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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316992/child-nutritional-status-in-egypt-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-socioeconomic-determinants-using-a-quantile-regression-approach
#1
Mesbah Fathy Sharaf, Elhussien Ibrahim Mansour, Ahmed Shoukry Rashad
This study examined the underlying demographic and socioeconomic determinants of child nutritional status in Egypt using data from the most recent round of the Demographic and Health Survey. The height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) was used as a measure of child growth. A quantile regression approach was used to allow for a heterogeneous effect of each determinant along different percentiles of the conditional distribution of the HAZ. A nationally representative sample of 13,682 children aged 0-4 years was drawn from the 2014 Egypt DHS...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304033/weld-magnification-factor-approach-in-cruciform-joints-considering-post-welding-cooling-medium-and-weld-size
#2
Oscar Araque, Nelson Arzola
The objective of this research is to develop an experimental-theoretical analysis about the influence of the cooling medium and the geometry of the welding bead profile in fatigue life and the associated parameters with structural integrity of welded joints. A welded joint with cruciform geometry is considered using SMAW (Shielded Metal ArcWelding), plates in structural steel ASTM A36 HR of 8 mm of thickness, and E6013 electrode input. A three-dimensional computational model of the cruciform joint was created using the finite element method...
January 5, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301293/assessment-of-nutritional-status-of-infants-living-in-arsenic-contaminated-areas-in-bangladesh-and-its-association-with-arsenic-exposure
#3
Abul Hasnat Milton, John Attia, Mohammad Alauddin, Mark McEvoy, Patrick McElduff, Sumaira Hussain, Ayesha Akhter, Shahnaz Akter, M Munirul Islam, A M Shamsir Ahmed, Vasu Iyengar, Md Rafiqul Islam
Data is scarce on early life exposure to arsenic and its association with malnutrition during infancy. This study followed the nutritional status of a cohort of 120 infants from birth to 9 months of age in an arsenic contaminated area in Bangladesh. Anthropometric data was collected at 3, 6 and 9 months of the infant's age for nutritional assessment whereas arsenic exposure level was assessed via tube well drinking water arsenic concentration at the initiation of the study. Weight and height measurements were converted to Z-scores of weight for age (WAZ-underweight), height for age (HAZ-stunting), weight for height (WHZ-wasting) for children by comparing with WHO growth standard...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278647/effectiveness-of-a-stunting-recovery-program-for-children-treated-in-a-specialized-center
#4
Nassib B Bueno, Catia B Lisboa, Ana G Clemente, Renata T Antunes, Ana L Sawaya, Telma T Florêncio
BACKGROUND: Stunting is still very prevalent in many poor and developing regions in the world. This study assessed the effectiveness of a stunting recovery program in children and its associated factors. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted in a center of stunting recovery. There, children stayed in a day-hospital system (9 h/day; 5 days/week), and received five meals/day, providing 80% of their energetic daily needs. The main outcome was the stunting recovery rate (i...
December 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278646/impact-of-dietary-nutrient-intake-and-physical-activity-on-body-composition-and-growth-in-indian-children
#5
Anuradha V Khadilkar, Shashi A Chiplonkar, Neha A Kajale, Veena H Ekbote, Lavanya Parathasarathi, Raja Padidela, Vaman V Khadilkar
OBJECTIVE: To investigate inter-relationships of dietary-composition and physical activity (PA) with growth and BC in urban Indian school-children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 4747-Indian school children (2623- Boys) aged 3-18 year. Weight, height, BC by body impedance analyser, PA and dietary food intakes by questionnaire method were recorded. RESULTS: Mean daily energy and protein intakes as Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) were significantly lower in both boys and girls (P<0...
December 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276173/nutrimetry-bmi-assessment-as-a-function-of-development
#6
Jorge Enrique Selem-Solís, Alberto Alcocer-Gamboa, Mónica Hattori-Hara, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate nutritional assessment is required to fight malnutrition (undernutrition and overfeeding) in children and adolescents. For this, joint interpretation of certain indicators (body mass index [BMI], height, weight, etc.) is recommended. This is done clinically, but not epidemiologically. The aim of this paper is to present "nutrimetry", a simple method that crosses anthropometric information allowing for bivariate interpretation at both levels (clinical and epidemiological)...
December 21, 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158766/local-food-based-complementary-feeding-for-the-nutritional-status-of-children-ages-6-36-months-in-rural-areas-of-indonesia
#7
Tantut Susanto, Syahrul, Lantin Sulistyorini, Rondhianto, Alfi Yudisianto
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate a pilot project of the Nursing Feeding Center "Posyandu Plus" (NFCPP) through local food-based complementary feeding (LFCF) program designed to improve the nutritional status of children aged 6-36 months at community health centers in Indonesia. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to obtain data regarding the nutritional status of 109 children who participated in the project from 6 rural areas. The NFCPP was conducted for 9 weeks, comprising 2 weeks of preintervention, 6 weeks of intervention, and one week of postintervention...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152259/prevalence-of-malnutrition-and-risk-of-undernutrition-in-hospitalised-children-with-liver-disease
#8
Ronghua Yu, Yizhong Wang, Yongmei Xiao, Lili Mo, Aishu Liu, Dan Li, Ting Ge, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
Nutritional status of 380 hospitalised children aged from 1 month to 5 years with liver disease was evaluated in a single paediatric centre. The total prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z (HAZ) < -2), underweight (weight-for-age Z (WAZ) < -2) and wasting (weight-for-height Z < -2) was 9·8, 9·0 and 7·9 %, respectively. The overall nutritional risk (-2 ≤ Z < -1) of stunting, underweight and wasting was 11·8, 12·9 and 12·6 %. The prevalence of undernutrition was significantly higher in children with cholestasis than children without cholestasis (stunting, 17·5 %/4·4 %, P < 0·001, and underweight, 14·9 %/4·9 %, P < 0·001)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150339/hair-concentration-of-trace-elements-and-growth-in-homeless-children-aged-6years-results-from-the-enfams-study
#9
Lucia Fábelová, Stéphanie Vandentorren, Cécile Vuillermoz, Robert Garnier, Sandrine Lioret, Jérémie Botton
BACKGROUND: Growth is an important indicator of health in early childhood. This is a critical developmental period, during which a number of factors, including exposure to metals, might play a role in later physical and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between exposure to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and physical growth of children from homeless families aged <6years. METHODS: This study was based on data of the cross-sectional survey (ENFAMS), which was conducted by the Observatoire du Samu Social on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in the Paris region during winter 2013...
November 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145827/maternal-iodine-status-during-lactation-and-infant-weight-and-length-in-henan-province-china
#10
Jin Yang, Lin Zhu, Xiaofeng Li, Heming Zheng, Zhe Wang, Zongyu Hao, Yang Liu
BACKGROUND: Infants are very sensitive to iodine deficiency. Breastfed infants are dependent on maternal iodine intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between maternal iodine status during lactation and infant weight and length. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate maternal iodine status and infant anthropometric measures in Henan Province, China. Only exclusive breastfeeding mothers and their infants < 6 months of age (n = 747) were included in our final analysis...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132614/early-childhood-linear-growth-faltering-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-as-a-whole-population-condition-analysis-of-179-demographic-and-health-surveys-from-64-countries-1993-2015
#11
Daniel E Roth, Aditi Krishna, Michael Leung, Joy Shi, Diego G Bassani, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: The causes of early childhood linear growth faltering (known as stunting) in low-income and middle-income countries remain inadequately understood. We aimed to determine if the progressive postnatal decline in mean height-for-age Z score (HAZ) in low-income and middle-income countries is driven by relatively slow growth of certain high-risk children versus faltering of the entire population. METHODS: Distributions of HAZ (based on WHO growth standards) were analysed in 3-month age intervals from 0 to 36 months of age in 179 Demographic and Health Surveys from 64 low-income and middle-income countries (1993-2015)...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125239/hippocampal-sparing-approach-in-fractionated-stereotactic-brain-vmat-radio-therapy-a-retrospective-feasibility-analysis
#12
Maria Daniela Falco, Stefano Giancaterino, Marco D'Andrea, Ramon Gimenez De Lorenzo, Marianna Trignani, Luciana Caravatta, Clelia Di Carlo, Saide Di Biase, Albina Allajbej, Domenico Genovesi
Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) techniques for fractioned stereotactic brain radiotherapy (FSBRT) can achieve highly conformal dose distribution to intracranial lesions. However, they can potentially increase the dose to hippocampus (H) causing neurocognitive toxicity during the first four months after irradiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of hippocampal-sparing (HS) treatment plans in 22 patients with brain metastasis treated with VMAT technique. Firstly, we retrospectively analyzed hippocampal doses in all 22 VMAT original (not hippocampal-sparing, NHS) plans...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070563/low-serum-%C3%AF-3-and-%C3%AF-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-other-metabolites-are-associated-with-poor-linear-growth-in-young-children-from-rural-malawi
#13
Richard D Semba, Indi Trehan, Ximin Li, Norman Salem, Ruin Moaddel, M Isabel Ordiz, Kenneth M Maleta, Klaus Kraemer, Mark J Manary
Background: Stunting affects ∼25% of children <5 y of age and is associated with impaired cognitive and motor development and increased morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood.Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify altered metabolic pathways associated with child stunting.Design: We measured 677 serum metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study of 400 Malawian children aged 12-59 mo, of whom 62% were stunted...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064574/adolescent-mothers-anthropometrics-and-grandmothers-schooling-predict-infant-anthropometrics-in-ethiopia-india-peru-and-vietnam
#14
Whitney Schott, Elisabetta Aurino, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
We investigated intergenerational associations of adolescent mothers' and grandmothers' anthropometrics and schooling with adolescent mothers' offspring's anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We examined birthweight (n = 283), birthweight Z-score (BWZ), conditional growth in weight-for-age Z-score (cWAZ, residuals from a regression of WAZ at last survey round on BWZ, sex, and age), and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) of children born to older cohort adolescent girls in the Young Lives study. Our key independent variables were adolescent mothers' body size: HAZ and body-mass-index-for-age Z-score (BMIZ) at age 8, conditional HAZ (cHAZ, residuals from a regression of HAZ at the end of a growth period on prior HAZ, age, and sex), conditional BMIZ growth (cBMIZ, calculated analogously), and grandmaternal BMIZ, HAZ, and schooling...
October 24, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047376/women-s-education-level-amplifies-the-effects-of-a-livelihoods-based-intervention-on-household-wealth-child-diet-and-child-growth-in-rural-nepal
#15
Laurie C Miller, Neena Joshi, Mahendra Lohani, Beatrice Rogers, Shubh Mahato, Shibani Ghosh, Patrick Webb
BACKGROUND: Many organizations seek to alleviate poverty in the developing world, often focusing their interventions on women. The role, status, and education of women are fundamentally important facets of development. Thus, understanding the interaction of women's educational level and the response to interventions is important. Therefore, we examined the impact of educational level of household adults on responses to a livestock-based community intervention. METHODS: Six pair-matched communities in 3 districts of Nepal (Chitwan/Nawalparasi/Nuwakot), were randomly assigned to receive community development activities via women's self-help groups at baseline or 1 year later...
October 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018582/effect-of-low-dose-versus-higher-dose-antenatal-iron-supplementation-on-child-health-outcomes-at-36-months-of-age-in-viet-nam-longitudinal-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Sarah Hanieh, Tran T Ha, Julie A Simpson, Sabine Braat, Tran T Thuy, Thach D Tran, Janet King, Tran Tuan, Jane Fisher, Beverley-Ann Biggs
INTRODUCTION: Intermittent iron-folic acid supplementation (IFA) is currently recommended for pregnant women in populations where anaemia prevalence among pregnant women is <20% or if daily iron is not acceptable. The effect of providing lower doses of antenatal elemental iron through intermittent regimes on longer-term health outcomes in childhood is unclear. METHODS: A prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and May 2014 in Viet Nam among children of 36 months of age, born to women previously enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation (daily IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly IFA (60 mg elemental iron) vs twice-weekly multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplementation (60 mg elemental iron))...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960326/birth-weight-and-prepubertal-body-size-predict-menarcheal-age-in-india-peru-and-vietnam
#18
Elisabetta Aurino, Whitney Schott, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
Evidence on the associations of birth weight and prepubertal nutritional status with menarcheal age for low- and middle-income countries is limited. We investigated these relationships using the Young Lives younger cohort for 2001 Indian, Peruvian, and Vietnamese girls born in 2001-2002. Girls were followed at approximately ages 1, 5, 8, and 12 years. Weibull survival models estimated hazards of earlier menarche on the basis of birth weight Z-scores (BWZ), and age-8 BMI-for-age Z-scores (BMIZ) and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ)...
September 28, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901592/child-stunting-is-associated-with-weaker-human-capital-among-native-amazonians
#19
Eduardo A Undurraga, Jere R Behrman, Susan D Emmett, Celeste Kidd, William R Leonard, Steven T Piantadosi, Victoria Reyes-García, Abhishek Sharma, Rebecca Zhang, Ricardo A Godoy
OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ<-2), moderately stunted (-2 ≤ HAZ≤-1), and nonstunted (HAZ>-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872620/electron-beam-welding-of-in792-ds-effects-of-pass-speed-and-pwht-on-microstructure-and-hardness
#20
Giuliano Angella, Giuseppe Barbieri, Riccardo Donnini, Roberto Montanari, Maria Richetta, Alessandra Varone
Electron Beam (EB) welding has been used to realize seams on 2 mm-thick plates of directionally solidified (DS) IN792 superalloy. The first part of this work evidenced the importance of pre-heating the workpiece to avoid the formation of long cracks in the seam. The comparison of different pre-heating temperatures (PHT) and pass speeds (v) allowed the identification of optimal process parameters, namely PHT = 300 °C and v = 2.5 m/min. The microstructural features of the melted zone (MZ); the heat affected zone (HAZ), and base material (BM) were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-hardness tests...
September 5, 2017: Materials
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