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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149315/a-cross-sectional-study-of-malaria-endemicity-and-health-system-readiness-to-deliver-services-in-kenya-namibia-and-senegal
#1
Elizabeth H Lee, Cara H Olsen, Tracey Koehlmoos, Penny Masuoka, Ann Stewart, Jason W Bennett, James Mancuso
Despite good progress towards elimination, malaria continues to contribute substantially to the sub-Saharan African disease burden. Sustaining previous gains requires continued readiness to deliver malaria services in response to actual disease burden, which in turn contributes to health systems strengthening. This study investigates a health system innovation. We examined whether malaria prevalence, or endemicity, is a driver of health facility readiness to deliver malaria services. To estimate this association, we geo-linked cross-sectional facility survey data to endemicity data for Kenya, Namibia and Senegal...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146075/persistent-organic-pollutant-emission-via-dust-deposition-throughout-pakistan-spatial-patterns-regional-cycling-and-their-implication-for-human-health-risks
#2
Muhammad Sohail, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Joel Podgorski, Avit Kumar Bhowmik, Adeel Mahmood, Nadeem Ali, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Habib Bokhari, Heqing Shen
In the current study, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in outdoor dustfall was monitored for the first time along the Indus river system of Pakistan. Among the studied OCPs (ng/g, dry weight), DDTs (0.16-62) were the predominant contaminants identified in deposited dust followed by HCHs (0.1-10.2), HCB (0.09-7.4) and chlordanes (0.1-2.8). The indicative diagnostic ratio for DDTs and HCHs suggested recent emission of DDTs as well as historical emission of both chemicals in regions where they were used for crop protection and malarial control...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143837/development-of-a-label-free-raman-imaging-technique-for-differentiation-of-malaria-parasite-infected-from-non-infected-tissue
#3
Laura Frame, James Brewer, Rebecca Lee, Karen Faulds, Duncan Graham
During malarial infection, the host uses the spleen to clear the malaria parasites, however, the parasites have evolved the ability to bind to endothelial receptors in blood vessels of tissues to avoid removal, known as sequestration, and this is largely responsible for the symptoms and severity of infection. So a technique which could non-invasively diagnose tissue burden could be utilised as an aid for localised malaria diagnosis within tissue. Raman spectroscopy is a label-free imaging technique and can provide unique and chemically specific Raman 'fingerprint' spectrum of biological samples such as tissue...
November 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141714/falciparum-malaria-outbreak-in-sabah-linked-to-an-immigrant-rubber-tapper
#4
Saffree Mohammad Jeffree, Kamruddin Ahmed, Nazarudin Safian, Rohaizat Hassan, Omar Mihat, Khamisah Awang Lukman, Shamsul Bahari Shamsudin, Fadzilah Kamaludin
Sabah is a Malaysian state situated in the northern part of Borneo, and it is endemic for malaria. The incidence of malaria is the lowest (0.05/1,000 population) in Penampang districts of Sabah. In June 26, 2012, two Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases were notified to public health department from a village in Penampang. Immediate investigation was initiated to identify the risk factors and to institute control measures. We performed active case finding by asking household members of all houses in the village regarding malaria symptoms and by examining blood smears...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141217/th1-like-plasmodium-specific-memory-cd4-t-cells-support-humoral-immunity
#5
Ryan A Zander, Rahul Vijay, Angela D Pack, Jenna J Guthmiller, Amy C Graham, Scott E Lindner, Ashley M Vaughan, Stefan H I Kappe, Noah S Butler
Effector T cells exhibiting features of either T helper 1 (Th1) or T follicular helper (Tfh) populations are essential to control experimental Plasmodium infection and are believed to be critical for resistance to clinical malaria. To determine whether Plasmodium-specific Th1- and Tfh-like effector cells generate memory populations that contribute to protection, we developed transgenic parasites that enable high-resolution study of anti-malarial memory CD4 T cells in experimental models. We found that populations of both Th1- and Tfh-like Plasmodium-specific memory CD4 T cells persist...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138663/toluidine-blue-rapid-and-simple-malaria-parasite-screening-and-species-identification
#6
Rupali Awale, Ratnaprabha Maji, Parag Patil, Raghavendra Lingiah, Ashok Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Subhadra Sharma
Malaria, a febrile illness mostly confined to the tropical countries is transmitted by bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito. In 2015 alone, 88% of the malaria burden and 90% deaths due to malaria were confined to the African and Asian countries. Although number of tests are available for rapid diagnosis and screening for malaria, peripheral blood smear examination remains the gold standard. Leishman stain is recommended by WHO however herein we evaluate one of the alternative methods of staining which is simple and rapid...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137664/therapeutic-efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-in-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Mohammed Biset Ayalew
BACKGROUND: As Ethiopia is one of the sub-Saharan countries with a great burden of malaria the effectiveness of first line anti-malarial drugs is the major concern. The aim of this study was to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. This was done by performing a meta-analysis of recent studies conducted in the country on this topic. METHODS: Studies published between January 2010 and January 2017 that reported on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of P...
November 15, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137631/synthetic-oleanane-triterpenoids-enhance-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-improve-survival-in-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#8
Valerie M Crowley, Kodjo Ayi, Ziyue Lu, Karen T Liby, Michael Sporn, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection associated with high mortality and neurocognitive impairment in survivors. New anti-malarials and host-based adjunctive therapy may improve clinical outcome in CM. Synthetic oleanane triterpenoid (SO) compounds have shown efficacy in the treatment of diseases where inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to pathogenesis. METHODS: A derivative of the SO 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), CDDO-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA) was investigated for the treatment of severe malaria in a pre-clinical model...
November 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136773/the-potential-use-of-melatonin-to-treat-protozoan-parasitic-infections-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Ahmad Daryani, Mahbobeh Montazeri, Abdol Satar Pagheh, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Azam Hosseinzadeh, Russel J Reiter, Ramtin Hadighi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Habib Ghaznavi, Saeed Mehrzadi
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a circadian hormone produced in vertebrates by the pineal gland and other organs. Melatonin is believed to influence immune cells leading to modulation of the proliferative response of stimulated lymphocytes as well as cytokine production. Due to the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, it is suggested that this molecule could be a therapeutic alternative agent to fight bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections by a variety of mechanisms. Herein, we review the effects of melatonin on the cell biology of protozoan parasites and host's immune response...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132995/comparative-functional-potency-of-dna-vaccines-encoding-plasmodium-falciparum-transmission-blocking-target-antigens-pfs48-45-and-pfs25-administered-alone-or-in-combination-by-in-vivo-electroporation-in-rhesus-macaques
#10
Dibyadyuti Datta, Geetha P Bansal, Brooke Grasperge, Dale S Martin, Mario Philipp, Dietlind Gerloff, Barry Ellefsen, Drew Hannaman, Nirbhay Kumar
Antibodies recognizing conformational epitopes in Pfs48/45, an antigen expressed on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum gametes and zygotes, have firmly established Pfs48/45 as a promising transmission blocking vaccine (TBV) candidate. However, it has been difficult to reproducibly express Pfs48/45 in a variety of recombinant expression systems. The goal of our studies was to evaluate functional immunogenicity of Pfs48/45 using DNA vaccine format in rhesus macaques. An additional goal was to ensure that when used in combination with another malarial antigen, specific immunity to both antigens was not compromised...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132373/understanding-malaria-treatment-seeking-preferences-within-the-public-sector-amongst-mobile-migrant-workers-in-a-malaria-elimination-scenario-a-mixed-methods-study
#11
Aung Ye Naung Win, Thae Maung Maung, Khin Thet Wai, Tin Oo, Aung Thi, Rungrawee Tipmontree, Ngamphol Soonthornworasiri, Mondha Kengganpanich, Jaranit Kaewkungwal
BACKGROUND: Migration flows and the emerging resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) create programmatic challenges to meeting the AD 2030 malaria elimination target in Myanmar. The National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) targeted migrant workers based mainly on the stability of their worksites (categories 1: permanent work-setting; categories 2 and 3: less stable work-settings). This study aims to assess the migration patterns, malaria treatment-seeking preferences, and challenges encountered by mobile/migrant workers at remote sites in a malaria-elimination setting...
November 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132266/in-silico-molecular-docking-and-simulation-studies-on-novel-chalcone-and-flavone-hybrid-derivatives-with-1-2-3-triazole-linkage-as-vital-inhibitors-of-plasmodium-falciparum-dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase
#12
Mahalakshmi Thillainayagam, Kullappan Malathi, Sudha Ramaiah
The structural motifs of chalcones, flavones and triazoles with varied substitutions have been studied for the anti-malarial activity. In this study, 25 novel derivatives of chalcone and flavone hybrid derivatives with 1, 2, 3 - triazole linkage are docked with Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase to establish their inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The best binding conformation of the ligands at the catalytic site of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase are selected to characterize the best bound ligand using the best consensus score and the number of hydrogen bond interactions...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127021/severe-delayed-haemolytic-anaemia-associated-with-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-of-malaria-in-a-japanese-traveller
#13
Chihiro Hasegawa, Masaharu Kudo, Haruhiko Maruyama, Mikio Kimura
Delayed haemolytic anaemia has been reported in association with intravenous artesunate treatment in patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and furthermore, oral artemisinin-based combination therapies including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have also been incriminated. However, definite cases of delayed haemolytic anaemia associated with AL appear to be scarce, as reported cases were often treated concomitantly with other anti-malarials. In this study, we report a severe case of delayed haemolytic anaemia following AL alone in a Japanese traveller with severe parasitaemia caused by numerous P...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126742/ionic-liquid-mediated-stereoselective-synthesis-of-alanine-linked-hybrid-quinazoline-4-3h-one-derivatives-perturbing-the-malarial-reductase-activity-in-folate-pathway
#14
Tarosh S Patel, Jaimin D Bhatt, Satish F Vanparia, Urmila H Patel, Ritu B Dixit, Chaitanya J Chudasama, Bhavesh D Patel, Bharat C Dixit
Grimmel's method was optimized as well as modified leading to the cyclization and incorporation of alanine linked sulphonamide in 4-quinazolin-(3H)-ones. Further, the generation of heterocyclic motif at position-3 of 4-quinazolinones was explored by synthesis of imines, which unfortunately led to an isomeric mixture of stereoisomers. The hurdle of diastereomers encountered on the path was eminently rectified by development of new rapid and reproducible methodology involving the use of imidazolium based ionic liquid as solvents as well as catalyst for cyclization as well as synthesis of imines in situ at position-3 leading to procurement of single E-isomer as the target hybrid heterocyclic molecules...
October 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121954/temporal-variation-in-confirmed-diagnosis-of-fever-related-malarial-cases-among-children-under-5%C3%A2-years-by-community-health-workers-and-in-health-facilities-between-years-2013-and-2015-in-siaya-county-kenya
#15
Donald O Apat, John M Gachohi, Mohamed Karama, Jusper R Kiplimo, Sonia E Sachs
BACKGROUND: Malaria case management continues to experience dynamic changes. Building community capacity is instrumental in both prevention and treatment of malaria. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends utilization of well-trained and supervised community health workers (CHWs) to reduce the burden of malaria deaths among children under-5 years of age in Africa. Longitudinally-tracked information on utilization of CHWs by communities in terms of trends in diagnosis of malaria in children under-5 years of age is essential in influencing national and local malaria control policies and strategies...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121917/a-single-rapamycin-dose-protects-against-late-stage-experimental-cerebral-malaria-via-modulation-of-host-immunity-endothelial-activation-and-parasite-sequestration
#16
Pedro Mejia, J Humberto Treviño-Villarreal, Justin S Reynolds, Mariana De Niz, Andrew Thompson, Matthias Marti, James R Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive immune responses during cerebral malaria (CM) result in high mortality despite opportune anti-malarial chemotherapy. Rapamycin, an FDA-approved immunomodulator, protects against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice through effects on the host. However, the potential for reduced adaptive immunity with chronic use, combined with an incomplete understanding of mechanisms underlying protection, limit translational potential as an adjunctive therapy in CM. RESULTS: The results presented herein demonstrate that a single dose of rapamycin, provided as late as day 4 or 5 post-infection, protected mice from ECM neuropathology and death through modulation of distinct host responses to infection...
November 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114153/genetic-polymorphism-of-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-in-malarious-areas-in-southeastern-of-iran
#17
Mehdi Nateghpour, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Bahare Naderi, Zargham Sepehrizadeh
Plasmodium vivax parasite causes the largest number of malaria infection in some malarious areas of the world including Iran. Considering transfer and genetic dynamics of the parasite population in a specific area can help us to predict the spread of the infection either emergence of new cases or drug resistance in the context of elimination program in the malarious areas. Study on the genetic diversity of common alleles in a given geographical area, for vaccine and immune level studies can be important. The purpose of this study was to know the status of P...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111138/kir-like-activating-natural-killer-cell-receptors-and-their-association-with-complicated-malaria-in-north-india
#18
Swayam Prakash, Prabhat Ranjan, Ujjala Ghoshal, Suraksha Agrawal
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) genomic regions have been suggested to influence malaria pathogenesis and infection susceptibility. KIRs are known as activating natural killer (NK) cell receptors, which upon binding to their corresponding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands cause lysis of any infected cell. We have examined the potential association of KIR genes with complicated malaria (CM) among north Indians in this study and further evaluated the KIR receptor-HLA ligand association on the severity of the disease considering the uncomplicated malaria (UCM) subjects as control...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110709/the-prevalence-incidence-and-prevention-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-forest-rangers-in-bu-gia-map-national-park-binh-phuoc-province-vietnam-a-pilot-study
#19
Do Hung Son, Nguyen Thuy-Nhien, Lorenz von Seidlein, Truong Le Phuc-Nhi, Ngo Thi Phu, Nguyen Thi Kim Tuyen, Nguyen Huyen Tran, Nguyen Van Dung, Bui Van Quan, Nicholas P J Day, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White, Guy E Thwaites, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis for high-risk populations, such as forest workers, could be one component for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Sub-region. A study was conducted to assess the malaria incidence in forest rangers and the feasibility of malaria prophylaxis for rangers sleeping in forest camps. METHODS: Forest rangers deployed in the Bu Gia Map National Park, Vietnam were invited to participate in the study. Plasmodium infections were cleared using presumptive treatment, irrespective of malaria status, with a 3-day course dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DP) and a 14-day course of primaquine...
November 6, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107642/linking-epcr-binding-pfemp1-to-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#20
Anne Kessler, Selasi Dankwa, Maria Bernabeu, Visopo Harawa, Samuel A Danziger, Fergal Duffy, Sam D Kampondeni, Michael J Potchen, Nicholas Dambrauskas, Vladimir Vigdorovich, Brian G Oliver, Sarah E Hochman, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Ian J C MacCormick, Wilson L Mandala, Stephen J Rogerson, D Noah Sather, John D Aitchison, Terrie E Taylor, Karl B Seydel, Joseph D Smith, Kami Kim
Brain swelling is a major predictor of mortality in pediatric cerebral malaria (CM). However, the mechanisms leading to swelling remain poorly defined. Here, we combined neuroimaging, parasite transcript profiling, and laboratory blood profiles to develop machine-learning models of malarial retinopathy and brain swelling. We found that parasite var transcripts encoding endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)-binding domains, in combination with high parasite biomass and low platelet levels, are strong indicators of CM cases with malarial retinopathy...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
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