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Cristina N Herrera, Javier E Tomala-Haz
Takayasu arteritis (TA) is the third most common childhood vasculitis and its clinical manifestations depend on the arteries involved. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple aneurysms in carotid and iliac arteries, subclavian and coronary arteries, and abdominal aorta. At the age of 7 years, he presented with recurrent fever and hepatosplenomegaly. An angio-computed tomography scan showed aneurysms in the left subclavian artery, abdominal aorta, and both proximal iliac arteries. He was diagnosed with TA and was treated with corticosteroids, aspirin, and enalapril...
2016: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
Katherine Bourzac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2016: Nature
Soo Hyun Yu, John Mason, Jennifer Crum, Claudia Cappa, David R Hotchkiss
BACKGROUND: The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15-24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height...
2016: Global Health Action
Alexandra Brentani, Günther Fink
Introduction: While a growing body of evidence has investigated the relationship between maternal mental health and child development, evidence on children's early life outcomes remains mixed. We analyze the empirical relationship between maternal depression and children's development at age one using data from the São Paulo Western Region Cohort project. Method: Seven hundred and ninety-eight (798) mother-child dyads living in the Butantã-Jaguaré' region of São Paulo were assessed through a home visit between January and March 2015...
September 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Muhammad Ikhtear Uddin, Shahidul Islam, Naoshin S Nishat, Motaher Hossain, Tanzeem Ahmed Rafique, Rasheduzzaman Rashu, Mohammad Rubel Hoq, Yue Zhang, Amit Saha, Jason B Harris, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Edward T Ryan, Daniel T Leung, Firdausi Qadri
Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly understood condition that refers to chronic alterations in intestinal permeability, absorption, and inflammation, which mainly affects young children in resource-limited settings. Recently, EE has been linked to suboptimal oral vaccine responses in children, although immunological mechanisms are poorly defined. The objective of this study was to determine host factors associated with immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine (OCV). We measured antibody and memory T cell immune responses to cholera antigens, micronutrient markers in blood, and EE markers in blood and stool from 40 Bangladeshi children aged 3-14 years who received two doses of OCV given 14 days apart...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jamie Lynn Fierstein, Misha Eliasziw, Beatrice Lorge Rogers, Janet E Forrester
In underresourced settings where domestic animals and children often cohabitate, there is limited evidence about the net impact of domestic animal ownership on child health. We analyzed the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey to determine whether household ownership of native cattle, goats, sheep, chickens, pigs, and nonnative cattle was associated with child height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), and to assess the influence of diet on this association in rural and urban environments. Using weighted multivariable linear regression, we found that nonnative cattle ownership was positively associated with HAZ in rural children 0 to < 2 years of age (+1...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
O Yaw Addo, John H Himes, Babette S Zemel
BACKGROUND: Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) has long been used in anthropometric assessments of nutritional status in field settings, especially in emergency situations, but percentile ranges for healthy, well-nourished children are currently unavailable. OBJECTIVE: We developed reference curves for MUAC and derived measures of arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) on the basis of the population used in the current CDC body mass index growth charts. DESIGN: We analyzed cross-sectional MUAC and triceps (triceps skinfold thickness) data from 32,952 US children aged 1-20 y...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jason M Nagata, James Gippetti, Stefan Wager, Alejandro Chavez, Paul H Wise
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. RESULTS: Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0...
2016: PloS One
Cut Novianti Rachmi, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho, Mu Li, Louise Alison Baur
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether stunted young children are at greater risk of (1) overweight/obesity or thinness, and (2) high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescence. METHODS: A secondary data analysis using the Indonesian Family Life Survey waves 1 (1993) to 4 (2007). We generated a 14-year follow-up cohort (1993-2007) and two 7-year cohorts (1993-2000 and 2000-2007) of children aged 2.0-4.9 years. Stunting (HAZ < -2), thinness (BMIZ < -2), and overweight/obesity (BMIZ > +1) were determined based upon the WHO Child Growth Standards...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Damodar Pokhrel, Sumit Sood, Christopher McClinton, Xinglei Shen, Christopher Lominska, Habeeb Saleh, Rajeev Badkul, Hongyu Jiang, Melissa Mitchell, Fen Wang
PURPOSE: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set...
September 27, 2016: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
Yun-Kyu An, Zhiqi Shen, Zhishen Wu
This paper proposes a stripe-PZT sensor-based baseline-free crack diagnosis technique in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of a structure with a welded stiffener. The proposed technique enables one to identify and localize a crack in the HAZ using only current data measured using a stripe-PZT sensor. The use of the stripe-PZT sensor makes it possible to significantly improve the applicability to real structures and minimize man-made errors associated with the installation process by embedding multiple piezoelectric sensors onto a printed circuit board...
2016: Sensors
Mahesh Sarki, Aileen Robertson, Alexandr Parlesak
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is increasing in low-and middle income countries such as Nepal. At the same time, high prevalence of chronic undernutrition persists leading to a double burden of malnutrition. AIM: To identify associations between the socioeconomic status of mothers, food security, the food safety environment within the household, and prevalence of stunting and overweight of the children. METHODS: Statistical analysis of socioeconomic, food safety-related and anthropometric data from 289 mother-child dyads in an urban area of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Relana Pinkerton, Reinaldo B Oriá, Aldo A M Lima, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Mônica O B Oriá, Peter D Patrick, Sean R Moore, Benjamin L Wiseman, Mark D Niehaus, Richard L Guerrant
Understanding the complex relationship between early childhood infectious diseases, nutritional status, poverty, and cognitive development is significantly hindered by the lack of studies that adequately address confounding between these variables. This study assesses the independent contributions of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) and malnutrition on cognitive impairment in later childhood. A cohort of 131 children from a shantytown community in northeast Brazil was monitored from birth to 24 months for diarrhea and anthropometric status...
September 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yan Yin, Yongjin Li, Qin Li, Ni Jia, Aihua Liu, Zangwen Tan, Qiong Wu, Zhaoyang Fan, Tao Li, Lijun Wang
We evaluated the relationship between child (aged 6-36 months) height and blood zinc, copper, iron, calcium, and magnesium concentrations. We selected 840 children following a physical examination. Weight and supine length or standing height were measured according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Polarographic analysis was used to measure zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, and calcium levels. Differences in heights between groups with low vs. high mineral concentrations, stratified by sex and age, were compared by analysis of variance...
September 5, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Jane Achan, Abel Kakuru, Gloria Ikilezi, Florence Mwangwa, Albert Plenty, Edwin Charlebois, Sera Young, Diane Havlir, Moses Kamya, Theodore Ruel
BACKGROUND: Diminished growth is highly prevalent among HIV-infected children and might be improved by antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined growth recovery in a rural Ugandan cohort of HIV-infected children randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcription-inhibitor-based ART. METHODS: HIV-infected children 2 months to 6 years of age were randomized to Lopinavir/ritonavir- or non-nucleoside-reverse-transcription-inhibitor-based ART. Changes in weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) Z-scores for 24 months were evaluated using generalized linear repeated-measures models...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
A Valente, D Silva, E Neves, F Almeida, J L Cruz, C C Dias, A da Costa-Pereira, A Caldas-Afonso, A Guerra
OBJECTIVE: Undernutrition is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and their predictors in children from 0 to 5 years of age in São Tomé. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in São Tomé Island. METHODS: A total of 1285 individuals were enrolled between January and May 2011. Children were measured, and height for age (HAZ), weight for height (WHZ) and body mass index (BAZ) Z-score were computed...
November 2016: Public Health
Mark E Ralston, Mark A Myatt
IMPORTANCE: A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries...
2016: PloS One
Derek Headey, Kalle Hirvonen
Although strategic thinking on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has prioritized reducing exposure to human feces in order to limit diarrheal infections, recent research suggests that elevated exposure to livestock-particularly poultry and poultry feces-may be an important risk factor for diarrhea, environmental enteric disorder (EED) and respiratory infections, all of which may seriously retard linear growth in young children. Yet a very different literature on nutrition-sensitive agriculture suggests that livestock ownership is highly beneficial for child growth outcomes through its importance for increasing consumption of nutrient-rich animal sourced foods, such as eggs...
2016: PloS One
Ran Hu, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Hao Wu, Lin Pang, Liming Wang, Qingxia Zhao, Yasong Wu, Decai Zhao, Meiling Chen, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related complications are commonly seen in HIV-infected children, and these have been shown in high-prevalent areas such as Africa. Antiviral therapy (ART) has notably controlled disease progression, whereas it effectively reverses underweight and growth retardation in HIV-infected children. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth status after initiation of ART in HIV-infected children in China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the National Science and Technology Major Project...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Y-J Wang, H-J Zhou, P-J Liu, G-L Liu, Y Zheng, B Wei, C-X Hao, Y Zhang, H-Q Kang, X-L Lu, Y Yuan
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. OBJECTIVES: To describe the nutritional risk/status of Chinese children with spinal cord injury (SCI) at admission and determine the relationship between nutritional risk/status and demography/SCI characteristics. SETTING: China Rehabilitation Research Center, Beijing, China. METHODS: Baseline clinical data, appetite level, anthropometric measurements and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP) scores were obtained for pediatric SCI patients...
August 9, 2016: Spinal Cord
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