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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777685/thiamine-preserves-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-preventing-inactivation-of-the-2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex
#1
Garik V Mkrtchyan, Muammer Üçal, Andrea Müllebner, Sergiu Dumitrescu, Martina Kames, Rudolf Moldzio, Marek Molcanyi, Samuel Schaefer, Adelheid Weidinger, Ute Schaefer, Juergen Hescheler, Johanna Catharina Duvigneau, Heinz Redl, Victoria I Bunik, Andrey V Kozlov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on the fact that traumatic brain injury is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction we aimed at localization of mitochondrial defect and attempted to correct it by thiamine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Interventional controlled experimental animal study was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury. Thiamine was administered 1 h prior to trauma; cortex was extracted for analysis 4 h and 3 d after trauma...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777221/chemokines-and-integrins-independently-tune-actin-flow-and-substrate-friction-during-intranodal-migration-of-t-cells
#2
Miroslav Hons, Aglaja Kopf, Robert Hauschild, Alexander Leithner, Florian Gaertner, Jun Abe, Jörg Renkawitz, Jens V Stein, Michael Sixt
Although much is known about the physiological framework of T cell motility, and numerous rate-limiting molecules have been identified through loss-of-function approaches, an integrated functional concept of T cell motility is lacking. Here, we used in vivo precision morphometry together with analysis of cytoskeletal dynamics in vitro to deconstruct the basic mechanisms of T cell migration within lymphatic organs. We show that the contributions of the integrin LFA-1 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 are complementary rather than positioned in a linear pathway, as they are during leukocyte extravasation from the blood vasculature...
May 18, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774638/loss-of-sirtuin-1-and-mitofusin-2-contributes-to-enhanced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-aged-livers
#3
Sung Kook Chun, Sooyeon Lee, Joseph Flores-Toro, Rebecca Y U, Ming-Jim Yang, Kristina L Go, Thomas G Biel, Catherine E Miney, Schiley Pierre Louis, Brian K Law, Mary E Law, Elizabeth M Thomas, Kevin E Behrns, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jae-Sung Kim
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a causative factor contributing to morbidity and mortality during liver resection and transplantation. Livers from elderly patients have a poorer recovery from these surgeries, indicating reduced reparative capacity with aging. Mechanisms underlying this age-mediated hypersensitivity to I/R injury remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated how sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) are affected by I/R in aged livers. Young (3 months) and old (23-26 months) male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to hepatic I/R in vivo...
May 17, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774488/the-effect-of-oxygen-in-sirt3-mediated-myocardial-protection-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-cultured-cardiomyoblasts
#4
Philipp Diehl, Daniel S Gaul, Jonas Sogl, Ulrike Flierl, Darren Henstridge, Juergen Pahla, Heiko Bugger, Maximilian Y Emmert, Frank Ruschitzka, Christoph Bode, Thomas F Lüscher, Martin Moser, Christian M Matter, Karlheinz Peter, Stephan Winnik
Sirtuin 3 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent mitochondrial deacetylase that governs mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative defense. The demise in myocardial function following myocardial ischemia has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Sirt3 maintains myocardial contractile function and protects from cardiac hypertrophy. The role of Sirt3 in ischemia is controversial. Our objective was to understand, under what circumstances Sirt3 is protective in different facets of ischemia, using an in vitro proof-of-concept approach based on simulated ischemia in cultured cardiomyoblasts...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774023/ferritin-h-deficiency-in-myeloid-compartments-dysregulates-host-energy-metabolism-and-increases-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#5
Vineel P Reddy, Krishna C Chinta, Vikram Saini, Joel N Glasgow, Travis D Hull, Amie Traylor, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Miguel P Soares, Rajhmun Madansein, Md Aejazur Rahman, Coral Barbas, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, James F George, Anupam Agarwal, Adrie J C Steyn
Iron is an essential factor for the growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) . However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the host controls iron availability during infection. Since ferritin heavy chain (FtH) is a major intracellular source of reserve iron in the host, we hypothesized that the lack of FtH would cause dysregulated iron homeostasis to exacerbate TB disease. Therefore, we used knockout mice lacking FtH in myeloid-derived cell populations to study Mtb disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773382/chitosan-polytetrafluoroethylene-composite-membranes-for-separation-of-methanol-and-toluene-by-pervaporation
#6
Siddhartha Moulik, Vani Bukke, S Chandrasekhar Sajja, Sridhar S
Present work reports the synthesis of a novel Chitosan-Polytetrafluoroethylene composite membrane with solvent resistant property for efficient separation of methanol/toluene mixture by pervaporation. The composite was crossed with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to prevent or reduce membrane swelling and improve the separation factor. The synthesized membranes were characterized by SEM, FTIR and DSC analysis. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and computational fluid dynamics were coupled to predict the structural and diffusive properties besides concentration profile inside the membrane...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768856/flux-assisted-preparation-and-photoluminescence-of-emission-tunable-sr-eu-al%C3%A2-si%C3%A2-o-8-phosphors
#7
Wei-Ren Liu, Bingfu Lei
We synthesized a emission tunable Eu(II)-activated SrAl2Si2O8 phosphors Eu(II)-activated SrAl2Si2O8 phosphors. The emission color could be controlled from blue to greenish-blue emissions via changing Sr/Eu ratio. The SrAl2Si2O8 and EuAl2Si2O8 phases were found to form a complete solid solution with composition of (Sr1-xEux)Al2Si2O8 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0), as indicated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Our research results also reveal that the use of fluxing agents of H3BO3 or LiBO2 in the materials synthesis plays a crucial role in improving the photoluminescence (PL) properties of (Sr,Eu)Al2Si2O8 phosphor and the surface morphology...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766436/effects-of-fouling-on-separation-performance-by-forward-osmosis-the-role-of-specific-organic-foulants
#8
Lei Zheng, William E Price, Long D Nghiem
In this study, forward osmosis (FO) membranes and fouling solutions were systematically characterized to elucidate the effects of organic fouling on the rejection of two pharmaceutically active compounds, namely, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine. Municipal wastewater resulted in a more severe flux decline compared to humic acid and sodium alginate fouling solutions. This result is consistent with the molecular weight distribution of these foulant solutions. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection analysis shows that municipal wastewater consists of mostly low molecular weight acids and neutrals, which produce a more compact cake layer on the membrane surface...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764852/combined-hdac-and-bromodomain-protein-inhibition-reprograms-tumor-cell-metabolism-and-elicits-synthetic-lethality-in-glioblastoma
#9
Yiru Zhang, Chiaki Tsuge Ishida, Wataru Ishida, Sheng-Fu L Lo, Junfei Zhao, Chang Shu, Elena Bianchetti, Giulio Kleiner, Maria Sanchez-Quintero, Catarina M Quinzii, Mike-Andrew Westhoff, Georg Karpel-Massler, Peter Canoll, Markus D Siegelin
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma remain a challenge in oncology in part due to tumor heterogeneity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patient-derived xenograft and stem-like glioblastoma cells were used as the primary model systems. RESULTS: Based on a transcriptome and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), we show by using clinically validated compounds that combined histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition and Bromodomain protein (BRD) inhibition results in pronounced synergistic reduction in cellular viability in patient-derived xenograft and stem-like glioblastoma cells...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763898/fgfr4-links-glucose-metabolism-and-chemotherapy-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#10
Min Xu, Shuzheng Chen, Weibin Yang, Xue Cheng, Yani Ye, Jianting Mao, Xulu Wu, Li Huang, Jiansong Ji
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Poor response to chemotherapy leads to the relapse and metastatic progression of tumors. Reprogrammed glucose metabolism is one of the important hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival, proliferation and chemoresistance. However, the precise fate of glucose metabolism and its role in therapy responsiveness in cancers remains largely unexplored. METHODS: The glycolytic phenotype of doxorubicin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cells and their parental cells was assessed by measuring glucose uptake, lactate release, and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763794/design-and-experimental-validation-of-unilateral-linear-halbach-magnet-arrays-for-single-sided-magnetic-resonance
#11
Ashvin Bashyam, Matthew Li, Michael J Cima
Single-sided NMR has the potential for broad utility and has found applications in healthcare, materials analysis, food quality assurance, and the oil and gas industry. These sensors require a remote, strong, uniform magnetic field to perform high sensitivity measurements. We demonstrate a new permanent magnet geometry, the Unilateral Linear Halbach, that combines design principles from "sweet-spot" and linear Halbach magnets to achieve this goal through more efficient use of magnetic flux. We perform sensitivity analysis using numerical simulations to produce a framework for Unilateral Linear Halbach design and assess tradeoffs between design parameters...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761433/quantification-of-soluble-sugars-and-sugar-alcohols-by-lc-ms-ms
#12
Regina Feil, John Edward Lunn
Sugars are simple carbohydrates composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They play a central role in metabolism as sources of energy and as building blocks for synthesis of structural and nonstructural polymers. Many different techniques have been used to measure sugars, including refractometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays, gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this chapter we describe a method that combines an initial separation of sugars by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with detection and quantification by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761431/carbon-atomic-survey-for-identification-of-selected-metabolic-fluxes
#13
Leonardo Perez de Souza, Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Stable-isotope-labeling experiments have become a frequently used tool to investigate different metabolic systems. They have been recently applied to several comprehensive studies in plant metabolomics providing interesting insights into metabolic dynamics and regulation. However, the complexity of mass spectrometry data originating from such experiments is rarely fully explored. Data analysis often considers metabolites in their entirety which obscures important information at the atomic level. Recently, the use of mass spectrometry fragmentation for obtaining positional-labeling information was described for a few specific metabolites...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761430/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-13-c-labeling-studies-in-plant-metabolomics
#14
Valéria F Lima, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Thomas C R Williams, Alisdair R Fernie, Danilo M Daloso
Stable-isotope labeling analysis has been used to discover new metabolic pathways and their key regulatory points in a wide range of organisms. Given the complexity of the plant metabolic network, this analysis provides information complementary to that obtained from metabolite profiling that can be used to understand how plants cope with adverse conditions, and how metabolism varies between different cells, tissues, and organs. Here we describe the experimental procedures from sample harvesting and extraction to mass spectral analysis and interpretation that allow the researcher to perform 13 C-labeling experiments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760217/temporal-manipulation-of-mitochondrial-function-by-virulent-francisella-tularensis-to-limit-inflammation-and-control-cell-death
#15
Forrest Jessop, Benjamin Schwarz, Emily Heitmann, Robert Buntyn, Tara Wehrly, Catharine M Bosio
Francisella tularensis ssp tularensis (Ftt) is a highly pathogenic intracellular bacterium that suppresses host inflammation by impairing the metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Decreased mitochondrial metabolism is central to initiating a metabolic shift to glycolysis and regulating inflammation, but Ftt manipulation of host mitochondrial function has not been explored. We demonstrate using extracellular flux analysis that Ftt infection initially improves host macrophage mitochondrial bioenergetics in a capsule dependent manner...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755743/epoxide-hydrolysis-as-a-model-system-for-understanding-flux-through-a-branched-reaction-scheme
#16
REVIEW
Åsa Janfalk Carlsson, Paul Bauer, Doreen Dobritzsch, Shina C L Kamerlin, Mikael Widersten
The epoxide hydrolase StEH1 catalyzes the hydrolysis of trans -methylstyrene oxide to 1-phenyl-propane-1,2-diol. The ( S , S )-epoxide is exclusively transformed into the (1 R ,2 S )-diol, while hydrolysis of the ( R , R )-epoxide results in a mixture of product enantiomers. In order to understand the differences in the stereoconfigurations of the products, the reactions were studied kinetically during both the pre-steady-state and steady-state phases. A number of closely related StEH1 variants were analyzed in parallel, and the results were rationalized by structure-activity analysis using the available crystal structures of all tested enzyme variants...
May 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755589/engineering-and-systems-level-analysis-of-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-for-production-of-phenazine-1-carboxamide-using-glycerol-as-the-cost-effective-carbon-source
#17
Ruilian Yao, Keli Pan, Huasong Peng, Lei Feng, Hongbo Hu, Xuehong Zhang
Background: Glycerol, an inevitable byproduct of biodiesel, has become an attractive feedstock for the production of value-added chemicals due to its availability and low price. Pseudomonas chlororaphis HT66 can use glycerol to synthesize phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), a phenazine derivative, which is strongly antagonistic to fungal phytopathogens. A systematic understanding of underlying mechanisms for the PCN overproduction will be important for the further improvement and industrialization...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754044/relating-n-2-o-emissions-during-biological-nitrogen-removal-with-operating-conditions-using-multivariate-statistical-techniques
#18
V Vasilaki, E I P Volcke, A K Nandi, M C M van Loosdrecht, E Katsou
Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N2 O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N2 O emissions, using Binary Segmentation...
April 26, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753410/hzetrn-radiation-transport-validation-using-balloon-based-experimental-data
#19
James E Warner, Ryan B Norman, Steve R Blattnig
The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752414/ligand-binding-and-activation-properties-of-the-purified-bacterial-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-sthk
#20
Philipp A M Schmidpeter, Xiaolong Gao, Vikrant Uphadyay, Jan Rheinberger, Crina M Nimigean
Cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels play several essential physiological roles. They are involved in signal transduction in photoreceptors and olfactory sensory neurons as well as pacemaking activity in the heart and brain. Investigations of the molecular mechanism of their actions, including structural and electrophysiological characterization, are restricted by the availability of stable, purified protein obtained from accessible systems. Here, we establish that SthK, a cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel from Spirochaeta thermophila , is an excellent model for investigating the gating of eukaryotic CNG channels at the molecular level...
May 11, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
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