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Guoqing Chen, Yong Li, Wei Wang, Liping Deng
Introduction Mangosteen as a rare and precious fruit looks like a queen crown, known as "Queen of Fruit". α-Mangostin (α-MG) is the most representative xanthone isolated from the pericarp of mangosteen, possessing extensive biological activities and pharmacological properties, which can be considered as an antineoplastic agent, antioxidant, anti-proliferation and induces apoptosis in various types of human cancer cells, and has protective effect on induced apoptotic damage. Areas covered The bioactivity and pharmacological Properties of α-MG are being actively investigated by various industrial and academic institutions...
March 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Julia Berazneva, Tanya S. Byker
It is estimated that about one quarter of the global disease burden in terms of healthy life years lost and about one quarter of all premature deaths can be attributed to modifiable environmental factors (Pruss-Ustun and Corvalan 2006). Three infectious diseases--diarrhea, respiratory infections, and malaria--account for the largest absolute burden in developing countries with children facing the greatest impacts. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the health burden of air and water pollution, as well as important productivity and income effects (see, for example, reviews of the literature in Pattanayak and Pfaff 2009 and Greenstone and Jack 2016)...
May 2017: American Economic Review
Sumit Handa, Daniel R Dempsey, Divya Ramamoorthy, Nanci Cook, Wayne C Guida, Tyler J Spradling, Justin K White, H Lee Woodcock, David J Merkler
The non-mevalonate dependent (NMVA) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate is the sole source of these terpenoids for the production of isoprenoids in the apicomplexan parasites, in many eubacteria, and in plants. The absence of this pathway in higher organisms has opened a new platform for the development of novel antibiotics and anti-malarials. The enzyme catalyzing the first step of the NMVA pathway is 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXPS). DXPS catalyzes the thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg (II)-dependent conjugation of pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to form 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate and CO2 ...
2018: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Lilian O Guimarães, Francisco Fernandes, Eliana F Monteiro, Izilda Curado, Marcia M Holcman, Gerhard Wunderlich, Sidney E Santos, Júlia M Soler, Karin Kirchgatter
In low-endemic areas for malaria transmission, asymptomatic individuals play an important role as reservoirs for malarial infection. Understanding the dynamics of asymptomatic malaria is crucial for its efficient control in these regions. Genetic host factors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may play a role in the maintenance or elimination of infection. In this study, the effect of TLR polymorphisms on the susceptibility to malaria was investigated among individuals living in the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo, Southern Brazil...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Stephen Poyer, Anne Musuva, Nancy Njoki, Robi Okara, Andrea Cutherell, Dana Sievers, Cristina Lussiana, Dorothy Memusi, Rebecca Kiptui, Waqo Ejersa, Stephanie Dolan, Nicole Charman
BACKGROUND: Private sector availability and use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) lags behind the public sector in Kenya. Increasing channels through which quality malaria diagnostic services are available can improve access to testing and help meet the target of universal diagnostic testing. Registered pharmacies are currently not permitted to perform blood tests, and evidence of whether malaria RDTs can be used by non-laboratory private providers in line with the national malaria control guidelines is required to inform ongoing policy discussions in Kenya...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Karthigayan Gunalan, Amadou Niangaly, Mahamadou A Thera, Ogobara K Doumbo, Louis H Miller
Plasmodium vivax is the main cause of malarial disease in Asia and South America. Plasmodium vivax infection was thought to be absent in African populations who are Duffy blood group antigen negative (Duffy-negative). However, many cases of P. vivax infection have recently been observed in Duffy-negative Africans. This raises the question: were P. vivax infections in Duffy-negative populations previously missed or has P. vivax adapted to infect Duffy-negative populations? This review focuses on recent P. vivax findings in Africa and reports views on the parasite ligands that may play a role in Duffy-negative P...
March 9, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
P Nkoli Mandoko, V Sinou, D Moke Mbongi, D Ngoyi Mumba, G Kahunu Mesia, J Losimba Likwela, S Bi Shamamba Karhemere, L Muepu Tshilolo, J-J Tamfum Muyembe, D Parzy
OBJECTIVE: Artemisinin-based combination therapies have been available since 2005 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to treat malaria and to overcome the challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance as well as to improve access to effective treatments. The private sector is the primary distribution source for anti-malarial drugs and thus, has a key position among the supply chain actors for a rational and proper use of anti-malarial drugs. We aimed to assess access to nationally recommended anti-malarial drugs in private sector pharmacies of the capital-city of Kinshasa...
March 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Mathieu Gendrot, Francis Tsombeng Foguim, Marie Gladys Robert, Rémy Amalvict, Joel Mosnier, Nicolas Benoit, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy has emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. In areas where artemisinin resistance is emerging, the efficacy of combination is now based on partner drugs. In this context, the identification of novel markers of resistance is essential to monitor the emergence and spread of resistance to these partner drugs. The ubiquitylation pathway could be a possible target for anti-malarial compounds and might be involved in resistance...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Livia Niklaus, Rahel Wacker, Volker Heussler
Recent years have witnessed a great gain in knowledge regarding parasite-host cell interactions during Plasmodium liver stage development. It is now an accepted fact that a large percentage of sporozoite invading a hepatocyte fail to form infectious merozoites. There appears to be a delicate balance between parasite survival and elimination and we now start to understand why this is so. Plasmodium liver stages replicate within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), formed during invasion by invagination of the host cell plasma membrane...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Okiemute Rosa Johnson-Ajinwo, Imran Ullah, Haddijatou Mbye, Alan Richardson, Paul Horrocks, Wen-Wu Li
Thymoquinone (TQ), 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, a natural product isolated from Nigella sativa L., has previously been demonstrated to exhibit antiproliferative activity in vitro against a range of cancers as well as the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We describe here the synthesis of a series of analogues of TQ that explore the potential for nitrogen-substitution to this scaffold, or reduction to a hydroquinone scaffold, in increasing the potency of this antiproliferative activity against ovarian cancer cell lines and P...
February 27, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
A Aramburo, Jim Todd, Elizabeth C George, Sarah Kiguli, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Robert O Opoka, Charles Engoru, Samuel O Akech, Richard Nyeko, George Mtove, Diana M Gibb, Abdel G Babiker, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: Hyperlactataemia (HL) is a biomarker of disease severity that predicts mortality in patients with sepsis and malaria. Lactate clearance (LC) during resuscitation has been shown to be a prognostic factor of survival in critically ill adults, but little data exist for African children living in malaria-endemic areas. METHODS: In a secondary data analysis of severely ill febrile children included in the Fluid Expansion as Supportive Therapy (FEAST) resuscitation trial, we assessed the association between lactate levels at admission and LC at 8 h with all-cause mortality at 72 h (d72)...
March 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
Neha Thakre, Priyanka Fernandes, Ann-Kristin Mueller, Frederik Graw
The blood-stage of the Plasmodium parasite is one of the key phases within its life cycle that influences disease progression during a malaria infection. The efficiency of the parasite in infecting red blood cells (RBC) determines parasite load and parasite-induced hemolysis that is responsible for the development of anemia and potentially drives severe disease progression. However, the molecular factors defining the infectivity of Plasmodium parasites have not been completely identified so far. Using the Plasmodium berghei mouse model for malaria, we characterized and compared the blood-stage infection dynamics of Pb ANKA WT and a mutant parasite strain lacking a novel Plasmodium antigen, Pb maLS_05, that is well conserved in both human and animal Plasmodium parasite strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sabrin Ibrahim, Gamal A Mohamed, Rwaida A Al Haidari, Amal A El-Kholy, Mohamed F Zayed
Malaria is one of the major infectious diseases and foremost cause of mortality and morbidity in many subtropical and tropical regions. In the last years, the situation has become worse in many ways, due to increase the parasites resistance to various available antimalarial agents. Furthermore, the malaria`s control is beginning to be more sophisticated by the parallel spread of mosquito vector`s resistance to the available insecticides. Recently, there is a wide consensus to seek for target specific, safe, affordable, and effective new antimalarial agents, which can compete with synthetic ones...
March 5, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
C Bottger, L Bernard, V Briand, C Bougouma, J Triendebeogo, V Ridde
Background: In Africa, fever is the main reason for consultation, with malaria playing a prominent role. Studies have reported that the widespread use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, implemented since 2010, has revealed an increasing proportion of non-malaria acute febrile illnesses (NMAFI). It is an important public health issue because evidence shows that mortality is higher among patients presenting with non-malarial fever than among those with malaria. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the professional practices of healthcare providers in the management of NMAFI in urban and rural sites in Burkina Faso...
March 2, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Z Yao-Guang, J Li, W Zhen-Yu, C Li
Objective To optimize the application of the nested PCR method for the detection of malaria according to the working practice, so as to improve the efficiency of malaria detection. Methods Premixing solution of PCR, internal primers for further amplification and new designed primers that aimed at two Plasmodium ovale subspecies were employed to optimize the reaction system, reaction condition and specific primers of P . ovale on basis of routine nested PCR. Then the specificity and the sensitivity of the optimized method were analyzed...
April 28, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Leen Vandermosten, Thao-Thy Pham, Hendrik Possemiers, Sofie Knoops, Evelien Van Herck, Julie Deckers, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Tracey J Lamb, Chris J Janse, Ghislain Opdenakker, Philippe E Van den Steen
BACKGROUND: Malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (MA-ARDS) is a complication of malaria with a lethality rate of up to 80% despite anti-malarial treatment. It is characterized by a vast infiltration of leukocytes, microhaemorrhages and vasogenic oedema in the lungs. Previously, a mouse model for MA-ARDS was developed by infection of C57BL/6 mice with the Edinburgh line NK65-E of Plasmodium berghei. RESULTS: Here, both host and parasite factors were demonstrated to play crucial roles in the development and severity of lung pathology...
March 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Raymond Cavaliere, Danielle M Mercado, Malary Mani
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has been commonly reported by foot and ankle specialists. Marjolin's ulcer is a malignancy that involves a posttraumatic scar or ulceration that can develop into SCC from chronic neuropathic pedal wounds, venous stasis, or decubitus ulcerations. Most Marjolin's ulcers are found in the lower extremity, specifically the feet, and it is twice as common in females as males. Biopsy of the tumor is the reference standard to diagnose SCC, and wide excision of SCC is the most common treatment option...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Tao-Tao Tang, Lin-Li Lv, Ming-Ming Pan, Yi Wen, Bin Wang, Zuo-Lin Li, Min Wu, Feng-Mei Wang, Steve D Crowley, Bi-Cheng Liu
Inflammation is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), which complicates the post-operative outcomes of large numbers of hospitalized surgical patients. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a well-known anti-malarial drug, is commonly used in clinical practice for its anti-inflammatory actions. However, little is known about its role in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. In the current study, mice were subjected to I/R injury and HCQ was administered for seven days by gavage prior to surgery...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Marco J Haenssgen, Nutcha Charoenboon, Thomas Althaus, Rachel C Greer, Daranee Intralawan, Yoel Lubell
New and affordable point-of-care testing (POCT) solutions are hoped to guide antibiotic prescription and to help limit antimicrobial resistance (AMR)-especially in low- and middle-income countries where resource constraints often prevent extensive diagnostic testing. Anthropological and sociological research has illuminated the role and impact of rapid point-of-care malaria testing. This paper expands our knowledge about the social implications of non-malarial POCT, using the case study of a C-reactive-protein point-of-care testing (CRP POCT) clinical trial with febrile patients at primary-care-level health centres in Chiang Rai province, northern Thailand...
February 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Murad A Mubaraki, Mohamed Dkhil, Taghreed A Hafiz, Mona F Khalil, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Denis Delic, Kamal Elshaikh, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 106 P...
February 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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