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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938200/atmospheric-deposition-of-mercury-and-cadmium-impacts-on-topsoil-in-a-typical-coal-mine-city-lianyuan-china
#1
Jie Liang, Chunting Feng, Guangming Zeng, Minzhou Zhong, Xiang Gao, Xiaodong Li, Xinyue He, Xin Li, Yilong Fang, Dan Mo
Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) in the atmosphere from coal combustion emissions play an important role in soil pollution. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the atmospheric Hg and Cd deposition and to determine the influence of atmospheric deposition on Hg and Cd contents in surface soil in a typical coal mine city. Atmospheric deposition samples were collected from May 2015 to May 2016 at 17 sites located in industrial, agricultural and forest areas in the Lianyuan city. Atmospheric Hg and Cd deposition fluxes in the different land use types showed high variability...
September 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936623/acute-renal-metabolic-effect-of-metformin-assessed-with-hyperpolarised-mri-in-rats
#2
Haiyun Qi, Per M Nielsen, Marie Schroeder, Lotte B Bertelsen, Fredrik Palm, Christoffer Laustsen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin inhibits hepatic mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase, thereby increasing cytosolic lactate and suppressing gluconeogenesis flux in the liver. This inhibition alters cytosolic and mitochondrial reduction-oxidation (redox) potential, which has been reported to protect organ function in several disease states including diabetes. In this study, we investigated the acute metabolic and functional changes induced by metformin in the kidneys of both healthy and insulinopenic Wistar rats used as a model of diabetes...
September 21, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935905/impacts-of-no-tillage-management-on-nitrate-loss-from-corn-soybean-and-wheat-cultivation-a-meta-analysis
#3
Stefani Daryanto, Lixin Wang, Pierre-André Jacinthe
Although no-till (NT) has been promoted as an alternative land management practice to conventional tillage (CT), its impact on water quality, especially nitrate (NO3(-)) loss remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare NO3(-) concentration and load in NT and CT systems via two major transport pathways: runoff and leaching. Rainfall variability, aridity, soil texture, tillage duration, crop species, and fertilizer type were used as co-varying factors. In comparison to CT, NT resulted in an overall increase of runoff NO3(-) concentration, but similar runoff NO3(-) load...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935206/tlr7-8-agonists-stimulate-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-to-initiate-a-th17-deviated-acute-contact-dermatitis-in-humans
#4
Natalie Garzorz-Stark, Felix Lauffer, Linda Krause, Jenny Thomas, Anne Atenhan, Regina Franz, Sophie Roenneberg, Alexander Boehner, Manja Jargosch, Richa Batra, Nikola S Mueller, Stefan Haak, Christina Groß, Olaf Groß, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Fabian J Theis, Carsten B Schmidt-Weber, Tilo Biedermann, Stefanie Eyerich, Kilian Eyerich
BACKGROUND: A standardized human model to study early pathogenic events in psoriasis is missing. Activation of Toll-like receptor 7/8 by topical application of imiquimod is the most commonly used mouse model of psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential of a human imiquimod patch test model to resemble human psoriasis. METHODS: Imiquimod (Aldara® 5% cream) was applied twice a week onto the back of volunteers (n=18) and the development of skin lesions was monitored over a time period of four weeks...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934418/systems-biotechnology-for-protein-production-in-pichia-pastoris
#5
Richard J Zahrl, David A Peña, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella spp.) is one of the most important production systems for heterologous proteins. After the first genome sequences were published in 2009, tremendous effort was made to establish systems-level analytical methods. Methylotrophic lifestyle was one of the most thoroughly investigated topics, studied at the levels of transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux. Also the responses of P. pastoris to environmental stress conditions experienced during high cell density production processes were studied...
November 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934286/denitrification-potential-of-the-eastern-oyster-microbiome-using-a-16s-rrna-gene-based-metabolic-inference-approach
#6
Ann Arfken, Bongkeun Song, Jeff S Bowman, Michael Piehler
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a foundation species providing significant ecosystem services. However, the roles of oyster microbiomes have not been integrated into any of the services, particularly nitrogen removal through denitrification. We investigated the composition and denitrification potential of oyster microbiomes with an approach that combined 16S rRNA gene analysis, metabolic inference, qPCR of the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ), and N2 flux measurements. Microbiomes of the oyster digestive gland, the oyster shell, and sediments adjacent to the oyster reef were examined based on next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933482/structure-and-lifetimes-in-ionic-liquids-and-their-mixtures
#7
Sascha Gehrke, Michael von Domaros, Ryan Clark, Oldamur Hollóczki, Martin Brehm, Tom Welton, Alenka Luzar, Barbara Kirchner
With the aid of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the structure and dynamics of different ionic liquid systems, with focus on hydrogen bond, ion pair and ion cage formation. To do so, we report radial distribution functions, their number integrals, and various time-correlation functions, from which we extract well-defined lifetimes by means of the reactive flux formalism. We explore the influence of polarizable force fields vs. non-polarizable ones with downscaled charges (±0.8) for the example of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide...
September 21, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932219/improving-acetic-acid-production-by-over-expressing-pqq-adh-in-acetobacter-pasteurianus
#8
Xuefeng Wu, Hongli Yao, Lili Cao, Zhi Zheng, Xiaoju Chen, Min Zhang, Zhaojun Wei, Jieshun Cheng, Shaotong Jiang, Lijun Pan, Xingjiang Li
Pyrroquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) is a key enzyme in the ethanol oxidase respiratory chain of acetic acid bacteria (AAB). To investigate the effect of PQQ-ADH on acetic acid production by Acetobacter pasteurianus JST-S, subunits I (adhA) and II (adhB) of PQQ-ADH were over-expressed, the fermentation parameters and the metabolic flux analysis were compared in the engineered strain and the original one. The acetic acid production was improved by the engineered strain (61.42 g L(-1)) while the residual ethanol content (4...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930756/dynamics-of-glucose-metabolism-after-kidney-transplantation
#9
Martina Guthoff, Robert Wagner, Karoline Weichbrodt, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Nils Heyne
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) impacts patient and allograft survival after kidney transplantation. Prediabetes, which is an independent risk factor for PTDM, is modifiable also in a post-transplant setting. Understanding the risks and dynamics of impaired glucose metabolism after transplantation is a key component for targeted intervention. METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis of all adult non-diabetic renal allograft recipients (n=251, 2007-2014) was performed...
September 20, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929938/fo-md-hybrid-system-for-real-dairy-wastewater-recycling
#10
Hongwei Song, Fang Xie, Weiwei Chen, Jinrong Liu
This study investigated a forward osmosis and membrane distillation (FO/MD) hybrid system for real dairy wastewater recycling. Two types of FO membranes, cellulose triacetate embedded polyester screen support (CTA-ES) and aquaporin inside (AQP), were employed. Sodium chloride was used as the draw solution. A cross-flow FO cell and an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module were established to conduct individual FO experiments and FO/MD experiments. From the experiments, an analysis of the water flux (Jw), reverse draw solute flux (Js), Js/Jw ratio and contaminant rejection was performed...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928460/molecular-dissection-of-transcriptional-reprogramming-of-steviol-glycosides-synthesis-in-leaf-tissue-during-developmental-phase-transitions-in-stevia-rebaudiana-bert
#11
Gopal Singh, Gagandeep Singh, Pradeep Singh, Rajni Parmar, Navgeet Paul, Radhika Vashist, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Ashok Kumar, Sanatsujat Singh, Anil Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Ram Kumar Sharma
Stevia is a natural source of commercially important steviol glycosides (SGs), which share biosynthesis route with gibberellic acids (GAs) through plastidal MEP and cytosolic MVA pathways. Ontogeny-dependent deviation in SGs biosynthesis is one of the key factor for global cultivation of Stevia, has not been studied at transcriptional level. To dissect underlying molecular mechanism, we followed a global transcriptome sequencing approach and generated more than 100 million reads. Annotation of 41,262 de novo assembled transcripts identified all the genes required for SGs and GAs biosynthesis...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928003/learning-from-quantitative-data-to-understand-central-carbon-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Fumio Matsuda, Yoshihiro Toya, Hiroshi Shimizu
Quantitative analysis of metabolism has been used to identify driver reactions occurring during cancer development and bottleneck reactions in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms. In this review, we compare the advantages and disadvantages of various metabolic analysis methods. We emphasize that metabolic flux analysis based on material balance is a critical method for quantitative investigations into cell metabolism. The absolute determination of metabolite concentration appears to be essential for evaluating the thermodynamic state of metabolism...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926811/towards-better-monitoring-of-technology-critical-elements-in-europe-coupling-of-natural-and-anthropogenic-cycles
#13
Philip Nuss, Gian Andrea Blengini
The characterization of elemental cycles has a rich history in biogeochemistry. Well known examples include the global carbon cycle, or the cycles of the 'grand nutrients' nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. More recently, efforts have increased to better understand the natural cycling of technology critical elements (TCEs), i.e. elements with a high supply risk and economic importance in the EU. On the other hand, tools such as material-flow analysis (MFA) can help to understand how substances and goods are transported and accumulated in man-made technological systems ('anthroposphere')...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925251/understanding-and-predicting-the-fate-of-semi-volatile-organic-pesticides-in-a-glacier-fed-lake-using-a-multimedia-chemical-fate-model
#14
Xiaolin Wu, Cleo Lisa Davie-Martin, Christine Steinlin, Kimberly J Hageman, Nicolas J Cullen, Christian Bogdal
Melting glaciers release previously ice-entrapped chemicals to the surrounding environment. As glacier melting accelerates under future climate warming, chemical release may also increase. This study investigated the behavior of semi-volatile pesticides over the course of one year and predicted their behavior under two future climate change scenarios. Pesticides were quantified in air, lake water, glacial melt water, and stream water in the catchment of Lake Brewster, an alpine glacier-fed lake located in the Southern Alps of New Zealand...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923105/genetic-engineering-of-human-nk-cells-to-express-cxcr2-improves-migration-to-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Veronika Kremer, Maarten Ligtenberg, Rosa Zendehdel, Christina Seitz, Annet Duivenvoorden, Erik Wennerberg, Eugenia Colón, Ann-Helén Scherman-Plogell, Andreas Lundqvist
BACKGROUND: Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2...
September 19, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922372/reduction-of-organelle-motility-by-removal-of-potassium-and-other-solutes
#16
John W Murray, David Yin, Allan W Wolkoff
There are surprisingly few studies that describe how the composition of cell culture medium may affect the trafficking of organelles. Here we utilize time lapse multi-channel fluorescent imaging to show that short term exposure of Huh-7 cells to medium lacking potassium, sodium, or chloride strongly reduces but does not eliminate the characteristic back and forth and cell-traversing movement of fluorescent EGF (FL-EGF) containing organelles. We focused on potassium because of its relatively low abundance in media and serum and its energy requiring accumulation into cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921701/an-exception-among-diatoms-unique-organization-of-genes-involved-in-isoprenoid-biosynthesis-in-rhizosolenia-setigera-ccmp-1694
#17
Victor Marco Emmanuel N Ferriols, Ryoko Yaginuma-Suzuki, Kazunari Fukunaga, Takashi Kadono, Masao Adachi, Shigeki Matsunaga, Shigeru Okada
The marine diatom Rhizosolenia setigera is unique among this group of microalgae given that it is one of only a handful of diatom species that can produce highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) hydrocarbons. In our efforts to determine distinguishing molecular characteristics in R. setigera CCMP 1694 that could help elucidate the underlying mechanisms for its ability to biosynthesize HBIs, we discovered the occurrence of independent genes encoding for two isopentenyl diphosphate isomerases (RsIDI1 and RsIDI2) and one squalene synthase (RsSQS), enzymes that catalyze non-consecutive steps in isoprenoid biosynthesis...
September 15, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921534/exploring-cellular-behaviour-under-transient-gene-expression-and-its-impact-on-mab-productivity-and-fc-glycosylation
#18
Si Nga Sou, Ken Lee, Kalpana Nayyar, Karen M Polizzi, Christopher Sellick, Cleo Kontoravdi
Transient gene expression (TGE) is a methodology employed in bioprocessing for the fast provision of recombinant protein material. Mild hypothermia is often introduced to overcome the low yield typically achieved with TGE and improve specific protein productivity. It is therefore of interest to examine the impact of mild hypothermic temperatures on both the yield and quality of transiently-expressed proteins and the relationship to changes in cellular processes and metabolism. In this study, we focus on the ability of a Chinese hamster ovary cell line to galactosylate a recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) product...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918196/expression-and-purification-of-human-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporters
#19
Rebba C Boswell-Casteel, Jennifer M Johnson, Zygy Roe-Žurž, Kelli D Duggan, Hannah Schmitz, Franklin A Hays
Nucleosides play an essential role in the physiology of eukaryotes by acting as metabolic precursors in de novo nucleic acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Nucleosides also act as ligands for purinergic receptors. Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are polytopic integral membrane proteins that aid in regulating plasmalemmal flux of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleobases. ENTs exhibit broad substrate selectivity across different isoforms and utilize diverse mechanisms to drive substrate flux across membranes...
September 13, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916726/the-nqo1-bioactivatable-drug-%C3%AE-lapachone-alters-the-redox-state-of-nqo1-pancreatic-cancer-cells-causing-perturbation-in-central-carbon-metabolism
#20
Molly A Silvers, Stanislaw Deja, Naveen Singh, Robert A Egnatchik, Jessica Sudderth, Xiuquan Luo, Muhammad S Beg, Shawn C Burgess, Ralph J DeBerardinis, David A Boothman, Matthew E Merritt
Many cancer treatments, such as those for managing recalcitrant tumors like pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, cause off-target toxicities in normal, healthy tissue, highlighting the need for more tumor-selective chemotherapies. β-Lapachone is bioactivated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). This enzyme exhibits elevated expression in most solid cancers and therefore is a potential cancer-specific target. β-Lapachone's therapeutic efficacy partially stems from the drug's induction of a futile NQO1-mediated redox cycle that causes high levels of superoxide, then peroxide formation, which damages DNA and causes hyperactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), resulting in extensive NAD+/ATP depletion...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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