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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422940/body-composition-at-birth-and-height-at-2-years-a-prospective-cohort-study-among-children-in-jimma-ethiopia
#1
Bitiya Admassu, Jonatan C Wells, Tsinuel Girma, Gregers S Andersen, Victor Owino, Tefera Belachew, Kim F Michaelsen, Mubarek Abera, Rasmus Wibaek, Henrik Friis, Pernille Kæstel
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured using air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth. Linear regression models were applied to study the relationship between BC at birth and HAZ at 24 months (±3 months)...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374648/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-two-ready-to-use-supplementary-foods-demonstrates-benefit-of-the-higher-dairy-supplement-for-reduced-wasting-in-mothers-and-differential-impact-in-infants-and-children-associated-with-maternal-supplement-response
#2
Nina Schlossman, Carrie Brown, Payal Batra, Augusto Braima de Sa, Ionela Balan, Adrian Balan, Madeleine G Gamache, Lauren Wood, William Pruzensky, Edward Saltzman, Susan B Roberts, Carlito Balé
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus over best approaches to reliably prevent malnutrition in rural communities in low-income countries. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effectiveness of 2 lipid-based ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs) differing in dairy protein content to improve the nutritional status of mothers and at-risk infants and young children in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: A 3-month cluster-randomized controlled pilot trial of 2 RUSFs was conducted with 692 mothers and 580 mildly or moderately malnourished infants (6-23 months) and children (24-59 months) from 13 villages...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327104/characterizing-early-child-growth-patterns-of-height-for-age-in-an-urban-slum-cohort-of-bangladesh-with-functional-principal-component-analysis
#3
Yin Zhang, Jianhui Zhou, Feiyang Niu, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a critical stage of physical and cognitive growth that forms the foundation of future wellbeing. Stunted growth is presented in one of every 4 children worldwide and contributes to developmental impairment and under-five mortality. Better understanding of early growth patterns should allow for early detection and intervention in malnutrition. We aimed to characterize early child growth patterns and quantify the change of growth curves from the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298540/boys-are-more-stunted-than-girls-from-early-infancy-to-3-y-of-age-in-rural-senegal
#4
Kirsten A Bork, Aldiouma Diallo
Background: Girls tend to have a lower risk of stunting than boys do in low-income countries.Objective: We evaluated differences in height status and complementary food (CF) intake between sexes from ages 2 to 39 mo in Senegal.Methods: Length and weight measurements were taken at ages 2-3, 4-5, 6-8, and 9-10 mo (n = 7319). Qualitative 24-h and 7-d food recalls were conducted in a subgroup (n = 2512). A smaller subsample was followed up to age 39 mo (n = 512). Height was measured, and intake of CF was noted...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293424/application-of-penalized-linear-regression-methods-to-the-selection-of-environmental-enteropathy-biomarkers
#5
Miao Lu, Jianhui Zhou, Caitlin Naylor, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Rashidul Haque, William A Petri, Jennie Z Ma
BACKGROUND: Environmental Enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical condition caused by constant fecal-oral contamination and resulting in blunting of intestinal villi and intestinal inflammation. Of primary interest in the clinical research is to evaluate the association between non-invasive EE biomarkers and malnutrition in a cohort of Bangladeshi children. The challenges are that the number of biomarkers/covariates is relatively large, and some of them are highly correlated. METHODS: Many variable selection methods are available in the literature, but which are most appropriate for EE biomarker selection remains unclear...
2017: Biomarker Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265359/the-relationship-between-agricultural-biodiversity-dietary-diversity-household-food-security-and-stunting-of-children-in-rural-kenya
#6
Florence K M'Kaibi, Nelia P Steyn, Sophie A Ochola, Lissane Du Plessis
The study was to determine the role of Dietary diversity (DD), household food security (HFS), and agricultural biodiversity (AB) on stunted growth in children. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers and anthropometric measurements of children 24-59 months old. HFS was assessed by household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS). A repeated 24-h recall was used to calculate a dietary diversity score (DDS). Agricultural biodiversity (AB) was calculated by counting the number of edible plants and animals...
March 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264008/women-s-autonomy-and-men-s-involvement-in-child-care-and-feeding-as-predictors-of-infant-and-young-child-anthropometric-indices-in-coffee-farming-households-of-jimma-zone-south-west-of-ethiopia
#7
Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Tefera Belachew
BACKGROUND: Most of child mortality and under nutrition in developing world were attributed to suboptimal childcare and feeding, which needs detailed investigation beyond the proximal factors. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing associations of women's autonomy and men's involvement with child anthropometric indices in cash crop livelihood areas of South West Ethiopia. METHODS: Multi-stage stratified sampling was used to select 749 farming households living in three coffee producing sub-districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238109/erythrocyte-fatty-acid-composition-of-nepal-breast-fed-infants
#8
Sigrun Henjum, Øyvind Lie, Manjeswori Ulak, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Ram K Chandyo, Prakash S Shrestha, Wafaie W Fawzi, Tor A Strand, Marian Kjellevold
PURPOSE: Essential fatty acids play a critical role in the growth and development of infants, but little is known about the fatty acid status of populations in low-income countries. The objective was to describe the fatty acid composition of red blood cells (RBC) in breastfeed Nepali infants and a subsample of their mothers and to identify the main sources of fatty acids in the mother's diet, as well as the fatty acid composition of breast milk. METHODS: RBC fatty acid composition was analyzed in a random sample of 303 infants and 72 mother, along with 68 breastmilk samples...
February 25, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222325/household-food-group-expenditure-patterns-are-associated-with-child-anthropometry-at-ages-5-8-and-12-years-in-ethiopia-india-peru-and-vietnam
#9
Debbie L Humphries, Kirk A Dearden, Benjamin T Crookston, Tassew Woldehanna, Mary E Penny, Jere R Behrman
Population-level analysis of dietary influences on nutritional status is challenging in part due to limitations in dietary intake data. Household expenditure surveys, covering recent household expenditures and including key food groups, are routinely conducted in low- and middle-income countries. These data may help identify patterns of food expenditure that relate to child growth. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between household food expenditures and child growth using factor analysis...
February 14, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217882/the-association-between-unintended-births-and-poor-child-development-in-india-evidence-from-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Abhishek Singh, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay, Ashish Singh, Kaushalendra Kumar
Evidence on the association between unintended births and poor child development in developing countries is limited. We used data from three waves of the Young Lives study on childhood poverty conducted in Andhra Pradesh in 2002, 2006-07, and 2009 to examine the association between unintended births and poor child development in India. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between unintended births and four indicators of child development-height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) score, Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) score, and Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) test score...
February 20, 2017: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207774/association-between-the-infant-and-child-feeding-index-icfi-and-nutritional-status-of-6-to-35-month-old-children-in-rural-western-china
#11
Pengfei Qu, Baibing Mi, Duolao Wang, Ruo Zhang, Jiaomei Yang, Danmeng Liu, Shaonong Dang, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of feeding practices and children's nutritional status in rural western China. METHODS: A sample of 12,146 pairs of 6- to 35-month-old children and their mothers were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in rural western China. Quantile regression was used to analyze the relationship between the Infant and Child Feeding Index (ICFI) and children's nutritional status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203458/weldability-machinability-and-surfacing-of-commercial-duplex-stainless-steel-aisi2205-for-marine-applications-a-recent-review
#12
REVIEW
A Vinoth Jebaraj, L Ajaykumar, C R Deepak, K V V Aditya
In the present review, attempts have been made to analyze the metallurgical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of commercial marine alloy duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 with special reference to its weldability, machinability, and surfacing. In the first part, effects of various fusion and solid-state welding processes on joining DSS 2205 with similar and dissimilar metals are addressed. Microstructural changes during the weld cooling cycle such as austenite reformation, partitioning of alloying elements, HAZ transformations, and the intermetallic precipitations are analyzed and compared with the different welding techniques...
May 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196362/practical-application-of-linear-growth-measurements-in-clinical-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries%C3%A2
#13
Jan M Wit, John H Himes, Stef van Buuren, Donna M Denno, Parminder S Suchdev
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Childhood stunting is a prevalent problem in low- and middle-income countries and is associated with long-term adverse neurodevelopment and health outcomes. In this review, we define indicators of growth, discuss key challenges in their analysis and application, and offer suggestions for indicator selection in clinical research contexts. METHODS: Critical review of the literature. RESULTS: Linear growth is commonly expressed as length-for-age or height-for-age z-score (HAZ) in comparison to normative growth standards...
February 14, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183755/complete-genome-sequence-of-mycoplasma-bovigenitalium-strain-haz-596-from-a-bovine-vagina-in-japan
#14
Eiji Hata, Kazuya Nagai, Kenji Murakami
Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan.
February 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148680/the-plasma-proteome-is-associated-with-anthropometric-status-of-undernourished-nepalese-school-aged-children
#15
Sun Eun Lee, Christine P Stewart, Kerry J Schulze, Robert N Cole, Lee S-F Wu, James D Yager, John D Groopman, Subarna K Khatry, Ramesh Kant Adhikari, Parul Christian, Keith P West
Background: Malnutrition affects body growth, size, and composition of children. Yet, few functional biomarkers are known to be associated with childhood morphology.Objective: This cross-sectional study examined associations of anthropometric indicators of height, musculature, and fat mass with plasma proteins by using proteomics in a population cohort of school-aged Nepalese children.Methods: Height, weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps and subscapular skinfolds, upper arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were assessed in 500 children 6-8 y of age...
March 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127367/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-nutritional-status-among-primary-school-children-in-delo-mena-district-south-eastern-ethiopia
#16
Begna Tulu, Solomon Taye, Yohannes Zenebe, Eden Amsalu
BACKGROUND: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122930/changes-in-underlying-determinants-explain-rapid-increases-in-child-linear-growth-in-alive-thrive-study-areas-between-2010-and-2014-in-bangladesh-and-vietnam
#17
Phuong Hong Nguyen, Derek Headey, Edward A Frongillo, Lan Mai Tran, Rahul Rawat, Marie T Ruel, Purnima Menon
Background: Child linear growth sometimes improves in both intervention and comparison groups in evaluations of nutrition interventions, possibly because of spillover intervention effects to nonintervention areas or improvements in underlying determinants of nutritional change in both areas.Objective: We aimed to understand what changes in underlying socioeconomic characteristics and behavioral factors are important in explaining improvements in child linear growth.Methods: Baseline (2010) and endline (2014) surveys from the Alive & Thrive impact evaluation were used to identify the underlying determinants of height-for-age z scores (HAZs) among children aged 24-48 mo in Bangladesh (n = 4311) and 24-59 mo in Vietnam (n = 4002)...
March 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100200/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-anaemia-among-children-aged-6-to-59%C3%A2-months-in-namutumba-district-uganda-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Fiona Kuziga, Yeka Adoke, Rhoda K Wanyenze
BACKGROUND: Anaemia is one of the major causes of death among children under five years in Africa, with a prevalence of 64.6% among pre-school children. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Namutumba district in East-central Uganda to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among children aged 6 to 59 months. METHODS: We conducted a household survey in 376 randomly selected households. One child aged 6 to 59 months was randomly sampled from each selected household...
January 18, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098147/nanoparticle-induced-unusual-melting-and-solidification-behaviours-of-metals
#19
Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Chezheng Cao, Xiaochun Li
Effective control of melting and solidification behaviours of materials is significant for numerous applications. It has been a long-standing challenge to increase the melted zone (MZ) depth while shrinking the heat-affected zone (HAZ) size during local melting and solidification of materials. In this paper, nanoparticle-induced unusual melting and solidification behaviours of metals are reported that effectively solve this long-time dilemma. By introduction of Al2O3 nanoparticles, the MZ depth of Ni is increased by 68%, while the corresponding HAZ size is decreased by 67% in laser melting at a pulse energy of 0...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096416/infrastructure-mitigates-the-sensitivity-of-child-growth-to-local-agriculture-and-rainfall-in-nepal-and-uganda
#20
Gerald E Shively
This paper investigates linear growth and weight gain among 11,946 children below the age of 5 y in Nepal and Uganda, testing the hypothesis that child growth is sensitive to precipitation during key periods in a child's early life. The paper also tests the importance of the economic and physical environments in which children reside. Outcomes are not completely explained by agricultural performance or the observed characteristics of children or their households. Associations between height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and rainfall are generally positive, but patterns are heterogeneous...
January 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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