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Julian Bejarano, Rainer Detsch, Aldo R Boccaccini, Humberto Palza
Novel multifunctional scaffolds for bone regeneration can be developed by incorporation of bioactive glasses doped with therapeutic and antibacterial metal ions, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), into a biodegradable polymer. In this context, porous composite materials of biodegradable poly(D, L-lactide) (PDLLA) mixed with sol-gel bioactive glasses (BG) of chemical composition 60SiO2 ; 25CaO; 11Na2 O; and 4P2 O5 (mol.%) doped with either 1 mol% of CuO or ZnO, and with both metals, were prepared. The cytocompatibility of the scaffolds on bone marrow stromal cells (ST-2) depended on both, the amount of glass filler and the concentration of metal ion, as evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, cell viability (water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8)), and by cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)) tests...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Yu Zhu, Yingxin Gu, Shichong Qiao, Linyi Zhou, Junyu Shi, Hongchang Lai
Microorganisms are frequently introduced to dental implants during surgery and start the race for the surface with host cells before osseointegration occurs. The aim of the study was to endow implant surfaces with biological functions that reliably select cells over microbes. Nano-structured tantalum (Ta) has exhibited excellent compatibility. Thus, nano-structured Ta films were deposited on the sand-blasted, large grit and acid-etched (SLA) titanium by the magnetron sputtering method, thus forming hierarchical micro/nanostructured surfaces...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Spyridon Chavlis, Panagiotis C Petrantonakis, Panayiota Poirazi
The hippocampus plays a key role in pattern separation, the process of transforming similar incoming information to highly dissimilar, non-overlapping representations. Sparse firing granule cells (GCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) have been proposed to undertake this computation, but little is known about which of their properties influence pattern separation. Dendritic atrophy has been reported in diseases associated with pattern separation deficits, suggesting a possible role for dendrites in this phenomenon...
October 26, 2016: Hippocampus
Ju Hui Jeong, Yong Jin Oh, Yunmee Lho, Sun You Park, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Eunyoung Ha, Young Ho Seo
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 plays an important role in cancer cell survival and proliferation by regulating the maturation and stabilization of numerous oncogenic proteins. Due to its potential to simultaneously disable multiple signaling pathways, Hsp90 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this study, the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of Hsp90 inhibitors are described. Among the synthetic compounds, 6,7-dihydrothieno [3,2-c]pyridin-5(4H)-yl amide 19 exhibits a remarkable binding affinity to the N-terminus of Hsp90 in a fluorescence polarization (FP) binding assay (IC50 = 50...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Shanshan Li, Wenda Zhang, Yanwei Yang, Ting Ma, Jianpeng Guo, Shanshan Wang, Wenying Yu, Lingyi Kong
Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been found in a wide variety of cancers and demonstrated as a very attractive therapeutic target. Disrupting both acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3 protein was hypothesized to greatly deactivate STAT3, therefore, treating cancers. To demonstrate the hypothesis, two series of novel resveratrol-caffeic acid hybrids were designed aiming to regulate both acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3 protein, which is also the first report of the synthetic inhibitors simultaneously regulating two biological reactions of STAT3 to our knowledge...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jocelyn P Wong, Jason R Todd, Martina A Finetti, Frank McCarthy, Malgorzata Broncel, Simon Vyse, Maciej T Luczynski, Stephen Crosier, Karen A Ryall, Kate Holmes, Leo S Payne, Frances Daley, Patty Wai, Andrew Jenks, Barbara Tanos, Aik-Choon Tan, Rachael C Natrajan, Daniel Williamson, Paul H Huang
Subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex are mutated in a significant proportion of human cancers. Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are lethal pediatric cancers characterized by a deficiency in the SWI/SNF subunit SMARCB1. Here, we employ an integrated molecular profiling and chemical biology approach to demonstrate that the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) PDGFRα and FGFR1 are coactivated in MRT cells and that dual blockade of these receptors has synergistic efficacy. Inhibitor combinations targeting both receptors and the dual inhibitor ponatinib suppress the AKT and ERK1/2 pathways leading to apoptosis...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Sangyun Lee, Heather B Mayes, Jessica M J Swanson, Gregory A Voth
The ClC family of transmembrane proteins functions throughout nature to control the transport of Cl- ions across biological membranes. ClC-ec1 from Escherichia coli is an antiporter, coupling the transport of Cl- and H+ ions in opposite directions and driven by the concentration gradients of the ions. Despite keen interest in this protein, the molecular mechanism of the Cl-/H+ coupling has not been fully elucidated. Here, we have used multiscale simulation to help identify the essential mechanism of the Cl-/H+ coupling...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hiroshi Kaji
Adipose tissue has recently been reevaluated as an endocrine organ, and adipose-tissue-derived endocrine factors are termed adipokines. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the primary inhibitor of PAs, which convert plasminogen into plasmin, a critical protease involved in fibrinolysis. PAI-1 induces fibrinogenesis by suppressing intravascular and tissue fibrinolysis. Moreover, PAI-1 exerts various cellular effects independently of fibrinolysis. Although PAI-1 is expressed in various tissues, its expression is regulated by numerous growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in a paracrine and endocrine manner...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Emma Monte, Manuel Rosa Garrido, Thomas M Vondriska, Jessica Wang
The past two decades have witnessed a rapid evolution in our ability to measure RNA and protein from biological systems. As a result, new principles have arisen regarding how information is processed in cells, how decisions are made, and the role of networks in biology. This essay examines this technological evolution, reviewing (and critiquing) the conceptual framework that has emerged to explain how RNA and protein networks control cellular function. We identify how future investigations into transcriptomes, proteomes, and other cellular networks will enable development of more robust, quantitative models of cellular behavior whilst also providing new avenues to use knowledge of biological networks to improve human health...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Truong Lam, Giovanni Davogustto
The heart is a biological pump that converts chemical to mechanical energy. This process of energy conversion is highly regulated to the extent that energy substrate metabolism matches energy use for contraction on a beat-to-beat basis. The biochemistry of cardiac metabolism includes the biochemistry of energy transfer, metabolic regulation, and transcriptional, translational as well as posttranslational control of enzymatic activities. Pathways of energy substrate metabolism in the heart are complex and dynamic, but all of them conform to the First Law of Thermodynamics...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
Gabriela Lisieux Lima Gomes, Maria das Graças Melo Fernandes, Maria Miriam Lima da Nóbrega
Objective: to analyze the concept "hospitalization anxiety in children", identifying its antecedents, attributes, and consequences, with the objective of clarifying its meaning. Method: we used a conceptual analysis model, whose objective is to clarify the meaning of terms. Results: we identified the concept antecedents and its attributes, classified as biological and psychological needs, which are essential characteristics of "hospitalization anxiety in children"...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Álvaro Francisco Lopes de Sousa, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes Queiroz, Layze Braz de Oliveira, Maria Eliete Batista Moura, Odinéa Maria Amorim Batista, Denise de Andrade
Objective: to understand the biosecurity social representations by primary care nursing professionals and analyze how they articulate with quality of care. Methods: exploratory and qualitative research based on social representation theory. The study participants were 36 nursing workers from primary health care in a state capital in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were analyzed by descending hierarchical classification. Results: five classes were obtained: occupational accidents suffered by professionals; occupational exposure to biological agents; biosecurity management in primary health care; the importance of personal protective equipment; and infection control and biosecurity...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ewa Dopierala, Adrian A Chrobak, Flavio Kapczinski, Michal Michalak, Anna Tereszko, Ewa Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Dominika Dudek, Daria Dembinska-Krajewska, Marcin Siwek, Jan Jaracz, Janusz K Rybakowski
Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects...
October 20, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Rahul Agrawal, Tina P Dale, Mohammed A Al-Zubaidi, Prit Benny Malgulwar, Nicholas R Forsyth, Ritu Kulshreshtha
MicroRNAs are reported to have a crucial role in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Hypoxia has been identified as a key biophysical element of the stem cell culture milieu however, the link between hypoxia and miRNA expression in stem cells remains poorly understood. We therefore explored miRNA expression in hypoxic human embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells (hESCs and hMSCs). A total of 50 and 76 miRNAs were differentially regulated by hypoxia (2% O2) in hESCs and hMSCs, respectively, with a negligible overlap of only three miRNAs...
2016: PloS One
Layla Gomes Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão Siravenha, Lucimar Di Paula Madeira, Aldemir B Oliveira-Filho, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Rosimar Neris Martins Feitosa, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak
: The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp...
2016: PloS One
André David Kovac, Maximilian Koall, Gordon Pipa, Hazem Toutounji
Delays are ubiquitous in biological systems, ranging from genetic regulatory networks and synaptic conductances, to predator/pray population interactions. The evidence is mounting, not only to the presence of delays as physical constraints in signal propagation speed, but also to their functional role in providing dynamical diversity to the systems that comprise them. The latter observation in biological systems inspired the recent development of a computational architecture that harnesses this dynamical diversity, by delay-coupling a single nonlinear element to itself...
2016: PloS One
David E Friesem, Noa Lavi, Marco Madella, P Ajithprasad, Charles French
Hunter-gatherer societies have distinct social perceptions and practices which are expressed in unique use of space and material deposition patterns. However, the identification of archaeological evidence associated with hunter-gatherer activity is often challenging, especially in tropical environments such as rainforests. We present an integrated study combining ethnoarchaeology and geoarchaeology in order to study archaeological site formation processes related to hunter-gatherers' ways of living in tropical forests...
2016: PloS One
Addolorata Marasco, Simona Nocerino, Gabriele Pinto, Antonino Pollio, Giorgio Trojsi, Antonino De Natale
The potential impact of cyanobacteria and microalgae on the weathering of calcareous tesserae from a Roman mosaic of the II Century CE has been followed through in vitro experiments. Laboratory tests were carried out by inoculating mosaic tiles with single strains of Cyanobacteria or Chlorophyta to evaluate the roles of pioneer phototrophic microrganism on the resulting architecture of biofilms. The interaction between tesserae and strains was assessed at the whole substratum and micrometer scales, by image analysis and Confocal Laser Scanning (CLS) microscopy, respectively...
2016: PloS One
Michael Worobey, Thomas D Watts, Richard A McKay, Marc A Suchard, Timothy Granade, Dirk E Teuwen, Beryl A Koblin, Walid Heneine, Philippe Lemey, Harold W Jaffe
The emergence of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North American men who have sex with men was a key turning point in the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Phylogenetic studies have suggested cryptic subtype B circulation in the United States (US) throughout the 1970s and an even older presence in the Caribbean. However, these temporal and geographical inferences, based upon partial HIV-1 genomes that postdate the recognition of AIDS in 1981, remain contentious and the earliest movements of the virus within the US are unknown. We serologically screened >2,000 1970s serum samples and developed a highly sensitive approach for recovering viral RNA from degraded archival samples...
October 26, 2016: Nature
Qinglian Liu, Elizabeth A Craig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Nature
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