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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737810/pre-earthquake-national-patterns-of-preschool-child-undernutrition-and-household-food-insecurity-in-nepal-in-2013-and-2014
#1
Sudeep Shrestha, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Swetha Manohar, Binod Shrestha, Sumanta Neupane, Ruchita Rajbhandary, Raman Shrestha, Rolf Dw Klemm, Bareng As Nonyane, Ramesh K Adhikari, Patrick Webb, Keith P West
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preschool undernutrition remains a burden in Nepal. This paper reports results of surveys in 2013 and 2014, examining patterns of child nutritional status across the country, associations with household food insecurity and antecedent comparative national data for subsequent evaluations of nutritional status following the earthquake in Nepal in 2015. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multi-stage sample was drawn comprising 21 sites in 75 districts of the country, representing the mountains, hills and Terai zones, providing proportionate to zonal samples of 4286 and 4947 households and 5401 and 5474 preschool children in each year, respectively...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726948/children-with-poor-linear-growth-are-at-risk-for-repeated-relapse-to-wasting-after-recovery-from-moderate-acute-malnutrition
#2
Heather C Stobaugh, Beatrice L Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Patrick Webb, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
Background: Nutrition programs frequently approach wasting and stunting as 2 separate conditions with distinct causes and effects. Although several cross-sectional studies have identified an association between the 2 conditions, longitudinal studies are useful to quantify the risk of acute malnutrition based on the trajectory of linear growth. Objective: We analyzed data from a longitudinal study to explore associations between linear growth and relapse to acute malnutrition in high-risk children during the year after recovery from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722438/influence-of-cnts-decomposition-during-reactive-friction-stir-processing-of-an-al-mg-alloy-on-the-correlation-between-microstructural-characteristics-and-microtextural-components
#3
F Khodabakhshi, M Nosko, A P Gerlich
Multipass friction-stir processing was employed to uniformly disperse multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) within an Al-Mg alloy metal matrix. Decomposition of MW-CNTs occurs in situ as a result of solid-state chemical reactions, forming fullerene (C60) and aluminium carbide (Al4 C3 ) phases during reactive high temperature severe plastic processing. The effects of this decomposition on the microstructural features, dynamic restoration mechanisms and crystallographic microtextural developments are studied for the first time by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694431/the-timing-of-growth-faltering-has-important-implications-for-observational-analyses-of-the-underlying-determinants-of-nutrition-outcomes
#4
Harold Alderman, Derek Headey
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering largely occurs in the first 23 months after birth and is thought to be largely determined by various harmful or protective socioeconomic conditions. Children 23 months or younger, however, have only been partially exposed to these conditions, implying that statistical associations between these conditions and child growth may be substantially smaller in samples that include younger children. OBJECTIVES: To test the prediction that associations between child anthropometric outcomes and various socioeconomic conditions are systematically different for older and younger children...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579204/dietary-diversity-and-nutritional-status-among-children-in-rural-burkina-faso
#5
Ali Sié, Charlemagne Tapsoba, Clarisse Dah, Lucienne Ouermi, Pascal Zabre, Till Bärnighausen, Ahmed M Arzika, Elodie Lebas, Blake M Snyder, Caitlin Moe, Jeremy D Keenan, Catherine E Oldenburg
Background: Burkina Faso has a seasonal malnutrition pattern, with higher malnutrition prevalence during the rainy season when crop yields are low. We investigated the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among children aged 6-59 mo during the low crop yield season in rural Burkina Faso to assess the role of dietary diversity during the lean season on childhood nutritional status. Methods: Caregivers reported the dietary diversity of the past 7 d, consisting of 11 food groups, summed into a scale...
March 22, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562752/maternal-dietary-diversity-and-growth-of-children-under-24-months-of-age-in-rural-dodoma-tanzania
#6
Megan Huang, Christopher Sudfeld, Abbas Ismail, Said Vuai, Julius Ntwenya, Mary Mwanyika-Sando, Wafaie Fawzi
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of maternal dietary diversity in rural Dodoma, Tanzania and assess its association with child growth outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 361 mothers with children under 24 months of age was conducted in 5 villages in rural Dodoma, Tanzania. Maternal diets were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and dietary diversity was categorized using Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) guidelines. Child anthropometric measures were taken to calculate height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ)...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558383/effect-of-zinc-supplementation-on-growth-outcomes-in-children-under-5-years-of-age
#7
REVIEW
Enju Liu, Laura Pimpin, Masha Shulkin, Sarah Kranz, Christopher P Duggan, Dariush Mozaffarian, Wafaie W Fawzi
(1) Background: The effects of zinc supplementation on child growth, and prior reviews of these studies, have shown mixed results. We aim to systematically review and meta-analyze randomized controlled trials evaluating effects of preventive zinc supplementation for 3 months or longer during pregnancy or in children up to age 5 years on pregnancy outcomes and child growth; (2) Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and trial registries for eligible trials up to October 10, 2017...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544138/exposure-to-aflatoxin-and-fumonisin-in-children-at-risk-for-growth-impairment-in-rural-tanzania
#8
Chen Chen, Nicole J Mitchell, Jean Gratz, Eric R Houpt, Yunyun Gong, Patricia A Egner, John D Groopman, Ronald T Riley, Jency L Showker, Erling Svensen, Estomih R Mduma, Crystal L Patil, Felicia Wu
Growth impairment is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. The question remains as to whether dietary mycotoxins play a role in compromising children's growth. We examined children's exposures to dietary aflatoxin and fumonisin and potential impacts on growth in 114 children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Plasma samples collected from the children at 24 months of age (N = 60) were analyzed for aflatoxin B1 -lysine (AFB1 -lys) adducts, and urine samples collected between 24 and 36 months of age (N = 94) were analyzed for urinary fumonisin B1 (UFB1 )...
March 12, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543315/anthropometric-assessment-of-school-children-in-khartoum-locality-khartoum-state-sudan-2014-2015
#9
Eglal E Elrayah, Siham A Balla, Haidar Abu Ahmed
Anthropometric measurements are used to assess growth of children which is affected by different biological and environmental factors. The importance of the period after the first 1000 days of life has been identified in the attempt to restore normal growth and body functions. The objectives of this study are to assess the growth and nutritional status of school children in Khartoum locality, Khartoum State, Sudan and to verify socioeconomic status and sex as factors influencing growth of children. This is a cross-sectional school-based study including 390 children, males and females, of ages between 5-12 years (60-44 months) from private and public schools...
March 15, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495463/microstructure-evolution-during-dissimilar-friction-stir-welding-of-aa7003-t4-and-aa6060-t4
#10
Jialiang Dong, Datong Zhang, Weiwen Zhang, Wen Zhang, Cheng Qiu
In this work, the dissimilar joint of AA7003-T4 and 6060-T4 alloy has been produced by friction stir welding (FSW). The microstructure was examined by optical microscope (OM), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the mechanical properties of the joint were investigated. It is demonstrated that sound dissimilar joint can be produced through FSW. In the nugget; precipitations dissolve into the matrix and η' reprecipitate subsequently; and the elongated aluminum grains are replaced by fine and equiaxed grains due to dynamic recrystallization (DRX)...
February 27, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494645/association-of-whole-blood-n-6-fatty-acids-with-stunting-in-2-to-6-year-old-northern-ghanaian-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Mary Adjepong, C Austin Pickens, Raghav Jain, William S Harris, Reginald A Annan, Jenifer I Fenton
In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482559/geostatistical-modelling-of-the-association-between-malaria-and-child-growth-in-africa
#12
Benjamin Amoah, Emanuele Giorgi, Daniel J Heyes, Stef van Burren, Peter John Diggle
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age continues to be a public health challenge in many low- and middle-income countries and can lead to growth stunting. Infectious diseases may also affect child growth, however their actual impact on the latter can be difficult to quantify. In this paper, we analyse data from 20 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in 13 African countries to investigate the relationship between malaria and stunting. Our objective is to make inference on the association between malaria incidence during the first year of life and height-for-age Z-scores (HAZs)...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438131/improved-neurodevelopment-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children
#13
Laurén A Gómez, Claudia S Crowell, Irene Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Dalton Wamalwa, Daisy Chebet, Vincent Otieno, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Melissa Gladstone, Grace John-Stewart, Sarah Benki-Nugent
BACKGROUND: Late HIV diagnosis following severe co-morbidity remains common in resource limited settings. Neurodevelopmental recovery during antiretroviral therapy (ART) for late-diagnosed children is understudied. We determined 6-month neurodevelopmental trajectories in HIV-infected children initiating ART during hospitalization. METHODS: HIV-infected children initiated ART following HIV diagnosis during hospitalization in Kenya. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool (MDAT) was administered after clinical stabilization within 1-month and at 6-months post-ART initiation...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425280/early-childhood-undernutrition-increases-risk-of-hearing-loss-in-young-adulthood-in-rural-nepal
#14
Susan D Emmett, Jane Schmitz, Sureswor L Karna, Subarna K Khatry, Lee Wu, Steven C LeClerq, Joseph Pillion, Keith P West
Background: Prevalence of young adult hearing loss is high in low-resource societies; the reasons for this are likely complex but could involve early childhood undernutrition. Objective: We evaluated preschool childhood stunting, wasting, and underweight as risk factors for hearing loss in young adulthood in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal. Design: Ear health was assessed in 2006-2008 in a cohort of 2193 subjects aged 16-23 y, who as children <60 mo of age participated in a 16-mo placebo-controlled, randomized vitamin A supplementation trial from 1989 to 1991...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425130/the-influence-of-the-heat-affected-zone-mechanical-properties-on-the-behaviour-of-the-welding-in-transverse-plate-to-tube-joints
#15
Miguel Lozano, Miguel A Serrano, Carlos López-Colina, Fernando L Gayarre, Jesús Suárez
Eurocode 3 establishes the component method to analytically characterize the structural joints between beam and columns. When one of the members involved in the joint is a hollow section (i.e., a tube) there is a lack of information for the specific components present in the joint. There are two different ways to bridge the gap: experimental testing on the actual beam column joints involving tubular sections; or numerical modelization, typically by means of finite element analysis. For this second option, it is necessary to know the actual mechanical properties of the material...
February 9, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406463/malnutrition-growth-response-and-metabolic-changes-within-the-first-24-months-after-art-initiation-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-before-the-age-of-two-years-in-west-africa
#16
Julie Jesson, Désiré L Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Karen Malateste, Caroline Yonaba, Marie-Sylvie N'Gbeche, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Véronique Mea-Assande, Clarisse Amani-Bossé, Stéphane Blanche, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about malnutrition, growth evolution and metabolic changes among children initiated early on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. METHODS: HIV-1-infected children, age <2 years were initiated on ART, as part of the MONOD ANRS 12206 project, conducted in Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores (WAZ, HAZ, WHZ) defined malnutrition (Z-score <-2 standard deviations [SD]) using WHO growth references...
February 3, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378583/associations-of-childhood-maternal-and-household-dietary-patterns-with-childhood-stunting-in-ethiopia-proposing-an-alternative-and-plausible-dietary-analysis-method-to-dietary-diversity-scores
#17
Yohannes Adama Melaku, Tiffany K Gill, Anne W Taylor, Robert Adams, Zumin Shi, Amare Worku
BACKGROUND: Identifying dietary patterns that consider the overall eating habits, rather than focusing on individual foods or simple counts of consumed foods, better helps to understand the combined effects of dietary components. Therefore, this study aimed to use dietary patterns, as an alternative method to dietary diversity scores (DDSs), and investigate their associations with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. METHODS: Mothers and their children aged under 5 years (n = 3788) were recruited using a two-stage random cluster sampling technique in two regions of Ethiopia...
January 29, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370780/prevalence-and-intensity-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-infections-in-relation-to-undernutrition-among-children-in-a-tea-plantation-community-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Lahiru Sandaruwan Galgamuwa, Devika Iddawela, Samath D Dharmaratne
BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides infections are one of the commonnest intestinal nematode infections in the world, with a profound negative effect on nutritional status among underprivileged populations. In Sri Lanka, Ascaris infections and low nutritional status still persist in the plantation sector. However, research regarding the association between Ascaris infections and nutritional status is scarce. The main purpose of this study was to determine the association between Ascaris infections and physical growth among children in a plantation sector in Sri Lanka...
January 25, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361948/school-feeding-program-has-resulted-in-improved-dietary-diversity-nutritional-status-and-class-attendance-of-school-children
#19
Mastewal Zenebe, Samson Gebremedhin, Carol J Henry, Nigatu Regassa
BACKGROUND: School Feeding Program (SFP) is a targeted safety net program designed to provide educational and health benefits to vulnerable children. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effect of the intervention on the nutritional status and school attendance of children. The study is aimed at examining the effects of SFP on dietary diversity, nutritional status and class attendance of school children in Boricha district, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was conducted based on a representative data collected from 290 students drawn from the district...
January 23, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361743/microstructure-evolution-and-mechanical-properties-of-underwater-dry-and-local-dry-cavity-welded-joints-of-690-mpa-grade-high-strength-steel
#20
Yonghua Shi, Kun Sun, Shuwan Cui, Min Zeng, Jianglong Yi, Xiaoqin Shen, Yaoyong Yi
Q690E high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel plays an important role in offshore structures. In addition, underwater local cavity welding (ULCW) technique was widely used to repair important offshore constructions. However, the high cooling rate of ULCW joints results in bad welding quality compared with underwater dry welding (UDW) joints. Q690E high strength low alloy steels were welded by multi-pass UDW and ULCW techniques, to study the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of underwater welded joints...
January 22, 2018: Materials
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