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Plant Flux analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811563/crosstalk-between-diurnal-rhythm-and-water-stress-reveals-an-altered-primary-carbon-flux-into-soluble-sugars-in-drought-treated-rice-leaves
#1
Seo-Woo Kim, Sang-Kyu Lee, Hee-Jeong Jeong, Gynheung An, Jong-Seong Jeon, Ki-Hong Jung
Plants retain rhythmic physiological responses when adapting to environmental challenges. However, possible integrations between drought conditions and those responses have not received much focus, especially regarding crop plants, and the relationship between abiotic stress and the diurnal cycle is generally not considered. Therefore, we conducted a genome-wide analysis to identify genes showing both diurnal regulation and water-deficiency response in rice (Oryza sativa). Among the 712 drought-responsive genes primary identified, 56...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795660/systems-and-synthetic-biology-perspective-of-the-versatile-plant-pathogenic-and-polysaccharide-producing-bacterium-xanthomonas-campestris
#2
Sarah Schatschneider, Jessica Schneider, Jochen Blom, Fabien Létisse, Karsten Niehaus, Alexander Goesmann, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter
Bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas are a major group of plant pathogens. They are hazardous to important crops and closely related to human pathogens. Being collectively a major focus of molecular phytopathology, an increasing number of diverse and intricate mechanisms are emerging by which they communicate, interfere with host signalling and keep competition at bay. Interestingly, they are also biotechnologically relevant polysaccharide producers. Systems biotechnology techniques have revealed their central metabolism and a growing number of remarkable features...
August 10, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759847/photosynthetic-properties-of-spring-geophytes-assessed-by-chlorophyll-fluorescence-analysis
#3
Irene Recchia, Francesca Sparla, Paolo Pupillo
Since spring ephemerals are credited to be all "sun" species with unusually elevate photosynthesis, in contrast to shade-tolerant trees and understory geophytes with a long aboveground cycle, we examined the photosynthetic efficiency of 6 woody species, 9 long-cycle geophytes, and 8 spring ephemeral geophytes using blue flashes of increasing energy with the Imaging PAM fluorometer. Several parameters were obtained: quantum yield of electron transport (ΦETR) or of PSII (ΦPSII), maximum measured photosynthesis rate (ETRhv), maximum extrapolated rate of photosynthesis (ETRem), half-saturating photon flux density (KPAR), and in some cases photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ)...
July 24, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742257/dynamic-carboniferous-tropical-forests-new-views-of-plant-function-and-potential-for-physiological-forcing-of-climate
#4
REVIEW
Jonathan P Wilson, Isabel P Montañez, Joseph D White, William A DiMichele, Jennifer C McElwain, Christopher J Poulsen, Michael T Hren
Contents 1333 I. 1334 II. 1335 III. 1339 IV. 1344 V. 1347 VI. 1347 1348 1348 References 1348 SUMMARY: The Carboniferous, the time of Earth's penultimate icehouse and widespread coal formation, was dominated by extinct lineages of early-diverging vascular plants. Studies of nearest living relatives of key Carboniferous plants suggest that their physiologies and growth forms differed substantially from most types of modern vegetation, particularly forests. It remains a matter of debate precisely how differently and to what degree these long-extinct plants influenced the environment...
September 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729868/the-c4-model-grass-setaria-is-a-short-day-plant-with-secondary-long-day-genetic-regulation
#5
Andrew N Doust, Margarita Mauro-Herrera, John G Hodge, Jessica Stromski
The effect of photoperiod (day:night ratio) on flowering time was investigated in the wild species, Setaria viridis, and in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis). Photoperiods totaled 24 h, with three trials of 8:16, 12:12 and 16:8 light:dark hour regimes for the RIL population, and these plus 10:14 and 14:10 for the experiments with S. viridis alone. The response of S. viridis to light intensity as well as photoperiod was assessed by duplicating photoperiods at two light intensities (300 and 600 μmol...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725384/emissions-of-methane-from-northern-peatlands-a-review-of-management-impacts-and-implications-for-future-management-options
#6
REVIEW
Mohamed Abdalla, Astley Hastings, Jaak Truu, Mikk Espenberg, Ülo Mander, Pete Smith
Northern peatlands constitute a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH 4). However, management of undisturbed peatlands, as well as the restoration of disturbed peatlands, will alter the exchange of CH 4 with the atmosphere. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to collate and analyze published studies to improve our understanding of the factors that control CH 4 emissions and the impacts of management on the gas flux from northern (latitude 40° to 70°N) peatlands. The analysis includes a total of 87 studies reporting measurements of CH 4 emissions taken at 186 sites covering different countries, peatland types, and management systems...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711849/fertilizer-efficiency-in-wheat-is-reduced-by-ozone-pollution
#7
Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills, Håkan Pleijel
Inefficient use of fertilizers by crops increases the risk of nutrient leaching from agro-ecosystems, resulting in economic loss and environmental contamination. We investigated how ground-level ozone affects the efficiency by which wheat used applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer to produce grain protein (NEP, N efficiency with respect to protein yield) and grain yield (NEY, N efficiency with respect to grain yield) across a large number of open-top chamber field experiments. Our results show significant negative ozone effects on NEP and NEY, both for a larger data set obtained from data mining (21 experiments, 70 treatments), and a subset of data for which stomatal ozone flux estimates were available (7 experiments, 22 treatments)...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672206/membrane-fouling-characteristics-and-mitigation-in-a-coagulation-assisted-microfiltration-process-for-municipal-wastewater-pretreatment
#8
Bao-Cheng Huang, Yan-Fang Guan, Wei Chen, Han-Qing Yu
Maximizing the energy-profitable treatment of municipal wastewater (MW) is of significance to achieve energy-neutral operation for wastewater treatment plant. Direct membrane filtration technology has been considered as an effective way to separate organic carbon from MW for subsequent anaerobic energy-recovering process, but its application is restrained by severe membrane fouling issues. Thus, it is essential to identify the substances in MW that are responsible for membrane fouling and find out efficient anti-fouling methods...
June 29, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668601/application-of-high-temperature-phase-change-materials-for-improved-efficiency-in-waste-to-energy-plants
#9
Fabio Dal Magro, Haoxin Xu, Gioacchino Nardin, Alessandro Romagnoli
This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency...
June 28, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658609/postharvest-changes-in-lin5-down-regulated-plants-suggest-a-role-for-sugar-deficiency-in-cuticle-metabolism-during-ripening
#10
José G Vallarino, Trevor H Yeats, Eugenia Maximova, Jocelyn K Rose, Alisdair R Fernie, Sonia Osorio
The cell wall invertase gene (LIN5) was reported to be a key enzyme influencing sugar uptake of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. It was additionally revealed to be a key regulator of total soluble solids content in fruit as well as for reproductive development, being mainly involved in flower development, early fruit and seed development but also in ripening. Here, we demonstrate that silencing of the LIN5 gene promotes changes affecting fruit cuticle development which has a direct effect on postharvest properties...
June 25, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642707/tetrandrine-an-activator-of-autophagy-induces-autophagic-cell-death-via-pkc-%C3%AE-inhibition-and-mtor-dependent-mechanisms
#11
Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Wu Zeng, Juan Chen, Xiao Jun Yao, Elaine Lai Han Leung, Qian Qian Wang, Pauline Chiu, Ben C B Ko, Betty Yuen Kwan Law
Emerging evidence suggests the therapeutic role of autophagic modulators in cancer therapy. This study aims to identify novel traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as potential anti-tumor agents through autophagic induction, which finally lead to autophagy mediated-cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Using bioactivity-guided purification, we identified tetrandrine (Tet) from herbal plant, Radix stephaniae tetrandrae, as an inducer of autophagy. Across a number of cancer cell lines, we found that breast cancer cells treated with tetrandrine show an increase autophagic flux and formation of autophagosomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629120/metabolomics-characterization-of-two-apocynaceae-plants-catharanthus-roseus-and-vinca-minor-using-gc-ms-and-lc-ms-methods-in-combination
#12
Qi Chen, Xueyan Lu, Xiaorui Guo, Qingxi Guo, Dewen Li
Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) and Vinca minor (V. minor) are two common important medical plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this study, we used non-targeted GC-MS and targeted LC-MS metabolomics to dissect the metabolic profile of two plants with comparable phenotypic and metabolic differences. A total of 58 significantly different metabolites were present in different quantities according to PCA and PLS-DA score plots of the GC-MS analysis. The 58 identified compounds comprised 16 sugars, eight amino acids, nine alcohols and 18 organic acids...
June 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625541/plant-derived-antifungal-compounds-trigger-a-common-transcriptional-response
#13
Zhe Wang
Understanding the mechanism of action of antifungal drugs is vital for better control of mycosis, which kills >1.3 million lives every year thus remains a major health problem worldwide. In this study, we investigate the activities of three different categories of plant-derived antifungal compounds (resveratrol, honokiol and osthole) via transcriptomics and bioinformatics analysis, with the goal of discovering the common Mode-of-Action (MoA) at molecular level. The result shows that a common transcriptional response (72 gene are up-regulated while 10 genes are down-regulated, commonly) are triggered by above representative antifungal compounds in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S...
June 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614594/linkages-of-plant-stoichiometry-to-ecosystem-production-and-carbon-fluxes-with-increasing-nitrogen-inputs-in-an-alpine-steppe
#14
Yunfeng Peng, Fei Li, Guoying Zhou, Kai Fang, Dianye Zhang, Changbin Li, Guibiao Yang, Guanqin Wang, Jun Wang, Yuanhe Yang
Unprecedented levels of nitrogen (N) have entered terrestrial ecosystems over the past century, which substantially influences the carbon (C) exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere. Temperature and moisture are generally regarded as the major controllers over the N effects on ecosystem C uptake and release. N-phosphorous (P) stoichiometry regulates the growth and metabolisms of plants and soil organisms, thereby affecting many ecosystem C processes. However, it remains unclear how the N-induced shift in the plant N:P ratio affects ecosystem production and C fluxes and its relative importance...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605605/nanosensor-technology-applied-to-living-plant-systems
#15
REVIEW
Seon-Yeong Kwak, Min Hao Wong, Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew, Gili Bisker, Michael A Lee, Amir Kaplan, Juyao Dong, Albert Tianxiang Liu, Volodymyr B Koman, Rosalie Sinclair, Catherine Hamann, Michael S Strano
An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathways and metabolism that are nondestructive, minimally invasive, and capable of real-time analysis. This review outlines the recent advances in nanotechnology that enable these platforms, including the measurement of chemical fluxes even at the single-molecule level...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596620/respiratory-oxygen-consumption-in-the-seagrass-zostera-marina-varies-on-a-diel-basis-and-is-partly-affected-by-light
#16
Lina M Rasmusson, Chiara Lauritano, Gabriele Procaccini, Martin Gullström, Pimchanok Buapet, Mats Björk
The seagrass Zostera marina is an important marine ecosystem engineer, greatly influencing oxygen and carbon fluctuations in temperate coastal areas. Although photosynthetically driven gas fluxes are well studied, the impact of the plant's mitochondrial respiration on overall CO2 and O2 fluxes in marine vegetated areas is not yet understood. Likewise, the gene expression in relation to the respiratory pathway has not been well analyzed in seagrasses. This study uses a combined approach, studying respiratory oxygen consumption rates in darkness simultaneously with changes in gene expression, with the aim of examining how respiratory oxygen consumption fluctuates on a diel basis...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596613/effect-of-climate-warming-on-the-annual-terrestrial-net-ecosystem-co2-exchange-globally-in-the-boreal-and-temperate-regions
#17
Zhiyuan Zhang, Renduo Zhang, Alessandro Cescatti, Georg Wohlfahrt, Nina Buchmann, Juan Zhu, Guanhong Chen, Fernando Moyano, Jukka Pumpanen, Takashi Hirano, Kentaro Takagi, Lutz Merbold
The net ecosystem CO2 exchange is the result of the imbalance between the assimilation process (gross primary production, GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE). The aim of this study was to investigate temperature sensitivities of these processes and the effect of climate warming on the annual terrestrial net ecosystem CO2 exchange globally in the boreal and temperate regions. A database of 403 site-years of ecosystem flux data at 101 sites in the world was collected and analyzed. Temperature sensitivities of rates of RE and GPP were quantified with Q 10, defined as the increase of RE (or GPP) rates with a temperature rise of 10 °C...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559925/integrated-analysis-of-454-and-illumina-transcriptomic-sequencing-characterizes-carbon-flux-and-energy-source-for-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-developing-lindera-glauca-fruits-for-woody-biodiesel
#18
Zixin Lin, Jiyong An, Jia Wang, Jun Niu, Chao Ma, Libing Wang, Guanshen Yuan, Lingling Shi, Lili Liu, Jinsong Zhang, Zhixiang Zhang, Ji Qi, Shanzhi Lin
BACKGROUND: Lindera glauca fruit with high quality and quantity of oil has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of carbon flux and energy source for oil biosynthesis in developing fruits is still unknown. To better develop fruit oils of L. glauca as woody biodiesel, a combination of two different sequencing platforms (454 and Illumina) and qRT-PCR analysis was used to define a minimal reference transcriptome of developing L...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554116/riparian-vegetation-in-the-alpine-connectome-terrestrial-aquatic-and-terrestrial-terrestrial-interactions
#19
Dragos G Zaharescu, Antonio Palanca-Soler, Peter S Hooda, Catalin Tanase, Carmen I Burghelea, Richard N Lester
Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546437/in-vitro-characterization-of-thermostable-cam-rubisco-activase-reveals-a-rubisco-interacting-surface-loop
#20
Devendra Shivhare, Oliver Mueller-Cajar
To maintain metabolic flux through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle in higher plants, dead-end inhibited complexes of Rubisco must constantly be engaged and remodeled by the molecular chaperone Rubisco activase (Rca). In C3 plants, the thermolability of Rca is responsible for the deactivation of Rubisco and reduction of photosynthesis at moderately elevated temperatures. We reasoned that crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants must possess thermostable Rca to support Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle flux during the day when stomata are closed...
July 2017: Plant Physiology
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