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Flux analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156694/pdac-derived-exosomes-enrich-the-microenvironment-in-mdscs-in-a-smad4-dependent-manner-through-a-new-calcium-related-axis
#1
Daniela Basso, Elisa Gnatta, Andrea Padoan, Paola Fogar, Sara Furlanello, Ada Aita, Dania Bozzato, Carlo-Federico Zambon, Giorgio Arrigoni, Chiara Frasson, Cinzia Franchin, Stefania Moz, Thomas Brefort, Thomas Laufer, Filippo Navaglia, Sergio Pedrazzoli, Giuseppe Basso, Mario Plebani
Tumor genetics and escape from immune surveillance concur in the poor prognosis of PDAC. In this study an experimental model was set up to verify whether SMAD4, deleted in about 55% PDAC and associated with poor prognosis, is involved in determining immunosuppression through Exosomes (Exo). Potential mechanisms and mediators underlying SMAD4-dependent immunosuppression were evaluated by studying intracellular calcium (Fluo-4), Exo-miRNAs (microarray) and Exo-proteins (SILAC). Two PDAC cell lines expressing (BxPC3-SMAD4+) or not-expressing (BxPC3) SMAD4 were used to prepare Exo-enriched conditioned media, employed in experiments with blood donors PBMCs...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156269/autotrophic-denitrification-supported-by-biotite-dissolution-in-crystalline-aquifers-2-transient-mixing-and-denitrification-dynamic-during-long-term-pumping
#2
Clément Roques, Luc Aquilina, Alexandre Boisson, Virginie Vergnaud-Ayraud, Thierry Labasque, Laurent Longuevergne, Marc Laurencelle, Alexis Dufresne, Jean-Raynald de Dreuzy, Hélène Pauwels, Olivier Bour
We investigated the mixing and dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the crystalline aquifer of Ploemeur (Brittany, France). Hydrological and geochemical parameters have been continuously recorded over 15 boreholes in 5km(2) on a 25-year period. This extensive spatial and temporal monitoring of conservative as well as reactive compounds is a key opportunity to identify aquifer-scale transport and reactive processes in crystalline aquifers. Time series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer on the basis of a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151887/an-accurate-description-of-aspergillus-niger-organic-acid-batch-fermentation-through-dynamic-metabolic-modelling
#3
Daniel J Upton, Simon J McQueen-Mason, A Jamie Wood
Background: Aspergillus niger fermentation has provided the chief source of industrial citric acid for over 50 years. Traditional strain development of this organism was achieved through random mutagenesis, but advances in genomics have enabled the development of genome-scale metabolic modelling that can be used to make predictive improvements in fermentation performance. The parent citric acid-producing strain of A. niger, ATCC 1015, has been described previously by a genome-scale metabolic model that encapsulates its response to ambient pH...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150589/change-in-hydration-indices-associated-with-an-increase-in-total-water-intake-of-more-than-0-5%C3%A2-l-day-sustained-over-4%C3%A2-weeks-in-healthy-young-men-with-initial-total-water-intake-below-2%C3%A2-l-day
#4
Jodi D Stookey, Janice Hamer, David W Killilea
This secondary data analysis addressed gaps in knowledge about effects of chronic water intake. Longitudinal data from the Adapt Study were used to describe effects of prescribing a sustained increase in water intake relative to baseline, for 4 weeks, on multiple indices of total body water (TBW) flux, regulation, distribution, and volume in five healthy, free-living, young men, with mean total water intake initially below 2 L/day. Indices were measured weekly. Within-person fixed effect models tested for significant changes in indices over time and associations between changes in indices...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150548/defense-against-reactive-carbonyl-species-involves-at-least-three-subcellular-compartments-where-individual-components-of-the-system-respond-to-cellular-sugar-status
#5
Jessica Schmitz, Isabell C Dittmar, Jörn D Brockmann, Marc Schmidt, Meike Hüdig, Alessandro W Rossoni, Veronica G Maurino
Methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO) are toxic reactive carbonyl species generated as by-products of glycolysis. The pre-emption pathway for detoxification of these products, the glyoxalase (GLX) system, involves two consecutive reactions catalyzed by GLXI and GLXII. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the GLX system is encoded by three homologs of GLXI and three homologs of GLXII, from which several predicted GLXI and GLXII isoforms can be derived through alternative splicing. We identified the physiologically relevant splice forms using sequencing data and demonstrated that the resulting isoforms have different subcellular localizations...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149710/prevalence-and-sources-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-the-atmospheric-environment-of-lake-victoria-east-africa
#6
Kenneth Arinaitwe, Derek C G Muir, Bernard T Kiremire, Phil Fellin, Henrik Li, Camilla Teixeira, Drake N Mubiru
The large surface area of Lake Victoria (about 68,800 km(2)) makes it vulnerable to high atmospheric deposition of chemical pollutants. We present measurements of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the lake's atmospheric environment. High volume air (24 h) samples were collected within the northern Lake Victoria watershed in Uganda over two periods; 1999-2004 [at Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB)] and 2008-2010 (at EBB only). Precipitation samples were also collected monthly during the 2008-2010 period at EBB...
November 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149673/the-feasibility-of-nanofiltration-membrane-bioreactor-nf-mbr-reverse-osmosis-ro-process-for-water-reclamation-comparison-with-ultrafiltration-membrane-bioreactor-uf-mbr-ro-process
#7
Ming Feng Tay, Chang Liu, Emile R Cornelissen, Bing Wu, Tzyy Haur Chong
This study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m(2)h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149574/transscleral-passive-and-iontophoretic-transport-theory-and-analysis
#8
S Kevin Li, Jinsong Hao
INTRODUCTION: The sclera is considered the "static barrier," a main barrier for transscleral drug delivery. The characterization of passive and iontophoretic transport across the sclera in vitro is the first step towards our ability to predict transscleral drug delivery. Although previous studies have investigated this topic, the quantitative structure permeation relationships (QSPR) for passive and iontophoretic transscleral transport are not available. AREAS COVERED: This review evaluated previous passive permeation and iontophoresis results of transscleral transport in vitro and examined QSPR for transscleral permeation of small permeants and macromolecules...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147021/genome-scale-modeling-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-leuconostoc-mesenteroides-unravel-the-redox-governed-metabolic-states-in-obligate-heterofermentative-lactic-acid-bacteria
#9
Lokanand Koduru, Yujin Kim, Jeongsu Bang, Meiyappan Lakshmanan, Nam Soo Han, Dong-Yup Lee
Obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-known for their beneficial health effects in humans. To delineate the incompletely characterized metabolism that currently limits their exploitation, at systems-level, we developed a genome-scale metabolic model of the representative obligate heterofermenting LAB, Leuconostoc mesenteroides (iLME620). Constraint-based flux analysis was then used to simulate several qualitative and quantitative phenotypes of L. mesenteroides, thereby evaluating the model validity...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144304/low-energy-consumption-vortex-wave-flow-membrane-bioreactor
#10
Zhiqiang Wang, Weilong Dong, Xiaohong Hu, Tianyu Sun, Tao Wang, Youshan Sun
In order to reduce the energy consumption and membrane fouling of the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), a kind of low energy consumption vortex wave flow MBR was exploited based on the combination of biofilm process and membrane filtration process, as well as the vortex wave flow technique. The experimental results showed that the vortex wave flow state in the membrane module could be formed when the Reynolds number (Re) of liquid was adjusted between 450 and 1,050, and the membrane flux declined more slowly in the vortex wave flow state than those in the laminar flow state and turbulent flow state...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142823/investigation-of-useful-carbon-tracers-for-13-c-metabolic-flux-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-by-considering-five-experimentally-determined-flux-distributions
#11
Kousuke Maeda, Nobuyuki Okahashi, Yoshihiro Toya, Fumio Matsuda, Hiroshi Shimizu
The (13)C-MFA experiments require an optimal design since the precision or confidence intervals of the estimated flux levels depends on factors such as the composition of (13)C-labeled carbon sources, as well as the metabolic flux distribution of interest. In this study, useful compositions of (13)C-labeled glucose for (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA) of Escherichia coli are investigated using a computer simulation of the stable isotope labeling experiment. Following the generation of artificial mass spectra datasets of amino acid fragments using five literature-reported flux distributions of E...
December 2016: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142819/liposomes-modified-with-cardiolipin-can-act-as-a-platform-to-regulate-the-potential-flux-of-nadp-dependent-isocitrate-dehydrogenase
#12
Keishi Suga, Akari Hamasaki, Junpei Chinzaka, Hiroshi Umakoshi
Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid found in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) and inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) in animal cells. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) is an important catalytic enzyme that is localized at the cytosol and mitochondria; the metabolic pathway catalyzed by ICDH differs between the OMM and IMM. To estimate the possible role of lipid membrane in the enzymatic activity of NADP(+)-dependent ICDH, CL-modified liposomes were prepared using CL/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/cholesterol (Ch), and their characteristics were analyzed based on the fluorescent probe method...
December 2016: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142326/complex-organic-molecules-in-strongly-uv-irradiated-gas
#13
S Cuadrado, J R Goicoechea, J Cernicharo, A Fuente, J Pety, B Tercero
We investigate the presence of complex organic molecules (COMs) in strongly UV-irradiated interstellar molecular gas. We have carried out a complete millimetre (mm) line survey using the IRAM 30 m telescope towards the edge of the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR), close to the H2 dissociation front, a position irradiated by a very intense far-UV (FUV) radiation field. These observations have been complemented with 8.5″ resolution maps of the H2CO JKa,Kc = 51,5 → 41,4 and C(18)O J = 3 → 2 emission at 0...
July 2017: Astronomy and Astrophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137184/cell-type-specific-metabolic-flux-analysis-a-challenge-for-metabolic-phenotyping-and-a-potential-solution-in-plants
#14
Merja T Rossi, Monika Kalde, Chaiyakorn Srisakvarakul, Nicholas J Kruger, R George Ratcliffe
Stable isotope labelling experiments are used routinely in metabolic flux analysis (MFA) to determine the metabolic phenotype of cells and tissues. A complication arises in multicellular systems because single cell measurements of transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes in multicellular organisms suggest that the metabolic phenotype will differ between cell types. In silico analysis of simulated metabolite isotopomer datasets shows that cellular heterogeneity confounds conventional MFA because labelling data averaged over multiple cell types does not necessarily yield averaged flux values...
November 13, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136931/understanding-regulation-in-substrate-dependent-modulation-of-growth-and-production-of-alcohols-in-clostridium-sporogenes-ncim-2918-through-metabolic-network-reconstruction-and-flux-balance-analysis
#15
Mehak Kaushal, K Venkata Narayana Chary, Saumya Ahlawat, Basavaraj Palabhanvi, Gargi Goswami, Debasish Das
Flux Balance Analysis was performed for Clostridium sporogenes NCIM 2918 grown on sole glucose and glycerol or glucose-glycerol combinations at varied concentrations. During acidogenesis, glucose and glucose-glycerol combinations favored improved growth and butyric acid production. Glycerol fermentation was however marked by reduced growth and predominant ethanol synthesis. Further, with increase of glycerol fraction in glucose-glycerol blend, flux towards ethanol synthesis linearly increased with simultaneous decrease in butanol flux...
November 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136193/early-first-trimester-uteroplacental-flow-and-the-progressive-disintegration-of-spiral-artery-plugs-new-insights-from-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-and-tissue-histopathology
#16
V H J Roberts, T K Morgan, P Bednarek, M Morita, G J Burton, J O Lo, A E Frias
STUDY QUESTION: Does the use of a vascular contrast agent facilitate earlier detection of maternal flow to the placental intervillous space (IVS) in the first trimester of pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Microvascular filling of the IVS was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced ultrasound from 6 weeks of gestation onwards, earlier than previously believed. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: During placental establishment and remodeling of maternal spiral arteries, endovascular trophoblast cells invade and accumulate in the lumen of these vessels to form 'trophoblast plugs'...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134458/animal-cell-expression-systems
#17
M Butler, Ing U Reichl
The glycan profile of therapeutic recombinant proteins such as monoclonal antibodies is a critical quality attribute, which affects the efficacy of the final product. The cellular glycosylation process during protein expression is dependent upon a number of factors such as the availability of substrates in the media, the intracellular content of nucleotide sugars, and the enzyme repertoire of the host cells. In order to control the variability of glycosylation it is important to understand the critical process parameters and their acceptable range of values to enable reproducible production of proteins with a predetermined glycan profile providing the desired biological function or therapeutic effect...
October 3, 2017: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133820/early-postnatal-cardiomyocyte-proliferation-requires-high-oxidative-energy-metabolism
#18
Ana Elisa Teófilo Saturi de Carvalho, Vinícius Bassaneze, Maria Fernanda Forni, Aline Alfonso Keusseyan, Alicia Juliana Kowaltowski, José Eduardo Krieger
Cardiac energy metabolism must cope with early postnatal changes in tissue oxygen tensions, hemodynamics, and cell proliferation to sustain development. Here, we tested the hypothesis that proliferating neonatal cardiomyocytes are dependent on high oxidative energy metabolism. We show that energy-related gene expression does not correlate with functional oxidative measurements in the developing heart. Gene expression analysis suggests a gradual overall upregulation of oxidative-related genes and pathways, whereas functional assessment in both cardiac tissue and cultured cardiomyocytes indicated that oxidative metabolism decreases between the first and seventh days after birth...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131522/when-do-two-stage-processes-outperform-one-stage-processes
#19
Steffen Klamt, Radhakrishnan Mahadevan, Oliver Hädicke
Apart from product yield and titer, volumetric productivity is a key performance indicator for many biotechnological processes. Due to the inherent trade-off between the production of biomass as catalyst and of the actual target product, yield and volumetric productivity cannot be optimized simultaneously. Therefore, in combination with genetic techniques for dynamic regulation of metabolic fluxes, two-stage fermentations (TSFs) with separated growth and production phase have recently gained much interest because of their potential to improve the productivity of bioprocesses while still allowing high product yields...
November 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127598/gaba-uptake-inhibition-reduces-in-vivo-extraction-fraction-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-of-long-evans-rats-measured-by-quantitative-microdialysis-under-transient-conditions
#20
Shannon L Zandy, Rueben A Gonzales
Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
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