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Membranous GN

Pankaj Beniwal, Lalit Pursnani, Sanjeev Sharma, R K Garsa, Mohit Mathur, Prasad Dharmendra, Vinay Malhotra, Dhanajai Agarwal
Studies published from centers across India have reported different and contradicting patterns of glomerular disease. In this retrospective study, we report our experience from a Tertiary Care Center in Northwest India. A total of 702 renal biopsies performed between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed of which 80 were excluded from the study because of having insufficient records or if the biopsies were taken from an allograft. The study included 411 males (66.1 %) and 211 females (33.9%) with an age range of 12-70 years (mean 30...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Ju Hyung Kang, Haing Woon Baik, Seung-Min Yoo, Joo Heon Kim, Hae Il Cheong, Chung-Gyu Park, Hee Gyung Kang, Il-Soo Ha
BACKGROUND: Renin, in addition to its activation of the renin-angiotensin system, binds to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) and triggers inflammatory and fibrogenic signaling in tissue. In addition, aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, has been shown to affect IgG metabolism by altering PRR and neonatal Fc receptors (FcRns). METHODS: We investigated the effect of aliskiren on proteinuria, glomerular extracellular matrix, expressions of fibronectin, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), PRR, FcRn and renal metabolism of IgG in a mice model of anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN)...
August 25, 2016: Nephron
Mariachiara Mei, Paolo Menè, Antonella Stoppacciaro
The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the prevalence and pathological features of kidney inflammatory nephropathies diagnosed in Sant'Andrea Hospital, from January 2003 to April 2015. In this period, 246 kidney biopsies have been diagnosed in our Hospital. Excluding cases of kidney neoplasms and non-diagnostic samples, 195 cases were reviewed. Primary glomerulonephritis (GN) is the most common diagnosis. Among these, Membranous GN represents the majority of cases (20.4%), followed by IgA Nephropathy (12...
July 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Shveta S Motwani, Leal Herlitz, Divya Monga, Kenar D Jhaveri, Albert Q Lam
Paraproteins are monoclonal Igs that accumulate in blood as a result of abnormal excess production. These circulating proteins cause a diversity of kidney disorders that are increasingly being comanaged by nephrologists. In this review, we discuss paraprotein-related diseases that affect the glomerulus. We provide a broad overview of diseases characterized by nonorganized deposits, such as monoclonal Ig deposition disease (MIDD), proliferative GN with monoclonal Ig deposits (PGNMID), and C3 glomerulopathy, as well as those characterized by organized deposits, such as amyloidosis, immunotactoid glomerulopathy, fibrillary GN, and cryoglobulinemic GN, and rarer disorders, such as monoclonal crystalline glomerulopathies, paraprotein-related thrombotic microangiopathies, and membranous-like glomerulopathy with masked IgGκ deposits...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Ryo Koda, Katsuhiro Nagahori, Atsushi Kitazawa, Yuji Imanishi, Atsunori Yoshino, Shinya Kawamoto, Yoshihiko Ueda, Tetsuro Takeda
A 77-year-old man presented with a fever, non-productive cough, and edema formation. A laboratory analysis showed an elevated creatinine level (2.5 mg/dL), a high titer of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) (99 U/mL), positive reaction for antinuclear antibody (×320), hematuria, and massive proteinuria (3.33 g/day). A renal biopsy revealed crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis (GN) with membranoproliferative GN features [double contour appearance of the glomerular basement membrane, granular deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and C3 along the capillary wall, subendothelial and subepithelial deposits with mesangial interposition]...
2016: Internal Medicine
Terry King-Wing Ma, Stephen P McAdoo, Frederick Wai-Keung Tam
Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a 72 kDa cytoplasmic non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, plays an important role in signal transduction in a variety of cell types. Ever since its discovery in the early 1990s, there has been accumulating evidence to suggest a pathogenic role of Syk in various allergic disorders, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. Additionally, there is emerging data from both pre-clinical and clinical studies that Syk is implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN), including anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated GN, lupus nephritis and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN)...
2016: Nephron
Martin Spiegel, Teresa Plegge, Stefan Pöhlmann
Bunyaviruses are enveloped viruses with a tripartite RNA genome that can pose a serious threat to animal and human health. Members of the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae are transmitted by mosquitos and ticks to humans and include highly pathogenic agents like Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) as well as viruses that do not cause disease in humans, like Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). Phleboviruses and other bunyaviruses use their envelope proteins, Gn and Gc, for entry into target cells and for assembly of progeny particles in infected cells...
2016: Viruses
Vassilios Atsaves, Panagiota Makri, Maria G Detsika, Alexandra Tsirogianni, Elias A Lianos
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) in response to injury is poor and this may be a disadvantage. We, therefore, explored whether HO-1 overexpression in GEC can reduce proteinuria induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) or in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody (Ab)-mediated glomerulonephritis (GN). METHODS: HO-1 overexpression in GEC (GECHO-1) of Sprague-Dawley rats was achieved by targeting a FLAG-human (h) HO-1 using transposon-mediated transgenesis...
2016: Nephron
Xiaohong Shi, Catherine H Botting, Ping Li, Mark Niglas, Benjamin Brennan, Sally L Shirran, Agnieszka M Szemiel, Richard M Elliott
The M genome segment of Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)-the prototype of both the Bunyaviridae family and the Orthobunyavirus genus-encodes the glycoprotein precursor (GPC) that is proteolytically cleaved to yield two viral structural glycoproteins, Gn and Gc, and a nonstructural protein, NSm. The cleavage mechanism of orthobunyavirus GPCs and the host proteases involved have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the processing of BUNV GPC and found that both NSm and Gc proteins were cleaved at their own internal signal peptides (SPs), in which NSm domain I functions as SP(NSm) and NSm domain V as SP(Gc) Moreover, the domain I was further processed by a host intramembrane-cleaving protease, signal peptide peptidase, and is required for cell fusion activities...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michelle M O'Shaughnessy, Sai Liu, Maria E Montez-Rath, Colin R Lenihan, Richard A Lafayette, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
Differences in kidney transplantation outcomes across GN subtypes have rarely been studied. From the US Renal Data System, we identified all adult (≥18 years) first kidney transplant recipients (1996-2011) with ESRD attributed to one of six GN subtypes or two comparator kidney diseases. We computed hazard ratios (HRs) for death, all-cause allograft failure, and allograft failure excluding death as a cause (competing risks framework) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Among the 32,131 patients with GN studied, patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) had the lowest mortality rates and patients with IgAN or vasculitis had the lowest allograft failure rates...
July 18, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Kibriya Fidan, Ipek Isik Gonul, Bahar Büyükkaragöz, Emel Isiyel, Turgay Arinsoy, Oguz Soylemezoglu
Renal biopsy is the gold standard method for determining the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis in children with renal disease. This study aims to evaluate the histopathological features of pediatric renal biopsies obtained from the national nephrology registry in the last two decades. Data recorded in the Turkish Society of Nephrology Registry System (TSNRS) in 1991 as well as in between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed. A total of 3892 biopsies were recorded; with the least number in 1991 (total 103 biopsies from 17 centers) and the highest number in 2008 (total 654 biopsies from 23 centers)...
September 2016: Renal Failure
Lynn L Silver
A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm...
June 23, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Marty Kwok-Shing Wong, Supriya Pipil, Akira Kato, Yoshio Takei
Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isoforms, CFTRa and CFTRb, were cloned in Japanese eel and their structures and functions were studied in different osmoregulatory tissues in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) eels. Molecular phylogenetic results suggested that the CFTR duplication in eels occurred independently of the duplication event in salmonid. CFTRa was expressed in the intestine and kidney and downregulated in both tissues in SW eels, while CFTRb was specifically expressed in the gill and greatly upregulated in SW eels...
September 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Hajeong Lee, Jae Wook Lee, Kyung Don Yoo, Joo-Yeon Yoo, Jung Pyo Lee, Dong Ki Kim, Ho Jun Chin, Yon Su Kim, Seung Hee Yang
T helper 17 (Th17) lymphocytes promote renal inflammation in anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mediates activation of Th17 lymphocytes by IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Cln 3-requiring 9 (Ctr9), a subunit of RNA polymerase-associated factor complex (PAFc), regulates the transcription of IL-6/STAT3-dependent genes. Here, we investigated the role of Ctr9 in regulating Th17-driven inflammation in anti-GBM GN...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Md Ghulam Yusuf, Bidhu Bhushan Das, Amaresh Chandra Shaha, Md Zakir Hossain
In Bangladesh, there are very few studies about biopsy proven adult Nephrotic syndrome (NS) with histological types and their clinical findings. To determine the histological types of glomerulonephritis (GN) in adult NS and correlate them with the clinical presentations and biochemical parameters, we studied 100 biopsies in 87 patients who underwent ultrasonography- guided renal biopsy in Rangpur Medical College and Hospital from July 2010 to June 2012. The mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 13.2 years; male was preponderance (72...
May 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
R Nada, A Kumar, V G Kumar, K L Gupta, K Joshi
Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE) sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1), immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM)...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Lifen Wang, Zhiming Ye, Huaban Liang, Bin Zhang, Lixia Xu, Zhonglin Feng, Shuangxin Liu, Wei Shi
BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus inhibits hepatitis B virus entry into hepatocytes through targeting the HBV receptor, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tacrolimus combined with entecavir antiviral therapy for HBV-associated glomerulonephritis patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy. METHOD: A cohort of 42 patients was enrolled in this retrospective study. Twenty-three patients received Tacrolimus (0...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Rongchang Wang, Fan Xiao, Yanan Wang, Zbigniew Lewandowski
The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of transmembrane gas pressure (P g) on the specific ammonium removal rate in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR). Our experimental results show that the specific ammonium removal rate increased from 4.98 to 9.26 gN m(-2) day(-1) when P g increased from 2 to 20 kPa in an MABR with a biofilm thickness of approximately 600 μm. However, this improvement was not linear; there was a threshold of P g separating the stronger and weaker effects of P g...
September 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sai Li, Ilona Rissanen, Antra Zeltina, Jussi Hepojoki, Jayna Raghwani, Karl Harlos, Oliver G Pybus, Juha T Huiskonen, Thomas A Bowden
Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion...
May 3, 2016: Cell Reports
Rong Zou, Su-xia Wang, Gang Liu, Feng Yu, Min Chen, Ming-Hui Zhao
The prognosis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN) is unfavorable despite immunosuppressive therapy. It has been suggested that the loss of podocytes is a hallmark of progressive kidney disease. However, it is unclear about podocyte injuries and their predictive values on the prognosis in ANCA-GN. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the podocyte injury in renal histopathology and its association with renal prognosis of patients with ANCA-GN. A total of 170 patients with ANCA-GN were recruited in this study...
April 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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