads in an urban area of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Relana Pinkerton, Reinaldo B Oriá, Aldo A M Lima, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Mônica O B Oriá, Peter D Patrick, Sean R Moore, Benjamin L Wiseman, Mark D Niehaus, Richard L Guerrant
Understanding the complex relationship between early childhood infectious diseases, nutritional status, poverty, and cognitive development is significantly hindered by the lack of studies that adequately address confounding between these variables. This study assesses the independent contributions of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) and malnutrition on cognitive impairment in later childhood. A cohort of 131 children from a shantytown community in northeast Brazil was monitored from birth to 24 months for diarrhea and anthropometric status...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yan Yin, Yongjin Li, Qin Li, Ni Jia, Aihua Liu, Zangwen Tan, Qiong Wu, Zhaoyang Fan, Tao Li, Lijun Wang
We evaluated the relationship between child (aged 6-36 months) height and blood zinc, copper, iron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. We selected 840 children following a physical examination. Weight and supine length or standing height were measured according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Polarographic analysis was used to measure zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and calcium levels. Differences in heights between groups with low vs. high mineral concentrations, stratified by sex and age, were compared by analysis of variance...
September 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Jane Achan, Abel Kakuru, Gloria Ikilezi, Florence Mwangwa, Albert Plenty, Edwin Charlebois, Sera Young, Diane Havlir, Moses Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: Diminished growth is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children and might be improved by antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined growth recovery in a rural Ugandan cohort of HIV-infected children randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcription-inhibitor-based ART. METHODS: HIV-infected children 2 months to 6 years of age were randomized to Lopinavir/ritonavir- or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcription-inhibitor-based ART. Changes in weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) Z-scores for 24 months were evaluated using generalized linear repeated-measures models...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A Valente, D Silva, E Neves, F Almeida, J L Cruz, C C Dias, A da Costa-Pereira, A Caldas-Afonso, A Guerra
OBJECTIVE: Undernutrition is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and their predictors in children from 0 to 5 years of age in São Tomé. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Tomé Island. METHODS: A total of 1285 individuals were enrolled between January and May 2011. Children were measured, and height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and body mass index (BAZ) Z-score were computed...
August 26, 2016: Public Health
Mark E Ralston, Mark A Myatt
IMPORTANCE: A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries...
2016: PloS One
Derek Headey, Kalle Hirvonen
Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock-particularly poultry and poultry feces-may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs...
2016: PloS One
Ran Hu, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Hao Wu, Lin Pang, Liming Wang, Qingxia Zhao, Yasong Wu, Decai Zhao, Meiling Chen, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related complications are commonly seen in HIV-infected children, and these have been shown in high-prevalent areas such as Africa. Antiviral therapy (ART) has notably controlled disease progression, whereas it effectively reverses underweight and growth retardation in HIV-infected children. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth status after initiation of ART in HIV-infected children in China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the National Science and Technology Major Project...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Y-J Wang, H-J Zhou, P-J Liu, G-L Liu, Y Zheng, B Wei, C-X Hao, Y Zhang, H-Q Kang, X-L Lu, Y Yuan
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. OBJECTIVES: To describe the nutritional risk/status of Chinese children with spinal cord injury (SCI) at admission and determine the relationship between nutritional risk/status and demography/SCI characteristics. SETTING: China Rehabilitation Research Center, Beijing, China. METHODS: Baseline clinical data, appetite level, anthropometric measurements and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP) scores were obtained for pediatric SCI patients...
August 9, 2016: Spinal Cord
Prajula Mulmi, Steven A Block, Gerald E Shively, William A Masters
Environmental conditions in early life are known to have impacts on later health outcomes, but causal mechanisms and potential remedies have been difficult to discern. This paper uses the Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys of 2006 and 2011, combined with earlier NASA satellite observations of variation in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at each child's location and time of birth to identify the trimesters of gestation and periods of infancy when climate variation is linked to attained height later in life...
July 22, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
Mona D Doshi, Peter P Reese, Isaac E Hall, Bernd Schröppel, Joseph Ficek, Richard N Formica, Francis L Weng, Rick D Hazs, Heather Thiessen Philbrook, Chirag Parikh
BACKGROUND: Kidneys with "high" kidney donor profile index (KDPI) are often biopsied and pumped, yet frequently discarded. METHODS: In this multicenter study, we describe the characteristics and outcomes of kidneys with KDPI ≥80 that were procured from 338 deceased donors. We excluded donors with anatomical kidney abnormalities. RESULTS: Donors were categorized by the number of kidneys discarded: 1) none (n=154, 46%), 2) 1 discarded and 1 transplanted (n=48, 14%), 3) both discarded (n=136, 40%)...
August 3, 2016: Transplantation
David C Boettiger, Dina Muktiarti, Nia Kurniati, Khanh H Truong, Suneeta Saghayam, Penh Sun Ly, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Lam Van Nguyen, Viet Chau Do, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Torsak Bunupuradah, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Dewi Kumara Wati, Kamarul Azahar Mohd Razali, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy A Nallusamy, Annette H Sohn, Azar Kariminia
BACKGROUND:  The growth benefits of cotrimoxazole during early antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well characterized. METHODS:  Individuals enrolled in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database were included if they started ART at ages 1 month-14 years and had both height and weight measurements available at ART initiation (baseline). Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with change in height-for-age z-score (HAZ), follow-up HAZ ≥ -2, change in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and follow-up WAZ ≥ -2...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Eeshani Kandpal, Harold Alderman, Jed Friedman, Deon Filmer, Junko Onishi, Jorge Avalos
BACKGROUND: Pantawid, a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program in the Philippines, provided grants conditioned on health-related behaviors for children aged 0-5 y and schooling for those aged 10-14 y. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether Pantawid improved anthropometric measurements in children aged 6-36 mo. METHODS: We estimated cross-sectional intention-to-treat effects using a 2011 cluster-randomized trial across 130 villages-65 treated and 65 control-with data collected after 31 mo of implementation...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Kwannapas Nokeaingtong, Pimlak Charoenkwan, Suchaya Silvilairat, Suwit Saekho, Yupada Pongprot, Prapai Dejkhamron
Short stature is one of the most common endocrinopathies in transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). This study aimed to determine the longitudinal pattern of growth in pediatric patients with TDT and study the relationship between growth and hemoglobin level, serum ferritin level/iron overload parameters, and other clinical factors. The interval height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) of 50 patients with TDT, of a mean age of 13.3±2.8 years, were analyzed using linear mixed model analysis. Nineteen patients (38%) had short stature with HAZ≤-2...
August 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Manijeh Nezami, Gina Segovia-Siapco, W Lawrence Beeson, Joan Sabaté
Childhood obesity is associated with a greater chance of a lifetime of obesity. Evidence suggests dairy at recommended levels could be beneficial in maintaining normal weight and body composition. We assessed whether dairy consumption is associated with anthropometric indicators of health (z-scores for weight-for-age (WAZ); height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR); fat-free mass (FFM); and fat mass (FM)) in adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, 536 males and females ages 12-18 completed a 151-item semi-quantitative web-based food frequency questionnaire that included 34 dairy-containing foods...
2016: Nutrients
Masuda Mohsena, Rie Goto, C G Nicholas Mascie-Taylor
The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted)...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Lars T Fadnes, Victoria Nankabirwa, Ingunn M Engebretsen, Halvor Sommerfelt, Nancy Birungi, Carl Lombard, Sonja Swanevelder, Jan Van den Broeck, Thorkild Tylleskär, James K Tumwine
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding promotion is regarded as one of the most effective interventions to improve child health, and could reduce under-5-mortality by 8 % globally. Few studies have assessed the health outcomes beyond infancy of interventions promoting exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS: This study assessed growth in under-five children who participated in a cluster-randomised trial in Eastern Uganda ( In the intervention arm, peer counsellors promoted exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of infancy...
2016: BMC Public Health
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