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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818019/pembrolizumab-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-review-of-current-evidence
#1
Karim Rihawi, Francesco Gelsomino, Francesca Sperandi, Barbara Melotti, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Laura Casolari, Andrea Ardizzoni
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are considered one of the most important breakthroughs in cancer treatment of the past decade; notably, different studies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors have reported impressive clinical activity and durable responses in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These findings have led to the changing of the current therapeutic algorithm of advanced NSCLC, adding a new standard first-line treatment option for patients with PD-L1-positive tumors...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813639/exploitation-of-gene-expression-and-cancer-biomarkers-in-paving-the-path-to-era-of-personalized-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Hala Fawzy Mohamed Kamel, Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi
Cancer therapy agents have been used extensively as cytotoxic drugs against tissue or organ of a specific type of cancer. With the better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and cellular events during cancer progression and metastasis, it is now possible to use targeted therapy for these molecular events. Targeted therapy is able to identify cancer patients with dissimilar genetic defects at cellular level for the same cancer type and consequently requires individualized approach for treatment...
August 13, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699533/class-a-gpcrs-structure-function-modeling-and-structure-based-ligand-design
#3
Xiaojing Cong, Jérémie Topin, Jérôme Golebiowski
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), especially the class A, are the most heavily investigated drug targets in the pharmaceutical industry. Tremendous efforts have been made by both industry and academia to understand the molecular structure and function of this large family of transmembrane proteins. Our understanding in GPCR activation has evolved from the classical inactive-active two-state model to a complex view of GPCR conformational ensemble associated with multiple interacting partners such as ligands, allosteric modulators, ions and downstream signaling proteins...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637398/what-do-we-know-about-nod-like-receptors-in-plant-immunity
#4
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Peter N Dodds, Maud Bernoux
The first plant disease resistance (R) genes were identified and cloned more than two decades ago. Since then, many more R genes have been identified and characterized in numerous plant pathosystems. Most of these encode members of the large family of intracellular NLRs (NOD-like receptors), which also includes animal immune receptors. New discoveries in this expanding field of research provide new elements for our understanding of plant NLR function. But what do we know about plant NLR function today? Genetic, structural, and functional analyses have uncovered a number of commonalities and differences in pathogen recognition strategies as well as how NLRs are regulated and activate defense signaling, but many unknowns remain...
August 4, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616097/updated-report-on-tools-to-measure-outcomes-of-clinical-trials-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Dejan B Budimirovic, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Craig A Erickson, Scott S Hall, David Hessl, Allan L Reiss, Margaret K King, Leonard Abbeduto, Walter E Kaufmann
OBJECTIVE: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) has been the neurodevelopmental disorder with the most active translation of preclinical breakthroughs into clinical trials. This process has led to a critical assessment of outcome measures, which resulted in a comprehensive review published in 2013. Nevertheless, the disappointing outcome of several recent phase III drug trials in FXS, and parallel efforts at evaluating behavioral endpoints for trials in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has emphasized the need for re-assessing outcome measures and revising recommendations for FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571027/structure-and-development-of-the-list-of-prohibited-substances-and-methods
#6
Audrey Kinahan, Richard Budgett, Irene Mazzoni
The list of prohibited substances and methods (the List) is the international standard that determines what is prohibited in sport both in- and out-of-competition. Since 2004, the official text of the List is produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the international independent organization responsible for promoting, coordinating, and monitoring the fight against doping in sport. Originally based on the prohibited lists established by the International Olympic Committee, the List has evolved to incorporate new doping trends, distinguish permitted from prohibited routes of administration, and adjust to new analytical and pharmacological breakthroughs...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460549/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-brodalumab-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis
#7
REVIEW
M Galluzzo, M Talamonti, S D'adamio, L Bianchi
Psoriasis is now understood to also be under the driving influence of the IL-17/IL-23 axis, and the medical breakthrough of novel IL-17 inhibitor medications signals a paradigm shift in the way psoriatic patients are managed medically. Brodalumab, a fully human Chinese hamster ovary cell-derived immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) anti-IL-17RA monoclonal antibody, is currently the most-developed treatment that binds to the IL-17RA. The authors review and provide updates of efficacy and safety by several studies on brodalumab...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439493/targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer-new-challenges-to-fight-against-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Viviana Masoud, Gilles Pagès
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer found in women and today represents a significant challenge to public health. With the latest breakthroughs in molecular biology and immunotherapy, very specific targeted therapies have been tailored to the specific pathophysiology of different types of breast cancers. These recent developments have contributed to a more efficient and specific treatment protocol in breast cancer patients. However, the main challenge to be further investigated still remains the emergence of therapeutic resistance mechanisms, which develop soon after the onset of therapy and need urgent attention and further elucidation...
April 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337672/fentanyl-formulations-in-the-management-of-pain-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Stephan A Schug, Sonya Ting
Fentanyl is a synthetic, highly selective opioid with many desirable physicochemical properties, including a high lipophilicity and predictable pharmacokinetics. These properties have an established record in the management of pain in a variety of settings, particularly acute pain and breakthrough cancer pain. Fentanyl was initially developed for parenteral use; however, this is invasive and impractical in the outpatient setting. Unfortunately, the high first-pass metabolism of fentanyl makes oral formulations unfeasible...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277340/update-on-adrenocortical-carcinoma-management-and-future-directions
#10
Jeena Varghese, Mouhammed Amir Habra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an update on the management of and future directions in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). RECENT FINDINGS: ACC is a rare malignancy with high morbidity and mortality. Surgery remains the mainstay treatment for localized disease, but it is often not feasible in more advanced cases. There is an ongoing controversy about the routine use of adjuvant treatments after surgery. Hormonal overproduction can complicate the management and worsen the prognosis of the disease...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157822/intracranial-pressure-management-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-an-update
#11
Nino Stocchetti, Tommaso Zoerle, Marco Carbonara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring and treatment is central in the management of traumatic brain injury. Despite 4 decades of clinical use, several aspects remain controversial, including the indications for ICP and treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Two major trials tested surgical decompression and mild hypothermia as treatments for high ICP. Both were rigorous, randomized, multicenter studies, with different designs. Decompression was tested for ICP refractory to conventional treatment, whereas hypothermia was offered as an alternative to conventional medical therapy...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053160/the-24th-annual-nucleic-acids-research-database-issue-a-look-back-and-upcoming-changes
#12
Michael Y Galperin, Xosé M Fernández-Suárez, Daniel J Rigden
This year's Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research contains 152 papers that include descriptions of 54 new databases and update papers on 98 databases, of which 16 have not been previously featured in NAR As always, these databases cover a broad range of molecular biology subjects, including genome structure, gene expression and its regulation, proteins, protein domains, and protein-protein interactions. Following the recent trend, an increasing number of new and established databases deal with the issues of human health, from cancer-causing mutations to drugs and drug targets...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812991/animal-models-to-study-ampk
#13
REVIEW
Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz
AMPK is an evolutionary conserved energy sensor involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Based on biochemical studies, AMPK has brought much of interest in recent years due to its potential impact on metabolic disorders. Suitable animal models are therefore essential to promote our understanding of the molecular and functional roles of AMPK but also to bring novel information for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The organism systems include pig (Sus scrofa), mouse (Mus musculus), fly (Drosophila melanogaster), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), and fish (Danio rerio) models...
2016: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796129/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycythaemia-vera-state-of-the-art
#14
REVIEW
Imelda Marton, Zsófia Simon, Zita Borbényi
Polycythaemia vera (PV), a condition characterized by blood hyperviscosity due to the expansion of the erythrocyte mass is the most common entity among all Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Arterial and venous thrombotic events are leading determinants of morbidity and mortality but impairment of quality of life due to vasomotor symptoms (erythromelalgia, pruritus) and disease-associated symptoms (tiredness, fatigue, pruritus, night sweats, vision problems, headache, concentration loss, abdominal discomfort, early satiety, fever, weight loss) are also present...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764523/benzodiazepines-for-the-relief-of-breathlessness-in-advanced-malignant-and-non-malignant-diseases-in-adults
#15
REVIEW
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668564/overview-of-comprehensive-hepatitis-c-virus-medication-management-in-a-state-medicaid-program
#16
Pavel Lavitas, Mark Tesell, Tasmina Hydery, Bonnie C Greenwood, Mylissa Price, Kimberly Lenz, Paul Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough direct-acting antivirals set a new standard in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with regard to cure rates and improved tolerability; however, the health care system is challenged by the cost of these medications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of a comprehensive HCV medication management program on optimized regimen use, prior authorization (PA) modifications, and medication cost avoidance in a state Medicaid program. METHODS: This program consists of a 2-tiered prescriber outreach: (1) regimen outreach to promote optimized regimen selection and (2) refill outreach to support medication adherence...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615361/an-update-on-canine-feline-and-bovine-papillomaviruses
#17
REVIEW
R M Gil da Costa, M C Peleteiro, M A Pires, D DiMaio
Over recent years, a growing number of papillomaviruses have been identified, which cause a wide range of lesions in domestic and wild animals. Papillomavirus-induced lesions may have a great impact on animal health, and some diseases observed in farm animals are associated with significant economic losses. This concise review brings together recent advancements on animal papillomavirus research, providing the scientific community and veterinary practitioners with an update on this rapidly evolving field. Among others, bovine, canine and feline papillomaviruses (BPV, CPV and FcaPV) are most extensively discussed, in view of the recent discovery of new viral types and their worldwide importance for animal health...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608469/knot-optimization-for-biharmonic-b-splines-on-manifold-triangle-meshes
#18
Fei Hou, Ying He, Hong Qin, Aimin Hao
Biharmonic B-splines, proposed by Feng and Warren, are an elegant generalization of univariate B-splines to planar and curved domains with fully irregular knot configuration. Despite the theoretic breakthrough, certain technical difficulties are imperative, including the necessity of Voronoi tessellation, the lack of analytical formulation of bases on general manifolds, expensive basis re-computation during knot refinement/removal, being applicable for simple domains only (e.g., such as euclidean planes, spherical and cylindrical domains, and tori)...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519468/new-era-in-genetics-of-early-onset-muscle-disease-breakthroughs-and-challenges
#19
REVIEW
Gianina Ravenscroft, Mark R Davis, Phillipa Lamont, Alistair Forrest, Nigel G Laing
Early-onset muscle disease includes three major entities that present generally at or before birth: congenital myopathies, congenital muscular dystrophies and congenital myasthenic syndromes. Almost exclusively there is weakness and hypotonia, although cases manifesting hypertonia are increasingly being recognised. These diseases display a wide phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, with the uptake of next generation sequencing resulting in an unparalleled extension of the phenotype-genotype correlations and "diagnosis by sequencing" due to unbiased sequencing...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443209/an-update-discussion-on-the-current-assessment-of-the-safety-of-veterinary-antimicrobial-drug-residues-in-food-with-regard-to-their-impact-on-the-human-intestinal-microbiome
#20
Carl E Cerniglia, Silvia A Pineiro, Susan F Kotarski
The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria...
May 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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