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Plant Flux analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432256/global-sensitivity-analysis-of-onguard-models-identifies-key-hubs-for-transport-interaction-in-stomatal-dynamics
#1
Silvere Rm Vialet-Chabrand, Adrian Hills, Yizhou Wang, Howard Griffiths, Virgilio Lew, Tracy Lawson, Mike R Blatt, Simon Rogers
The physical requirement for charge to balance across biological membranes means that transmembrane transport of each ionic species is inter-related, and manipulating solute flux through any one transporter will affect other transporters at the same membrane, often with unforeseen consequences. The OnGuard systems modelling platform has helped to resolve the mechanics of stomatal movements, uncovering previously unexpected behaviors of stomata. To date, however, the manual approach to exploring model parameter space has captured little formal information about the emergent connections between parameters that define the most interesting properties of the system as a whole...
April 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428793/transcriptomics-targeted-metabolomics-and-gene-expression-of-blackberry-leaves-and-fruits-indicate-flavonoid-metabolic-flux-from-leaf-to-red-fruit
#2
Enrique Gutierrez, Ana García-Villaraco, José A Lucas, Ana Gradillas, F Javier Gutierrez-Mañero, Beatriz Ramos-Solano
Blackberries (Rubus spp.) are among the high added value food products relevant for human health due to the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of polyphenols, which are very abundant in these fruits. Interestingly, these compounds also play a role on plant physiology, being especially relevant their role in plant defense against biotic and abiotic stress. Hence, we hypothesize that since blackberry fruits have high amounts of flavonols and anthocyanins, leaves would also have high amounts of these compounds, and can be studied as a source of active molecules; furthermore, leaf synthesis would support their high contents in fruits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428141/temporal-impact-of-the-vascular-wilt-pathogen-verticillium-dahliae-on-tomato-root-proteome
#3
Katja Witzel, Anja Buhtz, Rita Grosch
The soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is the causal agent of wilting disease and affects a wide range of plant species worldwide. Here, we report on the time-resolved analysis of the tomato root proteome in response to fungal colonization. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Hildares) was inoculated with V. dahliae at the two-leaf stage and roots were harvested at 7, 14 and 21 days post inoculation (dpi). In order to identify proteins related to the fungal spread at the different time points, a subsequent proteome analysis by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was conducted on samples from three independent experiments...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399260/the-plant-economics-spectrum-is-structured-by-leaf-habits-and-growth-forms-across-subtropical-species
#4
Yan-Tao Zhao, Arshad Ali, En-Rong Yan
The plant economics spectrum that integrates the combination of leaf and wood syndromes provides a useful framework for the examination of species strategies at the whole-plant level. However, it remains unclear how species that differ in leaf habits and growth forms are integrated within the plant economics spectrum in subtropical forests. We measured five leaf and six wood traits across 58 subtropical plant species, which represented two leaf habits (evergreen vs deciduous) and two growth forms (tree vs shrub) in eastern China...
February 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370633/silencing-a-phloretin-specific-glycosyltransferase-perturbs-both-general-phenylpropanoid-biosynthesis-and-plant-development
#5
Andrew P Dare, Yar-Khing Yauk, Sumathi Tomes, Tony K McGhie, Ria S Rebstock, Janine M Cooney, Ross G Atkinson
The polyphenol profile of apple (Malus x domestica) is dominated by the dihydrochalcone glycoside phloridzin, however, its physiological role is yet to be elucidated. Biosynthesis of phloridzin occurs as a side-branch of the main phenylpropanoid pathway with the final step mediated by the phloretin-specific glycosyltransferase UGT88F1. Unexpectedly, given that UGTs are sometimes viewed as 'decorating enzymes', UGT88F1 knockdown lines were severely dwarfed with greatly reduced internode lengths, narrow lanceolate leaves, and changes in leaf and fruit cellular morphology...
April 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344635/the-combination-of-gas-phase-fluorophore-technology-and-automation-to-enable-high-throughput-analysis-of-plant-respiration
#6
Andrew P Scafaro, A Clarissa A Negrini, Brendan O'Leary, F Azzahra Ahmad Rashid, Lucy Hayes, Yuzhen Fan, You Zhang, Vincent Chochois, Murray R Badger, A Harvey Millar, Owen K Atkin
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial respiration in the dark (Rdark) is a critical plant physiological process, and hence a reliable, efficient and high-throughput method of measuring variation in rates of Rdark is essential for agronomic and ecological studies. However, currently methods used to measure Rdark in plant tissues are typically low throughput. We assessed a high-throughput automated fluorophore system of detecting multiple O2 consumption rates. The fluorophore technique was compared with O2-electrodes, infrared gas analysers (IRGA), and membrane inlet mass spectrometry, to determine accuracy and speed of detecting respiratory fluxes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331950/how-do-elevated-co2-and-nitrogen-addition-affect-functional-microbial-community-involved-in-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-salt-marsh-system
#7
Seung-Hoon Lee, Patrick J Megonigal, Hojeong Kang
Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325849/phospholipase-d%C3%AE-enhances-diacylglycerol-flux-into-triacylglycerol
#8
Wenyu Yang, Geliang Wang, Jia Li, Philip David Bates, Xuemin Wang, Douglas K Allen
Plant seeds are the primary source of triacylglycerols (TAG) for food, feed, fuel, and industrial applications. As TAG is produced from diacylglycerol (DAG) successful engineering strategies to enhance TAG levels have focused on the conversion of DAG to TAG. However, the production of TAG can be limited by flux through the enzymatic reactions that supply DAG. In this study, two Arabidopsis phospholipase Dζ genes (AtPLDζ1 and AtPLDζ2) were co-expressed in Camelina sativa to test whether the conversion of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG impacts TAG levels in seeds...
March 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291610/the-impact-of-the-1999-mw-7-4-event-in-the-%C3%A4-zmit-bay-turkey-on-anthropogenic-contaminant-pcbs-pahs-and-pbdes-concentrations-recorded-in-a-deep-sediment-core
#9
S Giuliani, L G Bellucci, M N Çağatay, A Polonia, R Piazza, M Vecchiato, S Pizzini, L Gasperini
The 1999 Mw 7.4 earthquake triggered a tremendous human tragedy and had a great social impact over the population of the İzmit Bay, one of the most industrialized area of Turkey. Although the successive environmental disasters were well documented, information on its sedimentary record is lacking. The present research aims at filling this gap, through the analysis of organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs, and PBDEs) in a dated sediment core collected in the depocenter of the Karamürsel Basin in 2005. Profiles of total PCBs and total PAHs overlap the timing of industrialization in the area (starting in the 1960s) with values increasing as the population and the number of industrial plants grew larger...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276759/cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-two-sterol-c24-methyltransferase-1-smt1-genes-from-paris-polyphylla
#10
Hong-Yu Guan, Ping Su, Yu-Jun Zhao, Xia-Nan Zhang, Zhu-Bo Dai, Juan Guo, Yu-Ru Tong, Yu-Jia Liu, Tian-Yuan Hu, Yan Yin, Lin-Hui Gao, Wei Gao, Lu-Qi Huang
The biosynthetic pathways of phytosterols and steroidal saponins are located in two adjacent branches which share cycloartenol as substrate. The rate-limiting enzyme S-adenosyl-L-methionine-sterol-C24-methyltransferase 1 (SMT1) facilitates the metabolic flux toward phytosterols. It catalyzes the methylation of the cycloartenol in the side chain of the C24-alkyl group, to generate 24(28)-methylene cycloartenol. In this study, we obtained two full-length sequences of SMT1 genes from Pari polyphylla, designated PpSMT1-1 and PpSMT1-2...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274097/induction-of-cell-death-by-betulinic-acid-through-induction-of-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-autophagic-flux-in-microglia-bv-2-cells
#11
Jeongbin Seo, Juneyoung Jung, Dae Sik Jang, Joungmok Kim, Jeong Hee Kim
Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpene found in many medicinal plants is known to have various biological activity including tumor suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cell-death induction effect of BA was investigated in BV-2 microglia cells. BA was cytotoxic to BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ of approximately 2.0 μM. Treatment of BA resulted in a dosedependent chromosomal DNA degradation, suggesting that these cells underwent apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis further confirmed that BA-treated BV-2 cells showed hypodiploid DNA content...
March 10, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258212/a-forward-genetic-screen-identifies-a-negative-regulator-of-rapid-ca-2-dependent-cell-egress-in-the-intracellular-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#12
James M McCoy, Rebecca J Stewart, Alessandro D Uboldi, Dongdi Li, Jan Schröder, Nichollas E Scott, Anthony T Papenfuss, Adele M Lehane, Leonard J Foster, Christopher J Tonkin
Toxoplasma gondii, like all apicomplexan parasites, uses Ca(2+)signalling pathways to activate gliding motility, which drives tissue dissemination, host cell invasion and egress. A group of plant-like Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), transduce cytosolic Ca(2+) flux into enzymatic activity, but the molecular details of their activity are poorly understood. To investigate how Ca(2+) signalling activates egress through CDPKs, we performed a forward-genetic screen to isolate gain-of-function mutants from an egress-deficient cdpk3-knockout strain...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258140/ecological-and-evolutionary-insights-into-xanthomonas-citri-pathovar-diversity
#13
Kanika Bansal, Samriti Midha, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, is a serious disease of citrus plants worldwide. Earlier phylogenetic studies using housekeeping genes revealed that X. citri pv. citri is related to many other pathovars, which can be collectively referred as Xanthomonas citri pathovars (XCPs). From the present study, we report the genome sequences of 18 XCPs and compared them with four XCPs available in the public domain. In a tree based on phylogenomic marker genes, all the XCPs form a monophyletic cluster, suggesting their origin from a common ancestor...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213171/13c-labeling-analysis-of-sugars-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolic-flux-analysis
#14
Sébastien Acket, Anthony Degournay, Franck Merlier, Brigitte Thomasset
Metabolic flux analysis is particularly complex in plant cells because of highly compartmented metabolism. Analysis of free sugars is interesting because it provides data to define fluxes around hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools in different compartment. In this work, we present a method to analyze the isotopomer distribution of free sugars labeled with carbon 13 using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, without derivatized procedure, adapted for Metabolic flux analysis. Our results showed a good sensitivity, reproducibility and better accuracy to determine isotopic enrichments of free sugars compared to our previous methods [5, 6]...
February 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196685/geochemical-analysis-of-sediments-from-a-semi-enclosed-bay-dongshan-bay-southeast-china-to-determine-the-anthropogenic-impact-and-source
#15
Yonghang Xu, Qinqin Sun, Xiang Ye, Xijie Yin, Dongyi Li, Liang Wang, Aijun Wang, Yunhai Li
The geochemical compositions of sediments in the Dongshan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southeast coast of China, were obtained to identify pollutant sources and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts over the last 100 years. The results indicated that the metal flux had been increasing since the 1980s. Enrichment factor values (Pb, Zn and Cu) suggested only slight enrichment. The proportion of anthropogenic Pb changed from 9% to 15% during 2000-2014. Coal combustion might be an important contamination source in the Dongshan Bay...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187334/regional-and-global-contributions-of-anthropogenic-iodine-129-in-monthly-deposition-samples-collected-in-north-east-japan-between-2006-and-2015
#16
Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Yoshihito Ohtsuka, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
We measured the monthly atmospheric deposition flux of (129)I at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan-the location of a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant-from 2006 to 2015 to assess the impact of the plant on environmental (129)I levels. The plant is now under final safety assessment by a national authority after test operation using actual spent nuclear fuel. During cutting and chemical processing in test operations from April 2006 to October 2008, (129)I was discharged to the atmosphere and detected in our deposition samples...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179898/metatranscriptomic-analysis-reveals-unexpectedly-diverse-microbial-metabolism-in-a-biogeochemical-hot-spot-in-an-alluvial-aquifer
#17
Talia N M Jewell, Ulas Karaoz, Markus Bill, Romy Chakraborty, Eoin L Brodie, Kenneth H Williams, Harry R Beller
Organic matter deposits in alluvial aquifers have been shown to result in the formation of naturally reduced zones (NRZs), which can modulate aquifer redox status and influence the speciation and mobility of metals, affecting groundwater geochemistry. In this study, we sought to better understand how natural organic matter fuels microbial communities within anoxic biogeochemical hot spots (NRZs) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at the Rifle (CO) site. We conducted a 20-day microcosm experiment in which NRZ sediments, which were enriched in buried woody plant material, served as the sole source of electron donors and microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125054/emission-flux-measurement-error-with-a-mobile-doas-system-and-application-to-nox-flux-observations
#18
Fengcheng Wu, Ang Li, Pinhua Xie, Hao Chen, Zhaokun Hu, Qiong Zhang, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu
Mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DOAS) is an optical remote sensing method that can rapidly measure trace gas emission flux from air pollution sources (such as power plants, industrial areas, and cities) in real time. Generally, mobile DOAS is influenced by wind, drive velocity, and other factors, especially in the usage of wind field when the emission flux in a mobile DOAS system is observed. This paper presents a detailed error analysis and NOx emission with mobile DOAS system from a power plant in Shijiazhuang city, China...
January 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105717/beyond-food-the-multiple-pathways-for-inclusion-of-materials-into-ancient-dental-calculus
#19
Anita Radini, Efthymia Nikita, Stephen Buckley, Les Copeland, Karen Hardy
Dental calculus (mineralized dental plaque) was first recognised as a potentially useful archaeological deposit in the 1970s, though interest in human dental calculus as a resource material has increased sharply in the past few years. The majority of recent research has focused on the retrieval of plant microfossils embedded in its matrix and interpretation of these finds as largely the result of deliberate consumption of plant-derived food. However, while most of the material described in published works does represent food, dental calculus is in fact a "depositional environment" as material can enter the mouth from a range of sources...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077967/integrated-omics-analyses-reveal-the-details-of-metabolic-adaptation-of-clostridium-thermocellum-to-lignocellulose-derived-growth-inhibitors-released-during-the-deconstruction-of-switchgrass
#20
Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Miguel Rodriguez, Babu Raman, Madhavi Z Martin, Nancy L Engle, Jonathan R Mielenz, Intawat Nookaew, Steven D Brown, Timothy J Tschaplinski, David Ussery, Robert L Hettich
BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum is capable of solubilizing and converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Although much of the work-to-date has centered on characterizing this microbe's growth on model cellulosic substrates, such as cellobiose, Avicel, or filter paper, it is vitally important to understand its metabolism on more complex, lignocellulosic substrates to identify relevant industrial bottlenecks that could undermine efficient biofuel production. To this end, we have examined a time course progression of C...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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