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Plant Flux analysis

Cuihong Zhou, Xintong Huang, Meng Zeng
Dehydrating large amounts of sludge produced by sewage treatment plants is difficult. Microwave pretreatment can effectively and significantly improve the dewaterability and hydrogen production of sludge subjected to anaerobic digestion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different microwave conditions on hydrogen production from anaerobic digestion and dewaterability of sludge. Based on an analysis of the electric field distribution, a spiral reactor was designed and a continuous microwave system was built to conduct intermittent and continuous experiments under different conditions...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Leonardo Perez de Souza, Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Stable-isotope-labeling experiments have become a frequently used tool to investigate different metabolic systems. They have been recently applied to several comprehensive studies in plant metabolomics providing interesting insights into metabolic dynamics and regulation. However, the complexity of mass spectrometry data originating from such experiments is rarely fully explored. Data analysis often considers metabolites in their entirety which obscures important information at the atomic level. Recently, the use of mass spectrometry fragmentation for obtaining positional-labeling information was described for a few specific metabolites...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Valéria F Lima, Leonardo Perez de Souza, Thomas C R Williams, Alisdair R Fernie, Danilo M Daloso
Stable-isotope labeling analysis has been used to discover new metabolic pathways and their key regulatory points in a wide range of organisms. Given the complexity of the plant metabolic network, this analysis provides information complementary to that obtained from metabolite profiling that can be used to understand how plants cope with adverse conditions, and how metabolism varies between different cells, tissues, and organs. Here we describe the experimental procedures from sample harvesting and extraction to mass spectral analysis and interpretation that allow the researcher to perform 13 C-labeling experiments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
V Vasilaki, E I P Volcke, A K Nandi, M C M van Loosdrecht, E Katsou
Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to investigate the dependencies and underlying patterns between N2 O emissions and online operational variables (dissolved oxygen and nitrogen component concentrations, temperature and influent flow-rate) during biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. The system under study was a full-scale reactor, for which hourly sensor data were available. The 15-month long monitoring campaign was divided into 10 sub-periods based on the profile of N2 O emissions, using Binary Segmentation...
April 26, 2018: Water Research
Shanyun Wang, Weidong Wang, Lu Liu, Linjie Zhuang, Siyan Zhao, Yu Su, Yixiao Li, Mengzi Wang, Cheng Wang, Liya Xu, Guibing Zhu
Artificial microbial nitrogen (N) cycle hotspots in the plant-bed/ditch system were developed and investigated based on intact core and slurry assays measurement using isotopic tracing technology, quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing. By increasing hydraulic retention time and periodically fluctuating water level in heterogeneous riparian zones, hotspots of anammox, nitrification, denitrification, ammonium (NH4+) oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) oxidation, nitrate (NO3-) reduction and DNRA were all stimulated at the interface sediments, with the abundance and activity being about 1-3 orders higher than that in non-hotspot zones...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Chaopu Ti, Xi Wang, Xiaoyuan Yan
Soil, water, and air NO3 - pollution is a major environmental problem worldwide. Stable isotope analysis can assess the origin of NOx because different NOx sources carry different isotope signatures. Hence, using appropriate chemical methods to determine the δ15 N-NOx values in different samples is important to improve our understanding of the N-NOx pollution and take possible strategies to manage it. Two modified chemical methods, the cadmium-sodium azide method and the VCl3 -sodium azide method, were used to establish a comprehensive inventory of δ15 N-NOx values associated with major NOx fluxes by the conversion of NO3 - into N2 O...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shuwei Liu, Cheng Ji, Cong Wang, Jie Chen, Yaguo Jin, Ziheng Zou, Shuqing Li, Shuli Niu, Jianwen Zou
The net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) remains poorly understood. Here, we synthesise 1655 measurements from 169 published studies to assess GHGs budget of terrestrial ecosystems under elevated CO2 . We show that elevated CO2 significantly stimulates plant C pool (NPP) by 20%, soil CO2 fluxes by 24%, and methane (CH4 ) fluxes by 34% from rice paddies and by 12% from natural wetlands, while it slightly decreases CH4 uptake of upland soils by 3...
May 7, 2018: Ecology Letters
Keith R Willison
The cytosolic chaperonin CCT (chaperonin containing TCP-1) is an ATP-dependent double-ring protein machine mediating the folding of members of the eukaryotic cytoskeletal protein families. The actins and tubulins are obligate substrates of CCT because they are completely dependent on CCT activity to reach their native states. Genetic and proteomic analysis of the CCT interactome in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a CCT network of approximately 300 genes and proteins involved in many fundamental biological processes...
June 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Jordan J Zager, B Markus Lange
Many aromatic plants accumulate mixtures of secondary (or specialized) metabolites in anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). Different GT types may also synthesize different mixtures of secreted metabolites, and this contributes to the enormous chemical diversity reported to occur across species. Over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in characterizing the genes and enzymes that are responsible for the unique metabolic capabilities of GTs in different lineages of flowering plants...
May 4, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Andrew E Maclean, Alexander P Hertle, Joanna Ligas, Ralph Bock, Janneke Balk, Etienne H Meyer
Parasitism is a life history strategy found across all domains of life whereby nutrition is obtained from a host. It is often associated with reductive evolution of the genome, including loss of genes from the organellar genomes [1, 2]. In some unicellular parasites, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) has been lost entirely, with far-reaching consequences for the physiology of the organism [3, 4]. Recently, mitogenome sequences of several species of the hemiparasitic plant mistletoe (Viscum sp.) have been reported [5, 6], revealing a striking loss of genes not seen in any other multicellular eukaryotes...
April 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Järvi Järveoja, Mats B Nilsson, Michal Gažovič, Patrick M Crill, Matthias Peichl
The net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) drives the carbon (C) sink-source strength of northern peatlands. Since NEE represents a balance between various production and respiration fluxes, accurate predictions of its response to global changes require an in depth understanding of these underlying processes. Currently, however, detailed information of the temporal dynamics as well as the separate biotic and abiotic controls of the NEE component fluxes is lacking in peatland ecosystems. In this study, we address this knowledge gap by using an automated chamber system established across natural and trenching-/vegetation removal plots to partition NEE into its production (i...
April 30, 2018: Global Change Biology
Thorsten Langner, Aleksandra Białas, Sophien Kamoun
Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far...
April 17, 2018: MBio
Tomáš Kocábek, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Jaroslav Matoušek, Josef Patzak, Anna Lomnická, Mudra Khare, Karel Krofta
Hop is an important source of medicinally valuable secondary metabolites including bioactive prenylated chalcones. To gain in-depth knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms of hop flavonoids biosynthesis, full-length cDNA of HlMyb8 transcription factor gene was isolated from lupulin glands. The deduced amino acid sequence of HlMyb8 showed high similarity to a flavonol-specific regulator of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis AtMYB12 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Transient expression studies and qRT-PCR analysis of transgenic hop plants overexpressing HlMyb8 revealed that HlMYB8 activates expression of chalcone synthase HlCHS_H1 as well as other structural genes from the flavonoid pathway branch leading to the production of flavonols (F3H, F'3H, FLS) but not prenylflavonoids (PT1, OMT1) or bitter acids (VPS, PT1)...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Yuzhou Wu, Jiexi Hou, Fen Yu, Suong T T Nguyen, David W McCurdy
Transfer cells (TCs) play important roles in facilitating enhanced rates of nutrient transport at key apoplasmic/symplasmic junctions along the nutrient acquisition and transport pathways in plants. TCs achieve this capacity by developing elaborate wall ingrowth networks which serve to increase plasma membrane surface area thus increasing the cell's surface area-to-volume ratio to achieve increased flux of nutrients across the plasma membrane. Phloem parenchyma (PP) cells of Arabidopsis leaf veins trans -differentiate to become PP TCs which likely function in a two-step phloem loading mechanism by facilitating unloading of photoassimilates into the apoplasm for subsequent energy-dependent uptake into the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Simon van Bellen, Gabriel Magnan, Lauren Davies, Duane Froese, Gillian Mullan-Boudreau, Claudio Zaccone, Michelle Garneau, William Shotyk
Testate amoebae are abundant in the surface layers of northern peatlands. Analysis of their fossilized shell (test) assemblages allows for reconstructions of local water-table depths (WTD). We have reconstructed WTD dynamics for five peat cores from peatlands ranging in distance from the Athabasca bituminous sands (ABS) region in western Canada. Amoeba assemblages were combined with plant macrofossil records, acid-insoluble ash (AIA) fluxes and instrumental climate data to identify drivers for environmental change...
March 23, 2018: Global Change Biology
Thomas Wieloch, Ina Ehlers, Jun Yu, David Frank, Michael Grabner, Arthur Gessler, Jürgen Schleucher
Measurements of carbon isotope contents of plant organic matter provide important information in diverse fields such as plant breeding, ecophysiology, biogeochemistry and paleoclimatology. They are currently based on13 C/12 C ratios of specific, whole metabolites, but we show here that intramolecular ratios provide higher resolution information. In the glucose units of tree-ring cellulose of 12 tree species, we detected large differences in13 C/12 C ratios (>10‰) among carbon atoms, which provide isotopically distinct inputs to major global C pools, including wood and soil organic matter...
March 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristin M Blum, Peter Haglund, Qiuju Gao, Lutz Ahrens, Meritxell Gros, Karin Wiberg, Patrik L Andersson
This study is the first attempt to quantify environmental fluxes per capita of organic contaminants discharged from on-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs) in affected recipients. Five sites were monitored around the River Fyris in Sweden: three mainly affected by OSSFs and two mainly affected by municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine environmental concentrations of 30 anthropogenic contaminants, including organophosphorus compounds, rubber and plastic additives, UV stabilizers, fragrances, surfactant ingredients and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...
March 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Darragh Mullins, Derek Coburn, Louise Hannon, Edward Jones, Eoghan Clifford, Martin Glavin
Wastewater treatment facilities are continually challenged to meet both environmental regulations and reduce running costs (particularly energy and staffing costs). Improving the efficiency of operational monitoring at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires the development and implementation of appropriate performance metrics; particularly those that are easily measured, strongly correlate to WWTP performance, and can be easily automated, with a minimal amount of maintenance or intervention by human operators...
March 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Chunyan Jiao, Cheng Song, Siyan Zheng, Yingpeng Zhu, Qing Jin, Yongping Cai, Yi Lin
Alkaloids are the main active ingredients in the medicinal plant Dendrobium officinale . Based on the published genomic and transcriptomic data, a proposed terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) biosynthesis pathway may be present in D. officinale . In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with a high-yielding production of alkaloids were obtained by the optimization of tryptophan, secologanin and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. The results showed that the total alkaloid content was 2.05 times greater than that of the control group when the PLBs were fed with 9 µM tryptophan, 6 µM secologanin and 100 µM MeJA after 36 days...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Punith Naik, Jack P Wang, Ronald Sederoff, Vincent Chiang, Cranos Williams, Joel J Ducoste
Lignin is a polymer present in the secondary cell walls of all vascular plants. It is a known barrier to pulping and the extraction of high-energy sugars from cellulosic biomass. The challenge faced with predicting outcomes of transgenic plants with reduced lignin is due in part to the presence of unique protein-protein interactions that influence the regulation and metabolic flux in the pathway. Yet, it is unclear why certain plants have evolved to create these protein complexes. In this study, we use mathematical models to investigate the role that the protein complex, formed specifically between Ptr4CL3 and Ptr4CL5 enzymes, have on the monolignol biosynthesis pathway...
2018: PloS One
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