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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445594/porcine-milk-induces-a-strengthening-of-barrier-function-in-porcine-jejunal-epithelium-in-vitro
#1
Judith Radloff, Silke S Zakrzewski, Robert Pieper, Alexander G Markov, Salah Amasheh
Milk contains a variety of components that have been shown to affect the expression and localization of epithelial tight junction proteins and therefore the intestinal barrier. Thus, we hypothesized that milk would have an effect on intestinal barrier properties, owing to effects on the tight junction in an intraspecies porcine intestinal in vitro model. Jejunal samples of piglets derived from different age groups were analyzed. Transepithelial electrical resistance was recorded employing the Ussing chamber technique...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444480/model-based-biotechnological-potential-analysis-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-central-metabolism
#2
A Pentjuss, E Stalidzans, J Liepins, A Kokina, J Martynova, P Zikmanis, I Mozga, R Scherbaka, H Hartman, M G Poolman, D A Fell, A Vigants
The non-conventional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging industrial producer for many biotechnological processes. Here, we show the application of a biomass-linked stoichiometric model of central metabolism that is experimentally validated, and mass and charge balanced for assessing the carbon conversion efficiency of wild type and modified K. marxianus. Pairs of substrates (lactose, glucose, inulin, xylose) and products (ethanol, acetate, lactate, glycerol, ethyl acetate, succinate, glutamate, phenylethanol and phenylalanine) are examined by various modelling and optimisation methods...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444347/fluxomics-links-cellular-functional-analyses-to-whole-plant-phenotyping
#3
Christophe Salon, Jean-Christophe Avice, Sophie Colombié, Martine Dieuaide-Noubhani, Karine Gallardo, Christian Jeudy, Alain Ourry, Marion Prudent, Anne-Sophie Voisin, Dominique Rolin
Fluxes through metabolic pathways reflect the integration of genetic and metabolic regulations. While it is attractive to measure all the mRNAs (transcriptome), all the proteins (proteome), and a large number of the metabolites (metabolome) in a given cellular system, linking and integrating this information remains difficult. Measurement of metabolome-wide fluxes (termed the fluxome) provides an integrated functional output of the cell machinery and a better tool to link functional analyses to plant phenotyping...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441870/protein-nanocellulose-interactions-in-paper-filters-for-advanced-separation-applications
#4
Simon Johan Gustafsson, Levon Manukyan, Albert Mihranyan
Protein-based pharmaceutics are widely explored for healthcare applications, and six out of ten best selling drugs today are biologicals. The goal of this work was to evaluate the protein nanocellulose interactions in paper filter for advanced separation applications such as virus removal filtration and bioprocessing. The protein recovery was measured for bovine serum albumin (BSA), γ-Globulin and Lysozyme using biuret total protein reagent and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the throughput was characterized in terms of flux values from fixed volume filtrations at various protein concentrations and under worst-case experimental conditions...
April 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441630/winter-to-summer-change-in-vitamin-d-status-reduces-systemic-inflammation-and-bioenergetic-activity-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#5
Emily K Calton, Kevin N Keane, Raquel Raizel, Jordan Rowlands, Mario J Soares, Philip Newsholme
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status [25(OH)D] has recently been reported to be associated with altered cellular bioenergetic profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No study has tracked the seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and its putative influence on whole body energy metabolism, cellular bioenergetic profiles, inflammatory markers and clinical chemistry. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Whole body energy metabolism and substrate utilisation were measured by indirect calorimetry...
April 13, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441282/magnetic-field-reference-levels-for-arbitrary-periodic-waveforms-for-prevention-of-peripheral-nerve-stimulation
#6
Gregory B Gajda, Stephen H Bly
Guidelines for prevention of peripheral nerve stimulation from exposure to low frequency magnetic fields have been developed by standard-setting bodies. Exposure limits or reference levels (RLs) are typically set in terms of the maximum root-mean-square amplitude of a sinusoidal waveform; however, environmental flux densities are often periodic, non-sinusoidal waveforms. This work presents a procedure for deriving RLs for any generalized periodic waveform using the empirical nerve-stimulation threshold data obtained from human volunteer MRI experiments...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440288/longitudinal-spin-seebeck-coefficient-heat-flux-vs-temperature-difference-method
#7
A Sola, P Bougiatioti, M Kuepferling, D Meier, G Reiss, M Pasquale, T Kuschel, V Basso
The determination of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) coefficient is currently plagued by a large uncertainty due to the poor reproducibility of the experimental conditions used in its measurement. In this work we present a detailed analysis of two different methods used for the determination of the LSSE coefficient. We have performed LSSE experiments in different laboratories, by using different setups and employing both the temperature difference method and the heat flux method. We found that the lack of reproducibility can be mainly attributed to the thermal contact resistance between the sample and the thermal baths which generate the temperature gradient...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435964/kinetics-of-co2-diffusion-in-human-carbonic-anhydrase-a-study-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-the-markov-state-model
#8
Gong Chen, Xian Kong, Diannan Lu, Jianzhong Wu, Zheng Liu
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, in combination with the Markov-state model (MSM), were applied to probe CO2 diffusion from an aqueous solution into the active site of human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA-II), an enzyme useful for enhanced CO2 capture and utilization. The diffusion process in the hydrophobic pocket of hCA-II was illustrated in terms of a two-dimensional free-energy landscape. We found that CO2 diffusion in hCA-II is a rate-limiting step in the CO2 diffusion-binding-reaction process. The equilibrium distribution of CO2 shows its preferential accumulation within a hydrophobic domain in the protein core region...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435456/physiological-effects-of-ac4mannaz-and-optimization-of-metabolic-labeling-for-cell-tracking
#9
Sang-Soo Han, Dong-Eun Lee, Hye-Eun Shim, Sangmin Lee, Taekhee Jung, Jung-Hwa Oh, Hyang-Ae Lee, Sung-Hwan Moon, Jongho Jeon, Seokjoo Yoon, Kwangmeyung Kim, Sun-Woong Kang
Metabolic labeling techniques are powerful tools for cell labeling, tracking and proteomic analysis. However, at present, the effects of the metabolic labeling agents on cell metabolism and physiology are not known. To address this question, in this study, we analyzed the effects of cells treated with Ac4ManNAz through microarray analysis and analyses of membrane channel activity, individual bio-physiological properties, and glycolytic flux. According to the results, treatment with 50 μM Ac4ManNAz led to the reduction of major cellular functions, including energy generation capacity, cellular infiltration ability and channel activity...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433700/isotopic-characterization-and-thermal-neutron-flux-determination-of-a-pube-neutron-source
#10
Ravi Ankit Purty, Akanchha, Shikha Prasad
The Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur) possesses a PuBe neutron source facility with an initial activity of 5 Ci, dated September 1966 (nearly 50 years ago). An understanding of the present activity and the rate of its change will allow implementation of proper radiological safety procedures and future radiological safety planning. Knowing the absolute neutron flux will help us in future neutron activation studies. These details are also important to ensure proper security precautions. In our work, we attempt to identify the isotopic composition to determine the rate of change of the source and the absolute thermal neutron flux of plutonium beryllium (PuBe) sample at IIT Kanpur...
April 5, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433208/elucidating-the-fate-of-a-mixed-toluene-dhm-methanol-and-i-propanol-plume-during-in-situ-bioremediation
#11
E Verardo, O Atteia, H Prommer
Organic pollutants such as solvents or petroleum products are widespread contaminants in soil and groundwater systems. In-situ bioremediation is a commonly used remediation technology to clean up the subsurface to eliminate the risks of toxic substances to reach potential receptors in surface waters or drinking water wells. This study discusses the development of a subsurface model to analyse the performance of an actively operating field-scale enhanced bioremediation scheme. The study site was affected by a mixed toluene, dihydromyrcenol (DHM), methanol, and i-propanol plume...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433164/characterization-and-application-of-cellulose-acetate-synthesized-from-sugarcane-bagasse
#12
R G Candido, G G Godoy, Adilson R Gonçalves
The synthesis and application of cellulose acetate (CA) from sugarcane bagasse were investigated. Firstly, cellulose was extracted by a sequential treatment with H2SO4 (10% v/v), NaOH (5% w/v), EDTA (0.5% w/V), and H2O2 (5% v/v), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (DRX). After the acetylation of the extracted cellulose, CA was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), and was applied in the membrane production...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432929/performance-testing-of-the-neutron-flux-monitors-from-10kev-to-1mev-developed-for-bnct-a-preliminary-study
#13
Xingcai Guan, Masanobu Manabe, Shingo Tamaki, Fuminobu Sato, Isao Murata, Tieshan Wang
The neutron flux monitors from 10keV to 1MeV designed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were experimentally tested with prototype monitors in an appropriate neutron field produced at the intense deuterium-tritium neutron source facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. The experimental test results and related analysis indicated that the performance of the monitors was good and the neutron fluxes from 10keV to 1MeV of practical BNCT neutron sources can be measured within 10% by the monitors.
April 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432615/fabrication-physicochemical-characterization-and-performance-evaluation-of-biodegradable-polymeric-microneedle-patch-system-for-enhanced-transcutaneous-flux-of-high-molecular-weight-therapeutics
#14
Viral Shah, Bijaya Krushna Choudhury
A revolutionary paradigm shift is being observed currently, towards the use of therapeutic biologics for disease management. The present research was focused on designing an efficient dosage form for transdermal delivery of α-choriogonadotropin (high molecular weight biologic), through biodegradable polymeric microneedles. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-based biodegradable microneedle arrays loaded with high molecular weight polypeptide, α-choriogonadotropin, were fabricated for its systemic delivery via transdermal route...
April 21, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432306/simple-rectangular-gratings-as-a-near-field-anti-reflection-pattern-for-gasb-tpv-cells
#15
Haitong Yu, Dong Liu, Zhen Yang, Yuanyuan Duan
We show theoretically that 2D rectangular gratings on the surface of GaSb can serve as an "anti-reflection" pattern for nano-gap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices, which significantly enhances near-field radiative flux from the emitter to a GaSb cell, thus improving output power and conversion efficiency. The system in this study is a 200-nm gap TPV power generation system with a planar infrared plasmonic emitter and GaSb cell. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis is used to calculate the spectral near-field radiative flux involving periodic structures...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432256/global-sensitivity-analysis-of-onguard-models-identifies-key-hubs-for-transport-interaction-in-stomatal-dynamics
#16
Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Adrian Hills, Yizhou Wang, Howard Griffiths, Virgilio Lew, Tracy Lawson, Mike R Blatt, Simon Rogers
The physical requirement for charge to balance across biological membranes means that transmembrane transport of each ionic species is inter-related, and manipulating solute flux through any one transporter will affect other transporters at the same membrane, often with unforeseen consequences. The OnGuard systems modelling platform has helped to resolve the mechanics of stomatal movements, uncovering previously unexpected behaviors of stomata. To date, however, the manual approach to exploring model parameter space has captured little formal information about the emergent connections between parameters that define the most interesting properties of the system as a whole...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431463/enhanced-ferromagnetic-interaction-in-modulation-doped-gamnn-nanorods
#17
Yuan-Ting Lin, Paritosh Vilas Wadekar, Hsiang-Shun Kao, Yu-Jung Zheng, Quark Yung-Sung Chen, Hui-Chun Huang, Cheng-Maw Cheng, New-Jin Ho, Li-Wei Tu
In this report, ferromagnetic interactions in modulation-doped GaMnN nanorods grown on Si (111) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy are investigated with the prospect of achieving a room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductor. Our results indicate the thickness of GaN layer in each GaN/MnN pair, as well as Mn-doping levels, are essential for suppressing secondary phases as well as enhancing the magnetic moment. For these optimized samples, structural analysis by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy verifies single-crystalline modulation-doped GaMnN nanorods with Ga sites substituted by Mn atoms...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431336/beam-induced-back-streaming-electron-suppression-analysis-for-an-accelerator-type-neutron-generator-designed-for-40-ar-39-ar-geochronology
#18
Cory Waltz, Mauricio Ayllon, Tim Becker, Lee Bernstein, Ka-Ngo Leung, Leo Kirsch, Paul Renne, Karl Van Bibber
A facility based on a next-generation, high-flux D-D neutron generator has been commissioned and it is now operational at the University of California, Berkeley. The current generator designed for (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of geological materials produces nearly monoenergetic 2.45MeV neutrons at outputs of 10(8)n/s. The narrow energy range is advantageous relative to the (235)U fission spectrum neutrons due to (i) reduced (39)Ar recoil energy, (ii) minimized production of interfering argon isotopes from K, Ca, and Cl, and (iii) reduced total activity for radiological safety and waste generation...
April 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429787/heat-temperature-and-clausius-inequality-in-a-model-for-active-brownian-particles
#19
Umberto Marini Bettolo Marconi, Andrea Puglisi, Claudio Maggi
Methods of stochastic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are applied to a recently introduced model of active particles. The model consists of an overdamped particle subject to Gaussian coloured noise. Inspired by stochastic thermodynamics, we derive from the system's Fokker-Planck equation the average exchanges of heat and work with the active bath and the associated entropy production. We show that a Clausius inequality holds, with the local (non-uniform) temperature of the active bath replacing the uniform temperature usually encountered in equilibrium systems...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429398/efficacy-of-passive-sampler-collection-for-atmospheric-no2-isotopes-under-simulated-environmental-conditions
#20
Justin G Coughlin, Zhongjie Yu, Emily M Elliott
RATIONALE: Nitrogen oxides or NOx (NOx  = NO + NO2 ) play an important role in air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate. The isotopic compositions of anthropogenic and natural NO2 sources are wide-ranging, and they can be used to constrain sources of ambient NO2 and associated atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds. While passive sample collection of NO2 isotopes has been used in field studies to determine NOx source influences on atmospheric deposition, this approach has not been evaluated for accuracy or precision under different environmental conditions...
April 20, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
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