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Plant Flux analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331950/how-do-elevated-co2-and-nitrogen-addition-affect-functional-microbial-community-involved-in-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-salt-marsh-system
#1
Seung-Hoon Lee, Patrick J Megonigal, Hojeong Kang
Salt marshes are unique ecosystem of which a microbial community is expected to be affected by global climate change. In this study, by using T-RFLP analysis, quantitative PCR, and pyrosequencing, we comprehensively analyzed the microbial community structure responding to elevated CO2 (eCO2) and N addition in a salt marsh ecosystem subjected to CO2 manipulation and N addition for about 3 years. We focused on the genes of microbes relevant to N-cycling (denitrification and nitrification), CH4-flux (methanogens and methanotrophs), and S-cycling (sulfate reduction) considering that they are key functional groups involved in the nutrient cycle of salt marsh system...
March 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325849/phospholipase-d%C3%AE-enhances-diacylglycerol-flux-into-triacylglycerol
#2
Wenyu Yang, Geliang Wang, Jia Li, Philip David Bates, Xuemin Wang, Douglas K Allen
Plant seeds are the primary source of triacylglycerols (TAG) for food, feed, fuel, and industrial applications. As TAG is produced from diacylglycerol (DAG) successful engineering strategies to enhance TAG levels have focused on the conversion of DAG to TAG. However, the production of TAG can be limited by flux through the enzymatic reactions that supply DAG. In this study, two Arabidopsis phospholipase Dζ genes (AtPLDζ1 and AtPLDζ2) were co-expressed in Camelina sativa to test whether the conversion of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to DAG impacts TAG levels in seeds...
March 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291610/the-impact-of-the-1999-mw-7-4-event-in-the-%C3%A4-zmit-bay-turkey-on-anthropogenic-contaminant-pcbs-pahs-and-pbdes-concentrations-recorded-in-a-deep-sediment-core
#3
S Giuliani, L G Bellucci, M N Çağatay, A Polonia, R Piazza, M Vecchiato, S Pizzini, L Gasperini
The 1999 Mw 7.4 earthquake triggered a tremendous human tragedy and had a great social impact over the population of the İzmit Bay, one of the most industrialized area of Turkey. Although the successive environmental disasters were well documented, information on its sedimentary record is lacking. The present research aims at filling this gap, through the analysis of organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs, and PBDEs) in a dated sediment core collected in the depocenter of the Karamürsel Basin in 2005. Profiles of total PCBs and total PAHs overlap the timing of industrialization in the area (starting in the 1960s) with values increasing as the population and the number of industrial plants grew larger...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276759/cloning-and-functional-analysis-of-two-sterol-c24-methyltransferase-1-smt1-genes-from-paris-polyphylla
#4
Hong-Yu Guan, Ping Su, Yu-Jun Zhao, Xia-Nan Zhang, Zhu-Bo Dai, Juan Guo, Yu-Ru Tong, Yu-Jia Liu, Tian-Yuan Hu, Yan Yin, Lin-Hui Gao, Wei Gao, Lu-Qi Huang
The biosynthetic pathways of phytosterols and steroidal saponins are located in two adjacent branches which share cycloartenol as substrate. The rate-limiting enzyme S-adenosyl-L-methionine-sterol-C24-methyltransferase 1 (SMT1) facilitates the metabolic flux toward phytosterols. It catalyzes the methylation of the cycloartenol in the side chain of the C24-alkyl group, to generate 24(28)-methylene cycloartenol. In this study, we obtained two full-length sequences of SMT1 genes from Pari polyphylla, designated PpSMT1-1 and PpSMT1-2...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274097/induction-of-cell-death-by-betulinic-acid-through-induction-of-apoptosis-and-inhibition-of-autophagic-flux-in-microglia-bv-2-cells
#5
Jeongbin Seo, Juneyoung Jung, Dae Sik Jang, Joungmok Kim, Jeong Hee Kim
Betulinic acid (BA), a natural pentacyclic triterpene found in many medicinal plants is known to have various biological activity including tumor suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cell-death induction effect of BA was investigated in BV-2 microglia cells. BA was cytotoxic to BV-2 cells with IC₅₀ of approximately 2.0 μM. Treatment of BA resulted in a dosedependent chromosomal DNA degradation, suggesting that these cells underwent apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis further confirmed that BA-treated BV-2 cells showed hypodiploid DNA content...
March 10, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258212/a-forward-genetic-screen-identifies-a-negative-regulator-of-rapid-ca-2-dependent-cell-egress-in-the-intracellular-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
James M McCoy, Rebecca J Stewart, Alessandro D Uboldi, Dongdi Li, Jan Schröder, Nichollas E Scott, Anthony T Papenfuss, Adele M Lehane, Leonard J Foster, Christopher J Tonkin
Toxoplasma gondii, like all apicomplexan parasites, uses Ca(2+)signalling pathways to activate gliding motility, which drives tissue dissemination, host cell invasion and egress. A group of plant-like Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), transduce cytosolic Ca(2+) flux into enzymatic activity, but the molecular details of their activity are poorly understood. To investigate how Ca(2+) signalling activates egress through CDPKs, we performed a forward-genetic screen to isolate gain-of-function mutants from an egress-deficient cdpk3-knockout strain...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258140/ecological-and-evolutionary-insights-into-pathovar-diversity-of-xanthomonas-citri
#7
Kanika Bansal, Samriti Midha, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xct), is a serious disease of citrus plants worldwide. Earlier phylogenetic studies using housekeeping genes revealed that Xct is related to many other pathovars, which can be collectively referred as Xanthomonas citri pathovars (XCPs). In the present study, we report the genome sequence of eighteen XCPs compared with four XCPs available in the public domain. In a tree based on phylogenomic marker genes, all the XCPs form a monophyletic cluster suggesting their origin from a common ancestor...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213171/13c-labeling-analysis-of-sugars-by-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-metabolic-flux-analysis
#8
Sébastien Acket, Anthony Degournay, Franck Merlier, Brigitte Thomasset
Metabolic flux analysis is particularly complex in plant cells because of highly compartmented metabolism. Analysis of free sugars is interesting because it provides data to define fluxes around hexose, pentose, and triose phosphate pools in different compartment. In this work, we present a method to analyze the isotopomer distribution of free sugars labeled with carbon 13 using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, without derivatized procedure, adapted for Metabolic flux analysis. Our results showed a good sensitivity, reproducibility and better accuracy to determine isotopic enrichments of free sugars compared to our previous methods [5, 6]...
February 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196685/geochemical-analysis-of-sediments-from-a-semi-enclosed-bay-dongshan-bay-southeast-china-to-determine-the-anthropogenic-impact-and-source
#9
Yonghang Xu, Qinqin Sun, Xiang Ye, Xijie Yin, Dongyi Li, Liang Wang, Aijun Wang, Yunhai Li
The geochemical compositions of sediments in the Dongshan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southeast coast of China, were obtained to identify pollutant sources and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts over the last 100 years. The results indicated that the metal flux had been increasing since the 1980s. Enrichment factor values (Pb, Zn and Cu) suggested only slight enrichment. The proportion of anthropogenic Pb changed from 9% to 15% during 2000-2014. Coal combustion might be an important contamination source in the Dongshan Bay...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187334/regional-and-global-contributions-of-anthropogenic-iodine-129-in-monthly-deposition-samples-collected-in-north-east-japan-between-2006-and-2015
#10
Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Yoshihito Ohtsuka, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
We measured the monthly atmospheric deposition flux of (129)I at Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan-the location of a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant-from 2006 to 2015 to assess the impact of the plant on environmental (129)I levels. The plant is now under final safety assessment by a national authority after test operation using actual spent nuclear fuel. During cutting and chemical processing in test operations from April 2006 to October 2008, (129)I was discharged to the atmosphere and detected in our deposition samples...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179898/metatranscriptomic-analysis-reveals-unexpectedly-diverse-microbial-metabolism-in-a-biogeochemical-hot-spot-in-an-alluvial-aquifer
#11
Talia N M Jewell, Ulas Karaoz, Markus Bill, Romy Chakraborty, Eoin L Brodie, Kenneth H Williams, Harry R Beller
Organic matter deposits in alluvial aquifers have been shown to result in the formation of naturally reduced zones (NRZs), which can modulate aquifer redox status and influence the speciation and mobility of metals, affecting groundwater geochemistry. In this study, we sought to better understand how natural organic matter fuels microbial communities within anoxic biogeochemical hot spots (NRZs) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at the Rifle (CO) site. We conducted a 20-day microcosm experiment in which NRZ sediments, which were enriched in buried woody plant material, served as the sole source of electron donors and microorganisms...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125054/emission-flux-measurement-error-with-a-mobile-doas-system-and-application-to-nox-flux-observations
#12
Fengcheng Wu, Ang Li, Pinhua Xie, Hao Chen, Zhaokun Hu, Qiong Zhang, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu
Mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DOAS) is an optical remote sensing method that can rapidly measure trace gas emission flux from air pollution sources (such as power plants, industrial areas, and cities) in real time. Generally, mobile DOAS is influenced by wind, drive velocity, and other factors, especially in the usage of wind field when the emission flux in a mobile DOAS system is observed. This paper presents a detailed error analysis and NOx emission with mobile DOAS system from a power plant in Shijiazhuang city, China...
January 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105717/beyond-food-the-multiple-pathways-for-inclusion-of-materials-into-ancient-dental-calculus
#13
Anita Radini, Efthymia Nikita, Stephen Buckley, Les Copeland, Karen Hardy
Dental calculus (mineralized dental plaque) was first recognised as a potentially useful archaeological deposit in the 1970s, though interest in human dental calculus as a resource material has increased sharply in the past few years. The majority of recent research has focused on the retrieval of plant microfossils embedded in its matrix and interpretation of these finds as largely the result of deliberate consumption of plant-derived food. However, while most of the material described in published works does represent food, dental calculus is in fact a "depositional environment" as material can enter the mouth from a range of sources...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077967/integrated-omics-analyses-reveal-the-details-of-metabolic-adaptation-of-clostridium-thermocellum-to-lignocellulose-derived-growth-inhibitors-released-during-the-deconstruction-of-switchgrass
#14
Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Miguel Rodriguez, Babu Raman, Madhavi Z Martin, Nancy L Engle, Jonathan R Mielenz, Intawat Nookaew, Steven D Brown, Timothy J Tschaplinski, David Ussery, Robert L Hettich
BACKGROUND: Clostridium thermocellum is capable of solubilizing and converting lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. Although much of the work-to-date has centered on characterizing this microbe's growth on model cellulosic substrates, such as cellobiose, Avicel, or filter paper, it is vitally important to understand its metabolism on more complex, lignocellulosic substrates to identify relevant industrial bottlenecks that could undermine efficient biofuel production. To this end, we have examined a time course progression of C...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035269/current-and-future-ozone-risks-to-global-terrestrial-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-processes
#15
REVIEW
Jürg Fuhrer, Maria Val Martin, Gina Mills, Colette L Heald, Harry Harmens, Felicity Hayes, Katrina Sharps, Jürgen Bender, Mike R Ashmore
Risks associated with exposure of individual plant species to ozone (O3) are well documented, but implications for terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem processes have received insufficient attention. This is an important gap because feedbacks to the atmosphere may change as future O3 levels increase or decrease, depending on air quality and climate policies. Global simulation of O3 using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) revealed that in 2000, about 40% of the Global 200 terrestrial ecoregions (ER) were exposed to O3 above thresholds for ecological risks, with highest exposures in North America and Southern Europe, where there is field evidence of adverse effects of O3, and in central Asia...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031032/metabolic-model-of-central-carbon-and-energy-metabolisms-of-growing-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-relation-to-sucrose-translocation
#16
Maksim Zakhartsev, Irina Medvedeva, Yury Orlov, Ilya Akberdin, Olga Krebs, Waltraud X Schulze
BACKGROUND: Sucrose translocation between plant tissues is crucial for growth, development and reproduction of plants. Systemic analysis of these metabolic and underlying regulatory processes allow a detailed understanding of carbon distribution within the plant and the formation of associated phenotypic traits. Sucrose translocation from 'source' tissues (e.g. mesophyll) to 'sink' tissues (e.g. root) is tightly bound to the proton gradient across the membranes. The plant sucrose transporters are grouped into efflux exporters (SWEET family) and proton-symport importers (SUC, STP families)...
December 28, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024747/greenhouse-gas-footprint-and-the-carbon-flow-associated-with-different-solid-waste-management-strategy-for-urban-metabolism-in-bangladesh
#17
K M Nazmul Islam
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and associated climate change consequences are gripping attention globally, while MSW management as a vital subsystem of urban metabolism significantly influences the urban carbon cycles. This study evaluates the GHG emissions and carbon flow of existing and proposed MSW management in Bangladesh through scenario analysis, including landfill with landfill gas (LFG) recovery, waste to energy (WtE), and material recovery facility (MRF). The analysis indicates that, scenario H2 and H5 emitted net GHGs -152...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018381/model-assisted-estimation-of-the-genetic-variability-in-physiological-parameters-related-to-tomato-fruit-growth-under-contrasted-water-conditions
#18
Dario Constantinescu, Mohamed-Mahmoud Memmah, Gilles Vercambre, Michel Génard, Valentina Baldazzi, Mathilde Causse, Elise Albert, Béatrice Brunel, Pierre Valsesia, Nadia Bertin
Drought stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant and crop productivity. In case of fleshy fruits, understanding mechanisms governing water and carbon accumulations and identifying genes, QTLs and phenotypes, that will enable trade-offs between fruit growth and quality under Water Deficit (WD) condition is a crucial challenge for breeders and growers. In the present work, 117 recombinant inbred lines of a population of Solanum lycopersicum were phenotyped under control and WD conditions. Plant water status, fruit growth and composition were measured and data were used to calibrate a process-based model describing water and carbon fluxes in a growing fruit as a function of plant and environment...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995647/temporal-development-of-the-barley-leaf-metabolic-response-to-pi-limitation
#19
Ralitza Alexova, Clark J Nelson, A Harvey Millar
The response of plants to Pi limitation involves interplay between root uptake of Pi , adjustment of resource allocation to different plant organs, and increased metabolic Pi use efficiency. To identify potentially novel, early-responding, metabolic hallmarks of Pi limitation in crop plants, we studied the metabolic response of barley leaves over the first 7 days of Pi stress, and the relationship of primary metabolites with leaf Pi levels and leaf biomass. The abundance of leaf Pi , Tyr, and shikimate were significantly different between low Pi and control plants 1 h after transfer of the plants to low Pi ...
December 20, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993191/optimizing-led-lighting-for-space-plant-growth-unit-joint-effects-of-photon-flux-density-red-to-white-ratios-and-intermittent-light-pulses
#20
O V Avercheva, Yu A Berkovich, I O Konovalova, S G Radchenko, S N Lapach, E M Bassarskaya, G V Kochetova, T V Zhigalova, O S Yakovleva, I G Tarakanov
The aim of this work were to choose a quantitative optimality criterion for estimating the quality of plant LED lighting regimes inside space greenhouses and to construct regression models of crop productivity and the optimality criterion depending on the level of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), the proportion of the red component in the light spectrum and the duration of the duty cycle (Chinese cabbage Brassica сhinensis L. as an example). The properties of the obtained models were described in the context of predicting crop dry weight and the optimality criterion behavior when varying plant lighting parameters...
November 2016: Life Sciences in Space Research
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