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Plant Flux analysis

Xiujuan He, Xuecheng Zhao, Liping Gao, Xingxing Shi, Xinlong Dai, Yajun Liu, Tao Xia, Yunsheng Wang
There were several high concentrations of flavonoid components in tea leaves that present health benefits. A novel purple-leaf tea variety, 'Mooma1', was obtained from the natural hybrid population of Longjing 43 variety. The buds and young leaves of 'Mooma1' were displayed in bright red. HPLC and LC-MS analysis showed that anthocyanins and O-Glycosylated flavonols were remarkably accumulated in the leaves of 'Mooma1', while the total amount of catechins in purple-leaf leaves was slightly decreased compared with the control...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aimin Zhou, Enhui Liu, Hongping Ma, Shuang Feng, Shufang Gong, Jingang Wang
Suppression of AtVHA-c5 expression results in changes in H+ and Na+ fluxes of roots, and increase sensitivity to salt in Arabidopsis. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit endomembrane proton pump, is essential in plant growth and response to environmental stresses. In the present study, the function of Arabidopsis V-ATPase subunit c5 (AtVHA-c5) gene in response to salt stress was investigated. Subcellular localization showed that AtVHA-c5 was mainly localized to endosomes and the vacuolar membrane in Arabidopsis...
January 6, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Ankita Chatterjee, Benazir Huma, Rahul Shaw, Sudip Kundu
To combat decrease in rice productivity under different stresses, an understanding of rice metabolism is needed. Though there are different genome scale metabolic models (GSMs) of Oryza sativa japonica, no GSM with gene-protein-reaction association exist for Oryza sativa indica. Here, we report a GSM, OSI1136 of O.s. indica, which includes 3602 genes and 1136 metabolic reactions and transporters distributed across the cytosol, mitochondrion, peroxisome, and chloroplast compartments. Flux balance analysis of the model showed that for varying RuBisCO activity (Vc/Vo) (i) the activity of the chloroplastic malate valve increases to transport reducing equivalents out of the chloroplast under increased photorespiratory conditions and (ii) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglycerate kinase can act as source of cytosolic ATP under decreased photorespiration...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mustafa Evren Ersahin, Hale Ozgun, Recep Kaya, Borte Kose Mutlu, Cumali Kinaci, Ismail Koyuncu
Produced water originated from oil and gas production wells was treated by a pilot-scale system including pre-treatment (chemical precipitation), pre-filtration, and post-filtration units. Pre-filtration unit consisted of sand filter, granulated activated carbon (GAC) filter, and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Post-filtration unit included reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit. In this study, two different RO membranes including sea water (SW) and brackish water (BW) membranes were comparatively evaluated in terms of treatment and filtration performance...
December 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liang Chen, Jibiao Fan, Zhengrong Hu, Xuebing Huang, Erick Amombo, Ao Liu, Aoyue Bi, Ke Chen, Yan Xie, Jinmin Fu
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays critical roles in plant growth and development and during the response to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the roles of melatonin in plant response to K+ deficiency remain largely unknown. In the present study, we observed that the endogenous melatonin contents in bermudagrass were remarkably increased by low K+ (LK) treatment, suggesting that melatonin was involved in bermudagrass response to LK stress. Further phenotype analysis revealed that exogenous melatonin application conferred Bermudagrass enhanced tolerance to LK stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Isabel Egea, Benito Pineda, Ana Ortíz-Atienza, Félix A Plasencia, Stephanie Drevensek, Begoña García-Sogo, Fernando J Yuste-Lisbona, Javier Barrero, Alejandro Atarés, Francisco B Flores, Fredy Barneche, Trinidad Angosto, Carmen Capel, Julio Salinas, Wim Vriezen, Elisabeth Esch, Chris Bowler, Maria C Bolarin, Vicente Moreno, Rafael Lozano
Characterization of a new tomato T-DNA mutant allowed for the isolation of the CALCINEURIN B-LIKE PROTEIN 10 (SlCBL10) gene whose lack of function was responsible for the severe alterations observed in the shoot apex and reproductive organs under salinity conditions. Physiological studies proved that SlCBL10 gene is required to maintain a proper low Na+/Ca2+ ratio in growing tissues allowing tomato growth under salt stress. Expression analysis of the main responsible genes for Na+ compartmentalization [i.e...
December 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Getu Beyene, Felix R Solomon, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robyn L Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel J Taylor, Edgar B Cahoon
Storage roots of cassava, a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie-rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by co-expression of transgenes for deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin type-1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 μg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from non-transgenic plants...
November 28, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Xiaofeng Zhang, Ashish Misra, Shilpa Nargund, Gary D Coleman, Ganesh Sriram
Reduced nitrogen is indispensable to plants. However, its limited availability in soil combined with the energetic and environmental impacts of nitrogen fertilizers motivates research into molecular mechanisms toward improving plant nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). We performed a systems-level investigation of this problem by employing multiple 'omics methodologies on cell suspensions of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba). Acclimation and growth of the cell suspensions in four nutrient regimes ranging from abundant to deficient supplies of carbon and nitrogen revealed that cell growth under low-nitrogen levels was associated with substantially higher NUE...
November 29, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Karuna Yadav, Prashanti Patel, Ashish Kumar Srivastava, T R Ganapathi
Iron is an indispensable element for plant growth and defense and hence it is essential to improve the plant's ability to accumulate iron. Besides, it is also an important aspect for human health. In view of this, we attempted to increase the iron content in banana cultivar Rasthali using MusaFer1 as a candidate gene. Initially, the expression of all five genes of the MusaFer family (MusaFer1-5) was quantified under iron-excess and -deficient conditions. The supplementation of 250 and 350 μM iron enhanced expression of all MusaFer genes; however, MusaFer1 was increased maximally by 2- and 4- fold in leaves and roots respectively...
2017: PloS One
Gediminas Stankunas, Aljaz Cufar, Andrius Tidikas, Paola Batistoni
Irradiations with 14 MeV fusion neutrons are planned at Joint European Torus (JET) in DT operations with the objective to validate the calculation of the activation of structural materials in functional materials expected in ITER and fusion plants. This study describes the activation and dose rate calculations performed for materials irradiated throughout the DT plasma operation during which the samples of real fusion materials are exposed to 14 MeV neutrons inside the JET vacuum vessel. Preparatory activities are in progress during the current DD operations with dosimetry foils to measure the local neutron fluence and spectrum at the sample irradiation position...
November 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Ran Li, Vaishnavi Amarr Reddy, Jingjing Jin, Chakaravarthy Rajan, Qian Wang, Genhua Yue, Chin Huat Lim, Nam-Hai Chua, Jian Ye, Rajani Sarojam
BACKGROUND: Oil palm is the most productive oil crop and the efficiency of pollination has a direct impact on the yield of oil. Pollination by wind can occur but maximal pollination is mediated by the weevil E. kamerunicus. These weevils complete their life cycle by feeding on male flowers. Attraction of weevils to oil palm flowers is due to the emission of methylchavicol by both male and female flowers. In search for male flowers, the weevils visit female flowers by accident due to methylchavicol fragrance and deposit pollen...
November 23, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Aditya Vikram Agarwal, Deeksha Singh, Yogeshwar Vikram Dhar, Rahul Michael, Parul Gupta, Deepak Chandra, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Withanolides are a collection of naturally occurring, pharmacologically active, secondary metabolites synthesised in medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. These bioactive molecules are C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids and their synthesis is proposed to take place via the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways through the sterol pathway using 24-methylene cholesterol as substrate flux. Although the phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities of Withania extracts have been well studied, limited genomic information and difficult genetic transformation have been major bottleneck towards understanding the participation of specific genes in withanolide biosynthesis...
November 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Merja T Rossi, Monika Kalde, Chaiyakorn Srisakvarakul, Nicholas J Kruger, R George Ratcliffe
Stable isotope labelling experiments are used routinely in metabolic flux analysis (MFA) to determine the metabolic phenotype of cells and tissues. A complication arises in multicellular systems because single cell measurements of transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes in multicellular organisms suggest that the metabolic phenotype will differ between cell types. In silico analysis of simulated metabolite isotopomer datasets shows that cellular heterogeneity confounds conventional MFA because labelling data averaged over multiple cell types does not necessarily yield averaged flux values...
November 13, 2017: Metabolites
Beatriz Moreno-Ortega, Guillaume Fort, Bertrand Muller, Yann Guédon
The identification of the limits between the cell division, elongation and mature zones in the root apex is still a matter of controversy when methods based on cellular features, molecular markers or kinematics are compared while methods based on cell length profiles have been comparatively underexplored. Segmentation models were developed to identify developmental zones within a root apex on the basis of epidermal cell length profiles. Heteroscedastic piecewise linear models were estimated for maize lateral roots of various lengths of both wild type and two mutants affected in auxin signaling (rtcs and rum-1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Huanbo Wang, Guangming Shi, Mi Tian, Yang Chen, Baoqing Qiao, Liuyi Zhang, Fumo Yang, Leiming Zhang, Qiong Luo
Precipitation samples were collected at five rural and one urban sites in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGR), China from March 2014 to February 2016. The inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) contents were analysed to investigate their wet deposition flux, budget, and sources in the area. Annual Nr wet deposition varied from 7.1 to 23.4 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) over the six sites during the two-year study campaign. The six-site average Nr wet deposition flux was 17.1 and 11.7 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in 2014 and 2015, respectively, with 71% from NH4(+) and 29% from NO3(-)...
November 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Juan Carlos Florez, Luciana Souto Mofatto, Rejane do Livramento Freitas-Lopes, Sávio Siqueira Ferreira, Eunize Maciel Zambolim, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Laércio Zambolim, Eveline Teixeira Caixeta
We provide a transcriptional profile of coffee rust interaction and identified putative up regulated resistant genes Coffee rust disease, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, is one of the major diseases in coffee throughout the world. The use of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most effective control strategy for this disease. To identify candidate genes related to different mechanism defense in coffee, we present a time-course comparative gene expression profile of Caturra (susceptible) and Híbrido de Timor (HdT, resistant) in response to H...
November 1, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Lingfang Fu, Bibai Du, Fei Wang, James C W Lam, Lixi Zeng, Eddy Y Zeng
Little is known about the occurrences, distributions, sources, and potential risks of organophosphate (OP) triesters and diester degradation products in municipal sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we conducted the first nationwide survey to simultaneously determine a suite of 11 OP triesters and six diester degradation products in sludge from WWTPs across China. All OP triesters were detected and three diesters were identified for the first time in sludge samples. Total concentrations of OP triesters and diester degradation products were in the ranges of 43...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Anderson Tadeu Silva, Wilco Ligterink, Henk W M Hilhorst
Metabolic and transcriptomic correlation analysis identified two distinctive profiles involved in the metabolic preparation for seed germination and seedling establishment, respectively. Transcripts were identified that may control metabolic fluxes. The transition from a quiescent metabolic state (dry seed) to the active state of a vigorous seedling is crucial in the plant's life cycle. We analysed this complex physiological trait by measuring the changes in primary metabolism that occur during the transition in order to determine which metabolic networks are operational...
October 18, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Shuangshuang Chen, Xiaojiao Han, Jie Fang, Zhuchou Lu, Wenmin Qiu, Mingying Liu, Jian Sang, Jing Jiang, Renying Zhuo
The plant natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family plays an important role in tolerance to heavy metal stress. However, few Nramps have been functionally characterized in the heavy metal-accumulating plant Sedum alfredii. Here, Nramp6 was cloned and identified from S. alfredii and its function analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. SaNramp6 cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1, 638 bp encoding 545 amino acids. SaNramp6's expression can be induced by cadmium (Cd) stress, and, after treatment, it peaked at one week and 12 h in the roots and leaves, respectively...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sanchari Sircar, Nita Parekh, Gaurav Sablok
Identifying functionally coexpressed genes and modules has increasingly become important to understand the transcriptional flux and to understand large scale gene association. Application of the graph theory and combination of tools has allowed to understand the genic interaction and to understand the role of hub and non-hub proteins in plant development and its ability to cope with stress. Association genetics has also been coupled with network modules to map these key genes as e-QTLs. High throughput sequencing approaches has revolutionized the mining of the gene behavior and also the association of the genes over time-series...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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