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Plant Flux analysis

Darragh Mullins, Derek Coburn, Louise Hannon, Edward Jones, Eoghan Clifford, Martin Glavin
Wastewater treatment facilities are continually challenged to meet both environmental regulations and reduce running costs (particularly energy and staffing costs). Improving the efficiency of operational monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires the development and implementation of appropriate performance metrics; particularly those that are easily measured, strongly correlate to WWTP performance, and can be easily automated, with a minimal amount of maintenance or intervention by human operators...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Chunyan Jiao, Cheng Song, Siyan Zheng, Yingpeng Zhu, Qing Jin, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale . Based on the published genomic and transcriptomic data, a proposed terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis pathway may be present in D. officinale . In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with a high-yielding production of alkaloids were obtained by the optimization of tryptophan, secologanin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The results showed that the total alkaloid content was 2.05 times greater than that of the control group when the PLBs were fed with 9 µM tryptophan, 6 µM secologanin and 100 µM MeJA after 36 days...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Punith Naik, Jack P Wang, Ronald Sederoff, Vincent Chiang, Cranos Williams, Joel J Ducoste
Lignin is a polymer present in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants. It is a known barrier to pulping and the extraction of high-energy sugars from cellulosic biomass. The challenge faced with predicting outcomes of transgenic plants with reduced lignin is due in part to the presence of unique protein-protein interactions that influence the regulation and metabolic flux in the pathway. Yet, it is unclear why certain plants have evolved to create these protein complexes. In this study, we use mathematical models to investigate the role that the protein complex, formed specifically between Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5 enzymes, have on the monolignol biosynthesis pathway...
2018: PloS One
Kaspar Valgepea, Renato de Souza Pinto Lemgruber, Tanus Abdalla, Steve Binos, Nobuaki Takemori, Ayako Takemori, Yuki Tanaka, Ryan Tappel, Michael Köpke, Séan Dennis Simpson, Lars Keld Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
Background: The global demand for affordable carbon has never been stronger, and there is an imperative in many industrial processes to use waste streams to make products. Gas-fermenting acetogens offer a potential solution and several commercial gas fermentation plants are currently under construction. As energy limits acetogen metabolism, supply of H2 should diminish substrate loss to CO2 and facilitate production of reduced and energy-intensive products. However, the effects of H2 supply on CO-grown acetogens have yet to be experimentally quantified under controlled growth conditions...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
G Bátor, A Bednár, T J Glover, T Kovács, S Landsberger
Food-chain models are used to predict radionuclide ingestion after fallout deposition. These models include those transfer processes (soil-to-plant transfer factor(s) [TF], plant-to-animal transfer coefficient(s) [TC] and concentration ratio [CR]) that are likely to be important for radiological assessment. The range of variability for transfer factors for the same plant groups is great, about 4-5 orders of magnitude, which limits their applicability. A better way to determine the best estimate the factors for radiocaesium and other important radionuclides is if the site-specific data are available...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Su Wen Lu, Yin Zhang, Kaijie Zhu, Wei Yang, Jun Li Ye, Lijun Chai, Qiang Xu, Xiuxin Deng
Although remarkable progress has been made towards understanding carotenoid biosynthesis, the mechanisms that regulate the transcription of carotenogenic genes remain poorly understood. Lycopene β-cyclases (LCYb) are critical enzymes located at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Here, we used the promoter sequence of LCYb1 as bait in a yeast one-hybrid screen for promoter-binding proteins from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). This screen identified a MADS transcription factor, CsMADS6, that was coordinately expressed with fruit development and coloration...
February 20, 2018: Plant Physiology
Zahra Akbarzadeh, Anniet M Laverman, Fereidoun Rezanezhad, Mélanie Raimonet, Eric Viollier, Babak Shafei, Philippe Van Cappellen
Nitrite is a toxic intermediate compound in the nitrogen (N) cycle. Elevated concentrations of nitrite have been observed in the Seine River, raising questions about its sources and fate. Here, we assess the role of bottom sediments as potential sources or sinks of nitrite along the river continuum. Sediment cores were collected from two depocenters, one located upstream, the other downstream, from the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) servicing the conurbation of Paris. Pore water profiles of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium were measured...
February 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xia Chen, Jianguo Gao, Ping Zhao, Heather R McCarthy, Liwei Zhu, Guangyan Ni, Lei Ouyang
An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniel Obrist, Jane L Kirk, Lei Zhang, Elsie M Sunderland, Martin Jiskra, Noelle E Selin
We review recent progress in our understanding of the global cycling of mercury (Hg), including best estimates of Hg concentrations and pool sizes in major environmental compartments and exchange processes within and between these reservoirs. Recent advances include the availability of new global datasets covering areas of the world where environmental Hg data were previously lacking; integration of these data into global and regional models is continually improving estimates of global Hg cycling. New analytical techniques, such as Hg stable isotope characterization, provide novel constraints of sources and transformation processes...
January 31, 2018: Ambio
Dezhuo Pan, Lingxia Wang, Fanglin Tan, Si Lu, Xiaojie Lv, Madiha Zaynab, Chi-Lien Cheng, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Shipin Chen, Wei Chen
The mangrove Kandelia candel (L.) Druce experiences daily flooding cycles. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the physiological adaptation of K. candel to flooding, the potential role of protein phosphorylation in flooding responses was investigated by a large-scale quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation. Total 2141 unique phosphopeptides and 2603 non-redundant phosphorylation sites were identified from 1516 phosphoproteins in K. candel leaves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Xiujuan He, Xuecheng Zhao, Liping Gao, Xingxing Shi, Xinlong Dai, Yajun Liu, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
There were several high concentrations of flavonoid components in tea leaves that present health benefits. A novel purple-leaf tea variety, 'Mooma1', was obtained from the natural hybrid population of Longjing 43 variety. The buds and young leaves of 'Mooma1' were displayed in bright red. HPLC and LC-MS analysis showed that anthocyanins and O-Glycosylated flavonols were remarkably accumulated in the leaves of 'Mooma1', while the total amount of catechins in purple-leaf leaves was slightly decreased compared with the control...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aimin Zhou, Enhui Liu, Hongping Ma, Shuang Feng, Shufang Gong, Jingang Wang
Suppression of AtVHA-c5 expression results in changes in H+ and Na+ fluxes of roots, and increase sensitivity to salt in Arabidopsis. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit endomembrane proton pump, is essential in plant growth and response to environmental stresses. In the present study, the function of Arabidopsis V-ATPase subunit c5 (AtVHA-c5) gene in response to salt stress was investigated. Subcellular localization showed that AtVHA-c5 was mainly localized to endosomes and the vacuolar membrane in Arabidopsis...
January 6, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ankita Chatterjee, Benazir Huma, Rahul Shaw, Sudip Kundu
To combat decrease in rice productivity under different stresses, an understanding of rice metabolism is needed. Though there are different genome scale metabolic models (GSMs) of Oryza sativa japonica, no GSM with gene-protein-reaction association exist for Oryza sativa indica. Here, we report a GSM, OSI1136 of O.s. indica, which includes 3602 genes and 1136 metabolic reactions and transporters distributed across the cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome, and chloroplast compartments. Flux balance analysis of the model showed that for varying RuBisCO activity (Vc/Vo) (i) the activity of the chloroplastic malate valve increases to transport reducing equivalents out of the chloroplast under increased photorespiratory conditions and (ii) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase can act as source of cytosolic ATP under decreased photorespiration...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mustafa Evren Ersahin, Hale Ozgun, Recep Kaya, Borte Kose Mutlu, Cumali Kinaci, Ismail Koyuncu
Produced water originated from oil and gas production wells was treated by a pilot-scale system including pre-treatment (chemical precipitation), pre-filtration, and post-filtration units. Pre-filtration unit consisted of sand filter, granulated activated carbon (GAC) filter, and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Post-filtration unit included reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit. In this study, two different RO membranes including sea water (SW) and brackish water (BW) membranes were comparatively evaluated in terms of treatment and filtration performance...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liang Chen, Jibiao Fan, Zhengrong Hu, Xuebing Huang, Erick Amombo, Ao Liu, Aoyue Bi, Ke Chen, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK) treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Isabel Egea, Benito Pineda, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Félix A Plasencia, Stéphanie Drevensek, Begoña García-Sogo, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Javier Barrero-Gil, Alejandro Atarés, Francisco B Flores, Fredy Barneche, Trinidad Angosto, Carmen Capel, Julio Salinas, Wim Vriezen, Elisabeth Esch, Chris Bowler, Maria C Bolarín, Vicente Moreno, Rafael Lozano
Characterization of a new tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) T-DNA mutant allowed for the isolation of the CALCINEURIN B-LIKE PROTEIN 10 ( SlCBL10 ) gene whose lack of function was responsible for the severe alterations observed in the shoot apex and reproductive organs under salinity conditions. Physiological studies proved that SlCBL10 gene is required to maintain a proper low Na+ /Ca2+ ratio in growing tissues allowing tomato growth under salt stress. Expression analysis of the main responsible genes for Na+ compartmentalization (i...
February 2018: Plant Physiology
Getu Beyene, Felix R Solomon, Raj D Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robyn L Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel J Taylor, Edgar B Cahoon
Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by co-expression of transgenes for deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin-type 1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 μg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from nontransgenic plants...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Xiaofeng Zhang, Ashish Misra, Shilpa Nargund, Gary D Coleman, Ganesh Sriram
Reduced nitrogen is indispensable to plants. However, its limited availability in soil combined with the energetic and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilizers motivates research into molecular mechanisms toward improving plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). We performed a systems-level investigation of this problem by employing multiple 'omics methodologies on cell suspensions of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Acclimation and growth of the cell suspensions in four nutrient regimes ranging from abundant to deficient supplies of carbon and nitrogen revealed that cell growth under low-nitrogen levels was associated with substantially higher NUE...
February 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Karuna Yadav, Prashanti Patel, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, T R Ganapathi
Iron is an indispensable element for plant growth and defense and hence it is essential to improve the plant's ability to accumulate iron. Besides, it is also an important aspect for human health. In view of this, we attempted to increase the iron content in banana cultivar Rasthali using MusaFer1 as a candidate gene. Initially, the expression of all five genes of the MusaFer family (MusaFer1-5) was quantified under iron-excess and -deficient conditions. The supplementation of 250 and 350 μM iron enhanced expression of all MusaFer genes; however, MusaFer1 was increased maximally by 2- and 4- fold in leaves and roots respectively...
2017: PloS One
Gediminas Stankunas, Aljaz Cufar, Andrius Tidikas, Paola Batistoni
Irradiations with 14 MeV fusion neutrons are planned at Joint European Torus (JET) in DT operations with the objective to validate the calculation of the activation of structural materials in functional materials expected in ITER and fusion plants. This study describes the activation and dose rate calculations performed for materials irradiated throughout the DT plasma operation during which the samples of real fusion materials are exposed to 14 MeV neutrons inside the JET vacuum vessel. Preparatory activities are in progress during the current DD operations with dosimetry foils to measure the local neutron fluence and spectrum at the sample irradiation position...
November 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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