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New updates and breakthroughs

Stephan A Schug, Sonya Ting
Fentanyl is a synthetic, highly selective opioid with many desirable physicochemical properties, including a high lipophilicity and predictable pharmacokinetics. These properties have an established record in the management of pain in a variety of settings, particularly acute pain and breakthrough cancer pain. Fentanyl was initially developed for parenteral use; however, this is invasive and impractical in the outpatient setting. Unfortunately, the high first-pass metabolism of fentanyl makes oral formulations unfeasible...
May 2017: Drugs
Jeena Varghese, Mouhammed Amir Habra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an update on the management of and future directions in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). RECENT FINDINGS: ACC is a rare malignancy with high morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for localized disease, but it is often not feasible in more advanced cases. There is an ongoing controversy about the routine use of adjuvant treatments after surgery. Hormonal overproduction can complicate the management and worsen the prognosis of the disease...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Nino Stocchetti, Tommaso Zoerle, Marco Carbonara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and treatment is central in the management of traumatic brain injury. Despite 4 decades of clinical use, several aspects remain controversial, including the indications for ICP and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Two major trials tested surgical decompression and mild hypothermia as treatments for high ICP. Both were rigorous, randomized, multicenter studies, with different designs. Decompression was tested for ICP refractory to conventional treatment, whereas hypothermia was offered as an alternative to conventional medical therapy...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Michael Y Galperin, Xosé M Fernández-Suárez, Daniel J Rigden
This year's Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research contains 152 papers that include descriptions of 54 new databases and update papers on 98 databases, of which 16 have not been previously featured in NAR As always, these databases cover a broad range of molecular biology subjects, including genome structure, gene expression and its regulation, proteins, protein domains, and protein-protein interactions. Following the recent trend, an increasing number of new and established databases deal with the issues of human health, from cancer-causing mutations to drugs and drug targets...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz
AMPK is an evolutionary conserved energy sensor involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Based on biochemical studies, AMPK has brought much of interest in recent years due to its potential impact on metabolic disorders. Suitable animal models are therefore essential to promote our understanding of the molecular and functional roles of AMPK but also to bring novel information for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The organism systems include pig (Sus scrofa), mouse (Mus musculus), fly (Drosophila melanogaster), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), and fish (Danio rerio) models...
2016: EXS
Imelda Marton, Zsófia Simon, Zita Borbényi
Polycythaemia vera (PV), a condition characterized by blood hyperviscosity due to the expansion of the erythrocyte mass is the most common entity among all Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Arterial and venous thrombotic events are leading determinants of morbidity and mortality but impairment of quality of life due to vasomotor symptoms (erythromelalgia, pruritus) and disease-associated symptoms (tiredness, fatigue, pruritus, night sweats, vision problems, headache, concentration loss, abdominal discomfort, early satiety, fever, weight loss) are also present...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Pavel Lavitas, Mark Tesell, Tasmina Hydery, Bonnie C Greenwood, Mylissa Price, Kimberly Lenz, Paul Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough direct-acting antivirals set a new standard in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with regard to cure rates and improved tolerability; however, the health care system is challenged by the cost of these medications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of a comprehensive HCV medication management program on optimized regimen use, prior authorization (PA) modifications, and medication cost avoidance in a state Medicaid program. METHODS: This program consists of a 2-tiered prescriber outreach: (1) regimen outreach to promote optimized regimen selection and (2) refill outreach to support medication adherence...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
R M Gil da Costa, M C Peleteiro, M A Pires, D DiMaio
Over recent years, a growing number of papillomaviruses have been identified, which cause a wide range of lesions in domestic and wild animals. Papillomavirus-induced lesions may have a great impact on animal health, and some diseases observed in farm animals are associated with significant economic losses. This concise review brings together recent advancements on animal papillomavirus research, providing the scientific community and veterinary practitioners with an update on this rapidly evolving field. Among others, bovine, canine and feline papillomaviruses (BPV, CPV and FcaPV) are most extensively discussed, in view of the recent discovery of new viral types and their worldwide importance for animal health...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Fei Hou, Ying He, Hong Qin, Aimin Hao
Biharmonic B-splines, proposed by Feng and Warren, are an elegant generalization of univariate B-splines to planar and curved domains with fully irregular knot configuration. Despite the theoretic breakthrough, certain technical difficulties are imperative, including the necessity of Voronoi tessellation, the lack of analytical formulation of bases on general manifolds, expensive basis re-computation during knot refinement/removal, being applicable for simple domains only (e.g., such as Euclidean planes, spherical and cylindrical domains, and tori)...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Gianina Ravenscroft, Mark R Davis, Phillipa Lamont, Alistair Forrest, Nigel G Laing
Early-onset muscle disease includes three major entities that present generally at or before birth: congenital myopathies, congenital muscular dystrophies and congenital myasthenic syndromes. Almost exclusively there is weakness and hypotonia, although cases manifesting hypertonia are increasingly being recognised. These diseases display a wide phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, with the uptake of next generation sequencing resulting in an unparalleled extension of the phenotype-genotype correlations and "diagnosis by sequencing" due to unbiased sequencing...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Carl E Cerniglia, Silvia A Pineiro, Susan F Kotarski
The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria...
May 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jennifer J Peterson, Susan K Steele-Moses
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has had a long history in cancer treatment and, with recent breakthroughs, new drugs are available that have shown promising results. OBJECTIVES: The current article discusses an overview of immune function, including immunoediting and the theory of immune checkpoints, as well as specific drugs that have been approved as immune checkpoint inhibitors. Additional discussion includes a review of nursing implications and administration, side effects, adverse events, and the future of immuno-oncology...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Ying-Qing Wang, Ping-Yuan Wang, Yu-Ting Wang, Guang-Fu Yang, Ao Zhang, Ze-Hong Miao
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a critical DNA repair enzyme in the base excision repair pathway. Inhibitors of this enzyme comprise a new type of anticancer drug that selectively kills cancer cells by targeting homologous recombination repair defects. Since 2010, important advances have been achieved in PARP-1 inhibitors. Specifically, the approval of olaparib in 2014 for the treatment of ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations validated PARP-1 as an anticancer target and established its clinical importance in cancer therapy...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Sandy Elbitar, Petra El Khoury, Youmna Ghaleb, Jean-Pierre Rabès, Mathilde Varret, Nabil G Seidah, Catherine Boileau, Marianne Abifadel
The identification by Abifadel et al. in 2003 of the first mutations of PCSK9 was the major breakthrough in the cholesterol field that led to a new therapeutic target. This discovery paved the way to new lipid lowering drugs reducing LDL-cholesterol levels through the inhibition of PCSK9. Two anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies have received FDA and EMA approvals: Alirocumab and Evolocumab. Areas covered: This article reviews the different strategies that are pursued to modulate the functional activity of PCSK9 for lowering LDL-cholesterol levels...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Lungile Nomcebo Thwala, Veronique Préat, Noémi Stefania Csaba
Protein and peptide-based drugs are preferred therapeutics due to their specificity but are mainly administered by injection. Alternative routes for peptide delivery are preferred because of their ease of administration and increased patient compliance. Areas covered: This review provides a critical overview of current strategies for non-invasive mucosal delivery routes of therapeutic proteins and peptides, with emphasis on their advantages and limitations. Selected new trends and interesting novel formulations in advanced preclinical and clinical development stages for the pulmonary, nasal and the oral route are discussed for the most relevant peptide and protein drugs in terms of their specific requirements and intended therapeutic applications...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Mallika Dhawan, Charles J Ryan, Alan Ashworth
UNLABELLED: : Advances in DNA sequencing technology have created a wealth of information regarding the genomic landscape of prostate cancer. It had been thought that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were associated with only a small fraction of prostate cancer cases. However, recent genomic analysis has revealed that germline or somatic inactivating mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, or other genes involved in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DNA repair collectively occur in as much as 20%-25% of advanced prostate cancers...
August 2016: Oncologist
Mustapha Najimi, Florence Defresne, Etienne M Sokal
UNLABELLED: : The development of liver cell transplantation (LCT), considered a major biotechnological breakthrough, was intended to provide more accessible treatments for liver disease patients. By preserving the native recipient liver and decreasing hospitalization time, this innovative approach has progressively gained interest among clinicians. LCT initially targets inborn errors of liver metabolism, enabling the compensation of deficient metabolic functions for up to 18 months post-transplantation, supporting its use at least as a bridge to transplantation...
August 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck
UNLABELLED: After 25 years of intensive search, there is not yet a cure for cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the quest has led to major breakthroughs in understanding the basic disease defect and defining strategies to correct it. The first cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators have been introduced in clinic. Some show an impressive clinical benefit, like the potentiator ivacaftor for the 4% of patients with a class III defect. Others offer at present only a limited benefit, like the combination corrector lumacaftor plus potentiator ivacaftor for subjects homozygous for F508del...
January 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Goran Bajic, Søren E Degn, Steffen Thiel, Gregers R Andersen
The complement system is an essential element of the innate immune response that becomes activated upon recognition of molecular patterns associated with microorganisms, abnormal host cells, and modified molecules in the extracellular environment. The resulting proteolytic cascade tags the complement activator for elimination and elicits a pro-inflammatory response leading to recruitment and activation of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. Through these activities, complement functions in the first line of defense against pathogens but also contributes significantly to the maintenance of homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity...
November 12, 2015: EMBO Journal
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