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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812991/animal-models-to-study-ampk
#1
Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz
AMPK is an evolutionary conserved energy sensor involved in the regulation of energy metabolism. Based on biochemical studies, AMPK has brought much of interest in recent years due to its potential impact on metabolic disorders. Suitable animal models are therefore essential to promote our understanding of the molecular and functional roles of AMPK but also to bring novel information for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The organism systems include pig (Sus scrofa), mouse (Mus musculus), fly (Drosophila melanogaster), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), and fish (Danio rerio) models...
2016: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796129/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-polycythaemia-vera-state-of-the-art
#2
Imelda Marton, Zsófia Simon, Zita Borbényi
Polycythaemia vera (PV), a condition characterized by blood hyperviscosity due to the expansion of the erythrocyte mass is the most common entity among all Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Arterial and venous thrombotic events are leading determinants of morbidity and mortality but impairment of quality of life due to vasomotor symptoms (erythromelalgia, pruritus) and disease-associated symptoms (tiredness, fatigue, pruritus, night sweats, vision problems, headache, concentration loss, abdominal discomfort, early satiety, fever, weight loss) are also present...
October 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764523/benzodiazepines-for-the-relief-of-breathlessness-in-advanced-malignant-and-non-malignant-diseases-in-adults
#3
REVIEW
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668564/overview-of-comprehensive-hepatitis-c-virus-medication-management-in-a-state-medicaid-program
#4
Pavel Lavitas, Mark Tesell, Tasmina Hydery, Bonnie C Greenwood, Mylissa Price, Kimberly Lenz, Paul Jeffrey
BACKGROUND: Breakthrough direct-acting antivirals set a new standard in the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with regard to cure rates and improved tolerability; however, the health care system is challenged by the cost of these medications. OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of a comprehensive HCV medication management program on optimized regimen use, prior authorization (PA) modifications, and medication cost avoidance in a state Medicaid program. METHODS: This program consists of a 2-tiered prescriber outreach: (1) regimen outreach to promote optimized regimen selection and (2) refill outreach to support medication adherence...
October 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615361/an-update-on-canine-feline-and-bovine-papillomaviruses
#5
R M Gil da Costa, M C Peleteiro, M A Pires, D DiMaio
Over recent years, a growing number of papillomaviruses have been identified, which cause a wide range of lesions in domestic and wild animals. Papillomavirus-induced lesions may have a great impact on animal health, and some diseases observed in farm animals are associated with significant economic losses. This concise review brings together recent advancements on animal papillomavirus research, providing the scientific community and veterinary practitioners with an update on this rapidly evolving field. Among others, bovine, canine and feline papillomaviruses (BPV, CPV and FcaPV) are most extensively discussed, in view of the recent discovery of new viral types and their worldwide importance for animal health...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608469/knot-optimization-for-biharmonic-b-splines-on-manifold-triangle-meshes
#6
Fei Hou, Ying He, Hong Qin, Aimin Hao
Biharmonic B-splines, proposed by Feng and Warren, are an elegant generalization of univariate B-splines to planar and curved domains with fully irregular knot configuration. Despite the theoretic breakthrough, certain technical difficulties are imperative, including the necessity of Voronoi tessellation, the lack of analytical formulation of bases on general manifolds, expensive basis re-computation during knot refinement/removal, being applicable for simple domains only (e.g., such as Euclidean planes, spherical and cylindrical domains, and tori)...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519468/new-era-in-genetics-of-early-onset-muscle-disease-breakthroughs-and-challenges
#7
Gianina Ravenscroft, Mark R Davis, Phillipa Lamont, Alistair Forrest, Nigel G Laing
Early-onset muscle disease includes three major entities that present generally at or before birth: congenital myopathies, congenital muscular dystrophies and congenital myasthenic syndromes. Almost exclusively there is weakness and hypotonia, although cases manifesting hypertonia are increasingly being recognised. These diseases display a wide phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity, with the uptake of next generation sequencing resulting in an unparalleled extension of the phenotype-genotype correlations and "diagnosis by sequencing" due to unbiased sequencing...
August 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443209/an-update-discussion-on-the-current-assessment-of-the-safety-of-veterinary-antimicrobial-drug-residues-in-food-with-regard-to-their-impact-on-the-human-intestinal-microbiome
#8
Carl E Cerniglia, Silvia A Pineiro, Susan F Kotarski
The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria...
May 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441513/update-on-new-therapies-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#9
Jennifer J Peterson, Susan K Steele-Moses
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has had a long history in cancer treatment and, with recent breakthroughs, new drugs are available that have shown promising results. OBJECTIVES: The current article discusses an overview of immune function, including immunoediting and the theory of immune checkpoints, as well as specific drugs that have been approved as immune checkpoint inhibitors. Additional discussion includes a review of nursing implications and administration, side effects, adverse events, and the future of immuno-oncology...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416328/an-update-on-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-parp-1-inhibitors-opportunities-and-challenges-in-cancer-therapy
#10
Ying-Qing Wang, Ping-Yuan Wang, Yu-Ting Wang, Guang-Fu Yang, Ao Zhang, Ze-Hong Miao
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a critical DNA repair enzyme in the base excision repair pathway. Inhibitors of this enzyme comprise a new type of anticancer drug that selectively kills cancer cells by targeting homologous recombination repair defects. Since 2010, important advances have been achieved in PARP-1 inhibitors. Specifically, the approval of olaparib in 2014 for the treatment of ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations validated PARP-1 as an anticancer target and established its clinical importance in cancer therapy...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359211/proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-9-pcsk9-inhibitors-and-the-future-of-dyslipidemia-therapy-an-updated-patent-review-2011-2015
#11
Sandy Elbitar, Petra El Khoury, Youmna Ghaleb, Jean-Pierre Rabès, Mathilde Varret, Nabil G Seidah, Catherine Boileau, Marianne Abifadel
The identification by Abifadel et al. in 2003 of the first mutations of PCSK9 was the major breakthrough in the cholesterol field that led to a new therapeutic target. This discovery paved the way to new lipid lowering drugs reducing LDL-cholesterol levels through the inhibition of PCSK9. Two anti-PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies have received FDA and EMA approvals: Alirocumab and Evolocumab. Areas covered: This article reviews the different strategies that are pursued to modulate the functional activity of PCSK9 for lowering LDL-cholesterol levels...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351299/emerging-delivery-platforms-for-mucosal-administration-of-biopharmaceuticals-a-critical-update-on-nasal-pulmonary-and-oral-routes
#12
Lungile Nomcebo Thwala, Veronique Préat, Noémi Stefania Csaba
Protein and peptide-based drugs are preferred therapeutics due to their specificity but are mainly administered by injection. Alternative routes for peptide delivery are preferred because of their ease of administration and increased patient compliance. Areas covered: This review provides a critical overview of current strategies for non-invasive mucosal delivery routes of therapeutic proteins and peptides, with emphasis on their advantages and limitations. Selected new trends and interesting novel formulations in advanced preclinical and clinical development stages for the pulmonary, nasal and the oral route are discussed for the most relevant peptide and protein drugs in terms of their specific requirements and intended therapeutic applications...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317574/dna-repair-deficiency-is-common-in-advanced-prostate-cancer-new-therapeutic-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
Mallika Dhawan, Charles J Ryan, Alan Ashworth
UNLABELLED: : Advances in DNA sequencing technology have created a wealth of information regarding the genomic landscape of prostate cancer. It had been thought that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were associated with only a small fraction of prostate cancer cases. However, recent genomic analysis has revealed that germline or somatic inactivating mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, or other genes involved in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway of DNA repair collectively occur in as much as 20%-25% of advanced prostate cancers...
August 2016: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245366/concise-review-updated-advances-and-current-challenges-in-cell-therapy-for-inborn-liver-metabolic-defects
#14
Mustapha Najimi, Florence Defresne, Etienne M Sokal
UNLABELLED: : The development of liver cell transplantation (LCT), considered a major biotechnological breakthrough, was intended to provide more accessible treatments for liver disease patients. By preserving the native recipient liver and decreasing hospitalization time, this innovative approach has progressively gained interest among clinicians. LCT initially targets inborn errors of liver metabolism, enabling the compensation of deficient metabolic functions for up to 18 months post-transplantation, supporting its use at least as a bridge to transplantation...
August 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26567541/searching-for-a-cure-for-cystic-fibrosis-a-25-year-quest-in-a-nutshell
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck
UNLABELLED: After 25 years of intensive search, there is not yet a cure for cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the quest has led to major breakthroughs in understanding the basic disease defect and defining strategies to correct it. The first cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators have been introduced in clinic. Some show an impressive clinical benefit, like the potentiator ivacaftor for the 4% of patients with a class III defect. Others offer at present only a limited benefit, like the combination corrector lumacaftor plus potentiator ivacaftor for subjects homozygous for F508del...
January 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489954/complement-activation-regulation-and-molecular-basis-for-complement-related-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Goran Bajic, Søren E Degn, Steffen Thiel, Gregers R Andersen
The complement system is an essential element of the innate immune response that becomes activated upon recognition of molecular patterns associated with microorganisms, abnormal host cells, and modified molecules in the extracellular environment. The resulting proteolytic cascade tags the complement activator for elimination and elicits a pro-inflammatory response leading to recruitment and activation of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. Through these activities, complement functions in the first line of defense against pathogens but also contributes significantly to the maintenance of homeostasis and prevention of autoimmunity...
November 12, 2015: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26299994/state-of-the-art-and-future-directions-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Cindy Neuzillet, Annemilaï Tijeras-Raballand, Philippe Bourget, Jérôme Cros, Anne Couvelard, Alain Sauvanet, Marie-Pierre Vullierme, Christophe Tournigand, Pascal Hammel
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is expected to become the second cause of cancer-related death in 2030. PDAC is the poorest prognostic tumor of the digestive tract, with 80% of patients having advanced disease at diagnosis and 5-year survival rate not exceeding 7%. Until 2010, gemcitabine was the only validated therapy for advanced PDAC with a modest improvement in median overall survival as compared to best supportive care (5-6 vs 3 months). Multiple phase II-III studies have used various combinations of gemcitabine with other cytotoxics or targeted agents, most in vain, in attempt to improve this outcome...
November 2015: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26297571/expedited-programs-for-serious-conditions-an-update-on-breakthrough-therapy-designation
#18
REVIEW
Martin Kwok, Theresa Foster, Michael Steinberg
PURPOSE: Our aim was to describe the regulatory pathways made available by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to expedite the drug development and approval process, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of the Breakthrough Therapy Designation (BTD) pathway. METHODS: Published materials consisting of journal articles, press releases, government documents, and news articles from pharmaceutical publishers were identified through online databases (ie, Medline and Scopus), the FDA website, and Internet search engines (eg, Google)...
September 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26273667/recent-trends-in-therapeutic-approaches-for-diabetes-management-a-comprehensive-update
#19
REVIEW
Pragya Tiwari
Diabetes highlights a growing epidemic imposing serious social economic crisis to the countries around the globe. Despite scientific breakthroughs, better healthcare facilities, and improved literacy rate, the disease continues to burden several sections, especially middle and low income countries. The present trends indicate the rise in premature death, posing a major threat to global development. Scientific and technological advances have witnessed the development of newer generation of drugs like sulphonylureas, biguanides, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones with significant efficacy in reducing hyperglycemia...
2015: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26212387/human-autoimmune-diseases-a-comprehensive-update
#20
REVIEW
Lifeng Wang, Fu-Sheng Wang, M Eric Gershwin
There have been significant advances in our understanding of human autoimmunity that have led to improvements in classification and diagnosis and, most importantly, research advances in new therapies. The importance of autoimmunity and the mechanisms that lead to clinical disease were first recognized about 50 years ago following the pioneering studies of Macfarlane Burnett and his Nobel Prize-winning hypothesis of the 'forbidden clone'. Such pioneering efforts led to a better understanding not only of autoimmunity, but also of lymphoid cell development, thymic education, apoptosis and deletion of autoreactive cells...
October 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
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